Drawn to Nature: John Douglas
Woodward's Career in Art
by Sue Rainey
- 1 "J. D. Woodward," in Walter Montgomery, ed., American
Art and American Art Collections (1889; reprint New York: Garland Publishing
Co., 1978), p. 625. Joseph Pennell, Modern Illustration (London
and New York: G. Bell & Son, 1895), p. 127.
- 2 Louise E. Gray, Evelyn Q. Ryland, and Bettie J. Simmons, Historic
Buildings in Middlesex Co., Va, 1650 - 1875 (Charlotte NC: Delmar Printing
Co. for Middlesex County Board of Supervisors, 1978), p. 253. The artist's
maternal grandfather was Warner Washington Minor, a "close relation"
of George Washington, according to The Virginia Churchman, Jan.
1941, p. 5.
- 3 In 1850 the population was 115,435. Robert I. Vexler, Cincinnati:
A Chronological and Documentary History, 1676 - 1970 (Dobbs Ferry NY:
Oceana Publications, 1975), p. 24.
- 4 The main sources of biographical information on Woodward are: the
"Biographical Sketch" written by his nephew the Reverend Edmund
L. Woodward in 1942 to accompany a typed, edited transcription of many
of his letters: "An Artist Abroad in the Seventies" (copy at
the Library of Virginia, Richmond); a brief article in The National
Cyclopedia of American Biography (1929), p. 346; and the letters by
Woodward, his wife, and his parents in the Woodward Family Papers, Ms/C/38,
Valentine Museum, Richmond, Virginia. All letters cited hereinafter are
from the Woodward Family Papers unless otherwise noted. In quotations from
the letters, wording has been reproduced exactly. The only changes are
occasional insertions of initial capitalization and end punctuation or
the spelling out of abbreviations for clarity.
- 5 Welsch's name also appears as Charles Feodor Welsch and Theodore
Charles Welsh. Born in Dresden, he was the son of Johann Friedrich Welsch
(1796 - 1871), known for his genre and portrait paintings. He was a student
of his father and, in Paris, of the Swiss landscape painter Alexandre Calame
(1810 - 1864). For information on other Cincinnati artists and art patrons,
see the catalogue The Golden Age: Cincinnati Painters of the Nineteenth
Century Represented in the Cincinnati Art Museum (Cincinnati Art Museum,
1979) and the essay therein by Denny Carter, "Cincinnati as an Art
Center, 1830 - 1865," pp.13 - 21.
- 6 Cincinnati Enquirer, Feb. 24, 1861; and April 14, 1861. I
am indebted to Morgan Zinsmeister for this information.
- 7 Covington Journal, June 4,1870, p. 2: "Many of our Covington
readers will remember young J. D. Woodward, at one time -- then a mere
lad -- a resident of this city. The bent of his mind was towards painting,
and he engaged in the work with the devotion and enthusiasm of a true artist.
His friends saw in his earlier efforts the promise of future eminence,
and have watched his subsequent career with no little interest. He is now
in Richmond, Va., and a late painting of his is warmly commended by the
press of that city." I am indebted to Jon Boh of the Kenton County
Historical Society for providing information from city directories, tax
records, and the Covington Journal.
- 8 The Kenton County tax records for 1854 show J. P. L. Woodward's property
included "one slave worth $700."
- 9 E. L. Woodward, "Biographical Sketch," pp. iii - iv.
- 10 The Fifth Annual Report of the Trustees of the Cooper Union for
the Advancement of Science and Art, July 1st, 1864, p. 35.
- 11 J. P. L Woodward is so listed in the 1866 Richmond City Directory
(William J. Divine & Co.). From 1870, the business is designated as
Woodward & Son (Boyd's Directory of Richmond City, 1870). The
elder Woodward was successful enough to buy lot 60 - 199 at the corner
of Floyd and Linden Sts., Richmond, in 1883 and to build two houses there,
one for himself and one for Minor. Letter of Mary Woodward, Aug. 12, 1883,
to JDW and his wife.
- 12 The Seventh Annual Report of the Trustees of the Cooper Union
for the Advancement of Science and Art, July 1st 1866, p. 52.
- 13 JDW to Edward Valentine, New York, March 11 . Papers of Edward
V. Valentine, Valentine Museum, Richmond, Virginia.
- 14 "An ex-Covingtonian Heard From," Covington Journal,
Dec. 25, 1869, p. 3. The brief notice quoted from The Orpheus reads,
in part: "The painting, which is an exquisite gem in its way, is the
work of Mr. J. Douglas Woodward, a native of Virginia, who has lately taken
up his residence in Boston."
- 15 Durand's letter appeared in The Crayon (Jan. - July 1855);
the first American edition of Modern Painters (vols. I and II) appeared
in 1847. Although there is no direct evidence of Woodward having read Ruskin,
the latter's influence among landscape artists in this period was pervasive.
