20th-21st Century American Sculpture
This section of the Traditional
Fine Arts Organization (TFAO) catalogue Topics
in American Art is devoted to the topic "20th-21st Century American
Sculpture." Articles and essays specific to this topic published in
TFAO's Resource Library are listed
at the beginning of the section. Clicking on titles takes readers directly
to the articles and essays. The date at the end of each title is the date
of publication in Resource Library.
Following the listing of Resource Library articles
and essays is the heading "TFAO references." Periodically TFAO
conducts keyword searches from the Resource Library homepage relating
to this topic. The count of pages within Resource Library citing
the keywords indicates breadth of coverage in Resource Library for
this topic. We recommend that researchers
always search within Resource Library for additional
material. Please see TFAO's
page How to research topics not
listed for more information.
After "TFAO references" are links to online
resources found outside the TFAO website. Online resources are gathered
from TFAO catalogues. Following online resources
is information about offline resources including museums, DVDs, and
paper-printed books, journals and articles. Our goal is to present complete
knowledge relating to this section of Topics in American Art.
TFAO welcomes volunteers to further the broadening of knowledge
related to this topic. To learn more about TFAO's many volunteer opportunities
please click here. Volunteers
are welcome to contribute suggestions for additional content in this catalogue.
Please see Catalogue and database management
Articles and essays from Resource Library in chronological
- Chihuly Across Florida: Masterworks
in Glass (12/31/03)
- Richard Jolley: Sculptor of Glass
- Looking Within: Mark Peiser - The
Art of Glass (12/22/03)
- Jacques Lipchitz (12/19/03)
- Creativity: The Flowering Tornado,
Art by Ginny Ruffner (12/11/03)
- Creativity: The Flowering Tornado,
Art by Ginny Ruffner (10/2/03)
- Bronze Sculpture of "Robert Emmet"
(1916), by Jerome Stanley Connor (18761943) Restored by Smithsonian
American Art Museum (9/23/03)
- Beyond the Frame: Impressionism Revisited,
the Sculptures of J. Seward Johnson, Jr. (9/22/03)
- Richard Pepitone: Curiosity and the
- robert lazzarini (9/9/03)
- "Terra Firma: Contemporary Indiana
Artists Paint the Landscape," "Dale Enochs: Recent Limestone
Sculpture," and "Reflection: Recent Work by Yves Paquette"
- Fred Wilson: Objects and Installations,
- Wings of Peace, Wings of Hope (8/6/03)
- Puppets, Ghosts, and Zombies: The
Sculpture of Pat Keck (7/15/03)
- Big Idea: The Maquettes of Robert
- Joseph Wheelwright: Stone Heads and
Tree Figures (6/27/03)
- Libby Barker Gardner: Artifacts (6/24/03)
- Carl Rattner: Works in Wood (6/5/03)
- "Keith Edmier and Farrah Fawcett"
and "The American Supermarket" (5/31/03)
- Tom Nussbaum: Home Sweet Home and
Twenty Small Sculptures (5/29/03)
- Constructing Elozua: A Retrospective
- Augustus Saint Gaudens: American
Sculptor of the Guilded Age (2/24/03)
- Big Idea: The Maquettes of Robert
Arneson, essay by Signe Mayfield (2/13/03)
Click here for more articles and essays on this subject published in 1998-2000.
A 11/29/13 search within
TFAO's digital library retrieved:
- 1,890 pages referencing "Sculpture"
From other web sites:
- Alejandro Diaz: Blame it on Mexico,
an exhibit held February 21 to June 7, 2009 at the Aldrich
Museum of Contemporary Art Accessed 4/14
- University of Cincinnati article "Duct
Tape for Dads: UC Duct-Tape Sculptures to Display Father's Day Weekend
at Ohio Duck Tape Festival" including photos and a video. Accessed
June 24, 2013.
- Whimsical duct tape sculptures from Tech
Blog. Accessed June 24, 2013.
Project including Academy Notes, 1905 - 1931; Contemporary American
Sculpture Exhibition, June 17 - October 2, 1916
from Albrecht-Kemper Museum of Art
- KAWS, an exhibit held June 27, 2010,
to January 2, 2011 at the Aldrich Museum
of Contemporary Art Accessed 4/14
- KAWS: Companion (Passing Through)
an exhibit held January 30 through June 5, 2011 at the Aldrich
Museum of Contemporary Art Accessed 4/14
Wax, found bronze is accessed as of 2013 in the
Virtual Foundry page of the National Museum of Wildlife Art website where
the process and materials of bronze casting are explained, plus an interview
with sculptor Gerry Balciar
- Sculptors, compiled by Lonnie Pierson
Dunbier with a list
of artists, from AskArt.com
- Early Sculpture and Sculptors in San Diego by Bruce Kamerling and Sculpture
of Donal Hord from San Diego History Center
- Abbeville Press (look in subject categories for "American Art," "Art
History" and "Artist Monographs." Go to "Sample Contents"
for Masters of American Sculpture: The Figurative Tradition (Table of Contents,
Text Excerpt [Introduction], Interior Images)
Sculpture in Jackson, Michigan (1997) by Michael W. Panhorst from Ella Sharp Museum
- Robert Lazzarini: Guns and Knives,
an exhibit held February 28 to September 13, 2009 at the Aldrich
Museum of Contemporary Art Accessed 4/14
- Robert Taplin: Selections from the Punch Series, 2005-10 an exhibit held October 31, 2010, to March 20, 2011 at the Aldrich Museum of Contemporary Art Accessed
- The Sculpture And Mural Decorations Of The Exposition, by Perry,
Stella George Stern, (reprint of an entire book
covering the San Francisco Panama-Pacific Exhibition of 1915) from Project
- Tom Sachs: Cameras, an exhibition held June 21, 2009,
to September 16, 2009 at the Aldrich
Museum of Contemporary Art Accessed 4/14
- from the Timeline of Art History section of the
Metropolitan Museum of Art website:From
Model to Monument: American Public Sculpture, 18651915 by Thayer
Tolles, Department of American Paintings and Sculpture, The Metropolitan
Museum of Art
- Type A: Barrier and Trigger, an exhibit
held June 26 to December 31, 2011 at the Aldrich
Museum of Contemporary Art Accessed 4/14
Bowl Floats from NPR's Weekend Edition, Saturday, December
29, 2001. Susan Stamberg talks with Rose Bowl float designer Raul Rodriguez
about his many creations.
Highways Television is a series of programs
devoted to exploring the highways and byways of Arizona. The television
programs were created in the spirit of Arizona Highways magazine,
a division of the Arizona Department of Transportation. Arizona Highways
Television was created in partnership with The Arizona Republic.
Programs include the whimsical steel sculptures of
David Voisard, an Amado sculptor. (September 24, 2005)
Public Media offers a February
5, 2008 video (05:14) on Louis David Valenzuela. Sculptor Louis David
Valenzuela is doing everyting he can do to keep the Yaqui culture alive
through his art. Valenzuela's Pascola masks are in the collection of the
Arizona State Museum. In this story, you will see how and why he creates
those sacred masks.
York presents a preview of Hyper
Realistic Sculpture (John De Andrea and Duane Hanson). Includes interviews
concerning Duane Hanson's exhibit at the Whitney Museum of American Art
and John De Andrea at OK Harris Gallery (SoHo) [5:02]
that Sticks: UC Duct Tape Sculptures, video (2:30) by Ashley Kempher/UC
Creative Services of University of Cincinnati on student and faculty duct
tape sculptures, exhibited at the 2013 annual Duct Tape Festival in Avon,
Ohio. Accessed June 24, 2013.
presents Ron Mueck, filmed during
Ron Mueck's residency at The National Gallery, London. The exhibition Ron
Mueck was on view at the Brooklyn Museum, November 3, 2006-February 4,
2007. Video courtesy of The National Gallery, London. Another video on
sculpture is titled Community
Artist: Dan Gerhart which was produced, from start to finish, within
a 4-day workshop by new filmmakers at FilmTreks.com.
Butterfield introduces her work to a group of docents at its installation
at the Nevada Museum of Art on June 15, 2007. [4:58] and in another video
taken during the docent walkthrough on June 15, 2007, sculptor Deborah Butterfield reflects
upon some of the philosophical and artistic elements contributing to her
decisions to create sculptures of horses lying prone on the floor or ground.
- The Heard
Museum maintains a Heard
Videos page containing links to documentaries, interviews and performances.
As of February, 2010 interviews include a three-part interview with Albuquerque
Museum Curator Deborah Slaney who tours the C.G. Wallace collection of
Zuni Jewelry. In other videos, Norman Sandfield discusses his seedpot collection
and Nora Naranjo-Morse speaks about her sculpture.
the Los Angeles PBS affiliate, presents the Life & Times series
covering a broad array of happenings and stories about greater Los Angeles.