See Roger B. Stein, John Ruskin and Aesthetic Thought in America, 1840
- 1900 (Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1967).
- 16 JDW to Virginia Minor (his aunt), July 16, 1876.
- 17 In the Foreward to "An Artist Abroad in the Seventies,"
E. L. Woodward wrote that the artist copied the Lowell quotation "into
one of his sketch books, put there to keep always before him. It was his
Creed of Art" (p. ii).
- 18 Quoted from the Daily State Journal (Richmond) in the Covington
Journal, June 4, 1870, p. 2.
- 19 409 N. 8th St. (Boyd's Directory of Richmond City).
- 20 Woodward wrote his mother in Richmond April 1, 1877: "I regret
exceedingly to hear that Sheppard finds it so dull -- and think he will
yet have to do as I told him long ago -- go to N Y to live -- there a man
of his ability would always find plenty to do." His letter to her
July 28, 1878, expressed concern that his younger brother Dick was looking
for a "situation" in "a place like Richmond, when he can
never hope to rise or receive more than enough to clothe himself decently."
- 21 The Valentine Museum owns a number of Sheppard's drawings and illustrations.
See William Ludwell Sheppard: A Retrospective Exhibition of His Works
(Richmond VA: Valentine Museum, 1969).
- 22 Woodward's sketch Lock on the Feeder, Dismal Swamp Va. has
the following pencil notation: "House where Sheppard & I stayed
one night. Lockkeeper & wife in same room." It is not clear whether
the trip to the Dismal Swamp was commissioned. Woodward's sketches were
the basis for four wood engravings in Hearth and Home June 10, 1871,
one of which has the attribution, "(From a Sketch by J. D. Woodward.)".
Perhaps Woodward used these sketches to demonstrate his ability to Hearth
and Home, leading to the commission that followed. Sheppard's Dismal
Swamp illustrations eventually appeared in Harper's Weekly, June
- 23 Harper's Weekly sent Alfred R. Waud and Theodore R. Davis
in 1866, Frank Leslie's sent Joseph Becker in 1869, and Appletons'
Journal sent Harry Fenn in 1870. On Waud and Davis, see Peter H. Wood
and Karen C. C. Dalton, Winslow Homer's Images of Blacks: The Civil
War and Reconstruction Years (Austin: The Menil Collection, University
of Texas Press, 1988), p. 79. More comprehensive coverage would come in
1873 - 74 in "The Great South" series in Scribner's Monthly
(published as a book in 1875), with wood engravings based on drawings
by James Wells Champney and text by Edward King. See Sue Rainey,
- "Images of the South in Picturesque America and The
Great South," in Judy L. Larson, ed., Graphic Arts & the
South: Proceedings of the 1990 North American Print Conference (Fayetteville:
University of Arkansas Press, 1993), pp. 185 - 215.
- 24 Hearth and Home, April 24, May 8, 15, 22, 1869; March 19,
1870. Stowe resigned her editorship in Oct. 1869.
- 25 In Oct. 1870 Pettengill, Bates & Co, sold Hearth and Home
to Orange Judd & Co. The new editor was David Judd. A Dec. 17, 1870,
notice to readers claimed that "engravings will be abundant, and of
such a high order as to develop and cultivate true taste....Our next volume
will contain $20,000 to $30,000 worth of fine engravings."
- 26 This assertion is based on references in the texts to Mr. Woodward
sending sketches from his travels (e.g., Sept. 16, 1871, p. 725) and the
instructions written on his sketch of Palmetto Camp, Shingle Making
indicating he expected someone else to prepare the block (see cat. 16).
- 27 Hearth and Home, Nov. 11, 1871.
- 28 See Appletons' Journal, Nov. 12, 1870; or William C. Bryant,
ed. Picturesque America, 1, 22 - 23. On the depiction of Florida
and swamps in general, see David C. Miller, Dark Eden: The Swamp in
Nineteenth-Century American Culture (New York: Cambridge University
Press, 1989), esp. p. 59.
- 29 "Southern Prawn and Oyster-Fishing," Hearth and Home,
April 6, 1872, p. 268.
- 30 Eric Foner, Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution 1863
- 1877 (New York: Harper & Row, 1988), pp. 486 - 500.
- 31 Sept. 16, 1871; July 20, 1872; Nov. 25, 1871; July 6, 1872.
- 32 "Southern Sketches -- Sugar Plantations," Hearth and
Home, Nov. 11, 1871. Other texts written by Woodward or quoting from
his notes are the following: "Orange Culture in Florida," Sept.
16, 1871; "Florida Sketches -- Silver Spring," Nov. 18, 1871;
"Sugar-Making in Louisiana," Nov. 25, 1871; "Scenes on the
Bayou Teche," Dec. 16, 1871.