Life & Times includes an arts
section with numerous videos and transcripts. In Robert Graham,
Life & Times host Val Zavala profiles and interviews Robert
Graham, a renowned figurative sculptor, in a segment dedicated to the artist.
Educational Television offers a series of 1/2 hour videos from Mixed,
a weekly arts series from 2003 through the present:
- Program 614: Sculptor Zoé Strecker,
Lexington wood sculptor Philip Hultgren, and the music of Louisville's
Ochion Jewell Quartet
- Program 711: Dolls by artist/sculptor
Becky Collings, holiday creations by Louisville-area designers, and vocal
- Program 712: Sculptor Tim Lewis, Bybee
Pottery, and Louisville-based post-folk band Valley
- Program 718: Wood carver LaVon Williams;
the African American Theatre Program at the University of Louisville; the
"Recovering Is a Beautiful Thing" art exhibit; and music by the
Big Maracas, a Latin band from Lexington
- The Marshall M. Fredericks Sculpture
Museum at Saginaw Valley State University presents two videos
on the art of sculptor Marshall M. Fredericks and the bronze sculpture
- The Metropolitan Museum of Art
web site contains several video presentations. In two 2005 video
clips the Met introduces the 25 foot tall large-scale sculpture Plantoir
and Corridor Pin, Blue by Claes Oldenburg and Coosje Van
Bruggen, installed on the roof of the museum.
- National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa
Oldenburg from "Meet the Artist" series with video clips
- WGBH/Boston presents a 3-minute
clip in which John Wilson talks about his sculpture Eternal Presence,
being installed on the lawn of the National Center of Afro-American Artists
in Roxbury. The original airdate of the program containing the segment
was October 1, 1987. In another 2 1/2 minute clip,
artist Sidewalk Sam works with Boston schoolchildren to create a mural.
of Contemporary Art, North Miami partnered with the WGBH Forum Network
Grace Lynn: White Elephant by Billie Grace Lynn, sculptor. (8 minutes)
The theme of social engagement is highlighted in Billie Grace Lynn's politically-based
sculptures on display at MOCA North Miami's Goldman Warehouse. In this
segment she discusses White Elephant. [September 4, 2007]; and Billie Grace Lynn:
Hand by Billie Grace Lynn, sculptor. (8 minutes) The theme of social
engagement is highlighted in Billie Grace Lynn's politically-based sculptures
on display at MOCA North Miami's Goldman Warehouse. In this segment she
discusses Hand. [September 4, 2007]
TFAO also suggests these books:
- Hopi Kachina Dolls: with a Key to Their Identification, by Harold
S. Colton; color photographs by Jack Breed. Albuquerque, N.M.: University
of New Mexico Press, c1959.
- Kachina Dolls: The Art of Hopi Carvers, by Helga Teiwes. 161
pages. University of Arizona Press (September 1, 1992). ISBN-10: 0816512647.
- Product Description: "Much has been written about the popular
kachina dolls carved by the Hopi Indians of northern Arizona, but little
has been revealed about the artistry behind them. Now Helga Teiwes describes
the development of this art form from early traditional styles to the action-style
kachina dolls made popular in galleries throughout the world, and on to
the kachina sculptures that have evolved in the last half of the 1980s.
Teiwes explains the role of the Katsina spirit in Hopi religion and that
of the kachina doll-the carved representation of a Katsina-in the ritual
and economic life of the Hopis. In tracing the history of the kachina doll
in Hopi culture, she shows how these wooden figures have changed since
carvers came to be influenced by their marketability among Anglos and how
their carving has been characterized by increasingly refined techniques.
Unique to this book are Teiwes's description of the most recent trends
in kachina doll carving and her profiles of twenty-seven modern carvers,
including such nationally known artists as Alvin James Makya and Cecil
Calnimptewa. Enhancing the text are more than one hundred photographs,
including twenty-five breathtaking color plates that bring to life the
latest examples of this popular art form." text courtesy of Amazon.com
- Kachinas: A Selected Bibliography, by Marcia Muth. Sunstone
Press; 1st edition (May 1984). ISBN-10: 0865340315. ISBN-13: 978-0865340312
TFAO also suggests these DVD or VHS videos:
- Augustus Saint Gaudens: An American Original is a 28 minute
1995 video from Direct Cinema Limited directed by Paul G. Sanderson III.
This video draws on photographs, letters, literary documents and
the artist's works -- which are found in major cities, public parks and
museums throughout the United States -- to create a beautiful and informative
portrait of a neglected giant of American art. Centering on the artist's
adopted home of Cornish, New Hampshire, the film is an excellent introduction
to the man and his times, and to the work that helped a weary nation begin
to make sense of the war that almost tore it apart. Available through Currier
Museum of Art.
- Augustus Saint-Gaudens: Masque of the Golden Bowl. 1 hour. Available
through Currier Museum of Art.
- Augustus Saint-Gaudens: Master of American Sculpture is a hour-long
documentary released in 2007 and directed by award-winning filmmaker Paul
Sanderson. The film tells the sculptor's life story through the voices
of art historians, with on-camera observations of the artist and his works
including both historic and contemporary footage, combined with original
and period music. The documentary covers Saint-Gaudens' life from his childhood
in Manhattan, through his rise to prominence during the Gilded Age, to
his legacy as one of this country's greatest sculptors. Utilizing state-of-the-art
high definition, wide-screen technology, the film takes advantage of the
latest research about Saint-Gaudens and his art, and reveals his greatest
public monuments in ways never seen before. The film is produced by the
Trustees of the Saint-Gaudens Memorial with assistance from the Saint-Gaudens
National Historic Site. Director Paul G. Sanderson has won over 30 national
awards, including seven CINE Golden Eagles with films that have appeared
on PBS, The Discovery Channel, The History Channel, NBC, and other networks.
He has been a consultant for PBS's American Masters series. His films have
been shown at Lincoln Center, the Museum of Modern Art, the Metropolitan
Museum of Art, the American Museum of Natural History and Radio City Music
Hall. Most recently he was the principal cinematographer and consultant
on a two-part special for both Frontline and American Experience on the
Mormon religion titled "The Mormons," which recently aired on
PBS. He also produced a documentary on the pioneering Brazilian aviator
Alberto Santos-Dumont entitled "Wings of Madness," that was broadcast
last fall on PBS's Nova. The Saint-Gaudens documentary will be broadcast
on New Hampshire Public Television in the fall of 2007. Additional regional
film premieres are scheduled at the Smithsonian American Art Museum on
September 7, 2007, Metropolitan Museum of Art on September 23, 2007, Philadelphia
Museum of Art on September 30, 2007, and the Art Institute of Chicago on
March 8, 2008, with other locations anticipated.
- David Hostetler: The Last Dance, produced by Too Much Media
LLC, a 30-minute version of the documentary features Hostetler's entire
body of work, with a focus on "The Last Dance,"
a recent sculpture that is in the David Hostetler, Wood and Bronze Sculpture
exhibition that opened Oct. 12, 2007 at the Marshall M. Fredericks Sculpture
Museum at SVSU. Producer Keith Newman and director Casey Hayward were
given unlimited access to Hostetler and his vast archives; their film is
the first documentary to feature him. An accomplished sculptor, Hostetler's
work has been included in over 200 group shows and has been the subject
of one-person exhibitions in galleries and museums throughout the United
States. His work also is in numerous public collections, including Trump
International Hotel & Tower, New York; Museum of Fine Arts, Boston;
Kennedy Library, Boston; Butler Institute of American Art, Youngstown,
Ohio; Columbus (Ohio) Museum of Art; Milwaukee (Wis.) Museum; Speed Museum,
Louisville, Ky.; Montgomery (Ala.)Museum of Fine Art; and De Cordova Museum,
Lincoln, Mass. "You will see the process from the moment the tree
is cut down to the finished product, a beautiful female form, one of David's
stunning women," said Newman. Newman and Hayward plan to show their
documentary at film festivals, gallery shows, and on public broadcasting
stations following the premiere. David Hostetler is a graduate of Indiana
University and was awarded a Master of Fine Arts degree from Ohio University
where he taught for 37 years. He retired from teach as a full professor
of sculpture in 1985 and is now Professor Emeritus. Hostetler's art
career spans 60 years and his showing in the Fredericks Sculpture Museum
marks his first Michigan exhibition (right: David Hostetler in his studio,
Athens, OH, photo by Larry Hamill Lambert. Photo courtesy of Marshall M.