- 33 Among the many helpful discussions of this topic are: Walter John
Hipple, Jr., The Beautiful, the Sublime, and the Picturesque in Eighteenth-Century
British Aesthetic Theory (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University
Press, 1957); Malcolm Andrews, The Search for the Picturesque: Landscape
Aesthetics and Tourism in Britain, 1760 - 1800 (Stanford: Stanford
University Press, 1989); and Bruce Robertson, "The Picturesque Traveler
in America," in Edward J. Nygren, with Bruce Robertson, Views and
Visions: American Landscape before 1830 (Washington DC: Corcoran Gallery
of Art, 1986), pp. 187 - 211.
- 34 Another more limited illustrating job involved making four drawings
from W. H. Jackson's photographs from the 1872 Hayden survey of Yellowstone.
The subsequent wood engravings accompanied two articles on "The Yellowstone
Reservation" by A. C. Peale, a member of Hayden's party, in The
Illustrated Christian Weekly, Aug, 3, 1872 and May 3,1873: The Lower
Falls (engraved by Timothy Cole); Crystal Falls; Group near
Mystic Lake; and The United States General Survey, en Route, with
Pack Train. Two of these were reused in Hayden's Sixth Annual Report
of the United States Geological Survey of the Territories (Washington
DC: Government Printing Office, 1873), pp. 53, 133. Hayden thanked The
Illustrated Christian Weekly for electrotypes.
- 35 For a fuller account of this project, see Sue Rainey, Creating
Picturesque America: Monument to the Natural and Cultural Landscape
(Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1994).
- 36 The text of Picturesque America indicates that Woodward travelled
with writer W. S. Ward for "Valley of the Genesee," and probably
with writer W. H. Rideing for "Lake Memphremagog" and "Water-Falls
at Cayuga Lake."
- 37 It is clear that most of the Picturesque America artists,
with A. R. Waud the most likely exception, redrew their preliminary compositions
on the woodblocks themselves, working in either pencil, India ink, or sepia.
See Rainey, Creating Picturesque America, pp.175 - 78.
- 38 Feb. 11, 1871 (reproduced in Rainey, "Images of the South in
Picturesque America and The Great South," p. 194). To
fit the different layout in Picturesque America, a portion of the
bottom of the block was removed. Woodward subsequently contributed an illustration
of Natural Bridge from the same viewpoint to The Aldine, March 1874,
- 39 Printing from an intaglio surface required a special plate press
that applied great pressure to force the ink from the grooves in the plate
onto the paper (and eventually wore down the plate). Since both letterpress
type and wood engravings printed from a relief, or raised, surface, they
could be printed simultaneously on the same type of press, which reduced
costs. By the time of Picturesque America, printing of both the
wood engraved image and text would have been from electrotypes. The latter
were made by galvanic action -- direct current electricity in a precipitating
cell containing dilute sulfuric acid and copper plates. Any number of duplicate
electrotypes could be made from a wood engraving, enabling unlimited runs.
See Michael Winship, "Printing with Plates in the Nineteenth-Century
United States," Printing History, 5, 2 (1983), 20 - 21.
- 40 Woodward had used a "stepped down" format in The Lower
Falls of the Yellowstone. See fn. 34 above.
- 41 While working on a subsequent project, Picturesque Europe,
letters show him struggling to meet deadlines for the blocks and glad to
be finished with troublesome architectural subjects (JDW to his mother,
Feb. 25, Dec. 9, 1877).
- 42 For more on the Appleton firm's competition with The Aldine,
see Rainey, Creating Picturesque America, pp. 70 - 73.
- 43 As indicated by dates on the few located drawings.
- 44 In "Old Sailing Days on the Hudson: The Maritime Drawings of
John Douglas Woodward" (Albany NY: Three City Press, 1976) Richard
W. Wilkie commends Woodward's accuracy and reproduces many of his wood
engravings, noting the type of vessel depicted, the direction it appears
to be sailing, etc. (William Diebold called this publication to my attention.)
- 45 Most of the wood engravings from The Art Journal series were
used in the book, although a few were not. Several others were added, including
at least one taken from Picturesque America, Albany. The unsigned
text was slightly revised. J. C. & A. L. Fawcett, Astoria NY, have
published a facsimile reprint of the 1888 edition of The Hudson River
by Pen and Pencil.
- 46 He made the last mortgage payment on his house before leaving for
England in late April 1876 (JDW to Virginia Minor, July 16, 1876; to his
mother, Dec. 29, 1877, Sept. 8, 1878). While he was in England, it was
rented by a Mr. Meeder, probably of the Meeder-Chubb engraving firm, which
had worked on Picturesque America. No evidence of how much Woodward
earned from the Appleton commissions has come to light, but another Picturesque
America artist, James D. Smillie, earned $35 for full-page blocks,
$25 for half-page, and $10 - 20 for smaller images, plus a travel stipend
(Diaries of James D. Smillie, Archives of American Art, mfm. roll 2850,
cash accounts for 1872 and 1873). Fenn's annual earnings while working
on Picturesque America were said to be $10,000 ("Art and Artists,"
Boston Daily Evening Transcript, March 22, 1887).