Fredericks Sculpture Museum)
- Duane Hanson: An Interview: 30 minutes 1977. "Super-Realist
sculptor Duane Hanson talks about the development of his art. He explains
his early beginnings, his education in the Midwest, his New York years,
his worldwide success, and his work in Florida. In this 1977 interview,
he also discusses the relationship of his art to America's materialistic
- Duane Hanson in His Studio: 30 minutes 1977. "In this program,
as 20th-century sculptor Duane Hanson works on a figure, he describes his
methods and techniques of construction. He shows how he selects and poses
the model, makes a plaster mold directly from the live model, casts the
plaster body molds with a polyester-resin and fiberglass substance, and
paints the completed cast. He also demonstrates how he positions the glass
eyes, meticulously inserts strands of hair, chooses clot
- Hyper-Realist Sculpture: Duane Hanson/John DeAndrea. This 28
mlnute 2001 Paul Tschinkel program looks at two artists who have helped
define the hyper-realist style of sculpture. Duane Hanson works from casts
to create figures that are startlingly convincing. His subjects are everyday
people who reflect Hanson's interest In the "common denominators"
of life. John DeAndrea's supremely accurate nude figures carry on a fascination
with the human form that dates back to the ancient Greeks. A Hanson retrospective
at the Whitney Museum of American Art and a DeAndrea exhibition at the
OK Harris Gallery In Soho are featured. From the ART/new york series.
- Isamu Noguchi.(Portrait of an Artist) Follows the twentieth-century
Japanese-American sculptor Isamu Noguchi around the world for more than
a year filming his global artistic adventures. Examines his early life
in Japan and his education in the United States which formed a fusion between
East and West and fostered the universality of his creative efforts. c1980.
55 min. Video/C 6321 Available from Media Resources Center, Library, University
of California, Berkeley.
- Isamu Noguchi: Stones and Paper is a 56 minute DVD described
by the Japanese American National Museum as follows: "This video appeared
in the National Museum's 2004 exhibition Isamu Noguchi
and Modern Japanese Ceramics. It is a timeless retrospective on the life
and career of Isamu Noguchi, whose bi-national heritage sent him back and
forth between Japan and America seeking a new artistic synthesis... He
started his career in Paris as Constantin Brancusi's apprentice. He made
his name in New York. And, after World War II, he brought a fresh modernist
wind to Japan, putting his mark on Japanese ceramics, gardens, and paper
lanterns. His late masterworks -- rough stone monoliths that echo both
Brancusi and the Zen garden of Ryoanji -- marry East and West in an absolutely
- Isamu Noguchi: The Sculpture of Spaces is a 53 minute DVD described
by the Japanese American National Museum as follows: "Isamu Noguchi
often said that the space around a thing is as important as the thing itself.
This classic program shows Noguchi turning landscapes into participatory
works of art as it follows in dramatic detail the struggle to bring his
ideas to fruition at Miami's Bayfront Park and at Moere Numa Park, outside
Sapporo... His austere sets for Martha Graham, which helped define modern
dance, and his UNESCO garden in Paris, which shaped earth, water, and greenery
into a series of multisensory surprises, are featured as well. A brilliant
glimpse of an artist at work."
- Public Sculpture: America's Legacy. Sculptures are presented
and then the audience is taken on a 29 minute tour to see and understand
how each work functions in a public place. In this way both the nature
of the work and its role In history is cerefully elucidated.
- Saint Gaudens: Masque of the Golden Bowl. A lush 60 minute dramatization
of the life and work of Augustus Saint Gaudens, pre-eminent sculptor of
the American Renaissance, as seen and recorded In his own words and those
of his contemporaries. Shot on Location in Boston, New York and New Hampshire.
Produced in association with the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
- Sculptor Marshall M. Fredericks is a 1 hour autobiographical
documentary of Fredericks' life and work; produced by Southfield Cable
15. The artist relates his life story and discusses dozens of his sculptures.
Vintage footage of installation and dedication of The Spirit of Detroit.
Christ on the Cross, and the Cleveland Fountain is interspersed with recent
views of these and other sculptures. Available from Marshall M. Fredericks
- Sculptors at Storm King: Shaping American Art (47 minutes).
The 400-acre Storm King Art Center is America's premier outdoor museum
of post-1945 sculpture. Through interviews, archival footage and film clips
of sculptors in action, this program offers a glimpse into the creative
process of some of the century's most influential artists. Featured sculptors
include David Smith, Louise Nevelson, Alexander Calder, Isamu Noguchi,
Kenneth Snelson, Mark di Suvero and Richard Serra. Shown in conjunction
with Material Terrain: A Sculptural Exploration of Landscape and Place
held at the Columbia Museum of Art July 6 - August 26, 2007. Contact the
museum at 803-799-2810 or http://www.colmusart.org.
- Shaw Memorial: The Power and Glory of Public Art, The "Augustus
Saint-Gaudens' original plaster cast of the Shaw Memorial, installed in
the National Gallery, is the focus for discussions among historians, curators,
educators, and descendants of members of the Massachusetts Fifty-fourth
Regiment of African Americans who fought in the Civil War. The program
tells us about the history, literary connections, and artistic significance
of the sculpture as an artwork and a national monument. Archival photographs,
documents, and location footage of related sites provide additional content."
.This 52 minute video is lent free of charge through the National Gallery
of Art's Division of Education (go to NGA
- Torn Notebook is a 60-minute documentary about the design and
building of Torn Notebook, from GPN, Lincoln, NE. In 1997, a major
Oldenburg/van Bruggen work, Torn Notebook,
commissioned by the Sheldon Memorial Art Gallery and Sculpture Garden was
installed on the University of Nebraska-Lincoln campus in Lincoln, Nebraska.
- Vinnie Ream: Lincoln's Young Sculptor is a 1 hour video by Hi-Country
Media Productions that has aired on PBS stations. Click
here to view the script of the video and an image of the VHS cover
from the vinnieream.com website, which says of the video: "Vinnie
Ream was the first woman and the youngest artist to ever receive a commission
from the United States Congress for a statue of the true-to-life marble
figure of Abraham Lincoln that stands in the U.S. Capitol rotunda. The
work and its artist generated a storm of controversy...Miss Ream was given
the coveted job over many experienced competitors in 1866 when the art
prodigy was only 18 years old. This video documentary presents Miss Ream's
inspiring story and ardent philosophy of life. It surveys the fantastic
career of one of American history's most gifted women. Based on the illustrated
biography, A Labor of Love, by Glenn V. Sherwood."
- Viola Frey: Memory Assembled. When Viola Frey died in 2004 she
left behind a rich and complex legacy layered by the enigmatic quality
of her person. Widely recognized as a leading figurative sculptor of the
late 20th century, Frey's monumental achievement lies in successfully expressing
her artistic vision through a highly personal iconography and in the extraordinarily
rich diversity of her work. Viola Frey: Memory Assembled is an exploration
of the life and work of this remarkable woman. Begun prior to her death,
the film incorporates original footage of Frey, and interviews with her
artistic peers, eminent art historians and curators. From her childhood
in Lodi, California through her education as a painter and ceramicist and
her career as an artist and educator, Frey's impact on the art world is
discussed and lauded. Director, David Bransten. 2006. 36 min. DVD 6788
Available from Media Resources Center, Library, University of California,
TFAO does not maintain a lending library of videos or sell videos.
for information on how to borrow or purchase copies of VHS videos and DVDs
listed in TFAO's Videos -DVD/VHS, an authoritative guide to videos in VHS and DVD format.
TFAO also suggests these books:
100 Years of California Sculpture: The Oakland Museum, Oakland, California,
August 7 to October 17, 1982, By Oakland Museum, Oakland Museum. Published
by The Museum, 1982. 48 pages
Sculpture in California, 1975-80: An Exhibition, By Richard Armstrong,
San Diego Museum of Art. Contributor Richard Armstrong. Published by The
Museum, 1980. Original from the University of Michigan. Digitized Nov 13,
2007. 95 pages. Source: Google Books
Also see sculpture: 18-19th Century, 19-20th Century
Return to Topics
in American Representational Art
Individual pages in each catalogue
are continuously amended as TFAO adds content, corrects errors and reorganizes
sections for improved readability. Refreshing or reloading pages enables
readers to view the latest updates.
Links to sources of information outside of our web site
are provided only as referrals for your further consideration. Please use
due diligence in judging the quality of information contained in these and
all other web sites. Information from linked sources may be inaccurate or
out of date. TFAO neither recommends or endorses these referenced organizations.
Although TFAO includes links to other web sites, it takes no responsibility
for the content or information contained on those other sites, nor exerts
any editorial or other control over them. For more information on evaluating
web pages see TFAO's General Resources
section in Online Resources for Collectors and Students of Art History.
Copyright 2014 Traditional Fine Arts Organization, Inc., an Arizona nonprofit corporation. All rights