- 47 E. L. Woodward, "Biographical Sketch," p. iv.
- 48 See also Sue Rainey, "J. D. Woodward's Wood Engravings of Colorado
and the Pacific Railways, 1876 - 1878," Imprint: Journal of the
American Historical Print Collectors Society, 18 (Autumn 1993), 2 -
- 49 An unlocated watercolor titled A Misty Morning. See Kathleen
A. Foster, "The Pre-Raphaelite Medium: Ruskin, Turner, and American
Watercolor," in Linda S. Ferber and William H. Gerdts, The New
Path: Ruskin and the American Pre-Raphaelites (Brooklyn: The Brooklyn
Museum, 1985), pp.79 - 107.
- 50 The earlier star was the Yosemite Valley, which became widely known
in the 1850s and was much visited.
- 51 "Art and Artists," Oct. 1, 1875.
- 52 Edward Strahan (pseud.), ed. (Philadelphia: Allen, Land and Scott
& J. W. Lauderback, 1875). Woodward's illustrations are primarily scenes
along Pennsylvania's rivers.
- 53 JDW to his mother, May 6, 1876.
- 54 Among the British artists contributing numerous illustrations were
W. H. J. Boot, T. L. Rowbotham, P. Skelton, Towneley Green, R. P. Leitch,
Cyrus Johnson, W. W. May, and E. Wagner.
- 55 JDW to his mother, May 6, 21, 1876.
- 56 JDW to his mother, July 16, 1876; to Virginia Minor, July 16, 1876.
- 57 JDW to Virginia Minor, July 8, 1877, reveals his concerns about
safety and whether he would be able to make the requisite drawings. Although
the American Minister in Paris strongly advised him not to go to Turkey,
the English publisher wanted him to, but refused to pay him unless he came
back with drawings -- terms Woodward would not accept. For a time he thought
his work on Picturesque Europe was over, "but Mr. Appleton
fortunately arrived in London from N. Y. and informed the English House
that they would not consent to my dropping out, and as I had been prevented
(purposely I think) from doing the work when I wished to by Mr. Whymper
the manager of the book there was nothing to do but give me some other
country to illustrate, Norway being the only one left and one that Mr.
W. had reserved as a choice morsel for himself he had to give it to me
and take in exchange Turkey and Greece himself." The illustrations
for those two countries were probably drawn from photographs.
- 58 JDW to his mother, May 21, 1876; JDW to Virginia Minor, July 16,
- 59 JDW to his mother, Aug. 13, 1876.
- 60 JDW to his mother, Sept. 13, 1876.
- 61 JDW to his mother, July 23, 1876. Italics original.
- 62 JDW to his mother, July 23, 1876.
- 63 JDW to Virginia Minor, July 16, 1876.
- 64 JDW to his mother, July 6, 1876.
- 65 JDW to his mother, June 24, 1877.
- 66 JDW to his mother, July 30, 1876.
- 67 JDW to his mother, May 6, 1876; to Virginia Minor, July 16, 1876.
- 68 JDW to his mother, May 6, 1876.
- 69 JDW to Virginia Minor, July 16, 1876. Balaclava (40 15/16
by 73 13/16 inches) is owned by the Manchester City Art Gallery. Miss Thompson's
earlier painting of the Crimean War, Roll Call, or Calling the
Roll after an Engagement, Crimea (1874), had also been widely acclaimed,
making the young woman a celebrity. Matthew Paul Lalumia, in Realism
and Politics in Victorian Art of the Crimean War (Ann Arbor MI.: UMI
Research Press, 1984), writes: "the critics acknowledged that Lady
Butler brought to battle painting an unprecedented realism by focusing
on war's cost and its formerly inconspicuous victims" (p. 143).
- 70 JDW to Virginia Minor, July 16, 1876.
- 71 Modern Painters, I; in E. T. Cook and A. Wedderburn, eds.
The Works of John Ruskin (London: George Allen, 1903 - 12), III,
190 - 191. On Ruskin's opinions of Constable, see Ian Fleming-Williams
and Leslie Parris, The Discovery of Constable (London: Hamish Hamilton,
1984), pp. 49 - 51. The Constables owned by British museums in the 1870s,
consisting solely of finished oils rather than any of his studies, conceivably
could have supported such an interpretation more than the range of his
works now known. See Fleming-Williams and Parris, op. cit., Part
One, esp. chs. 1, 3, 5, 6.
- 72 He failed to mention any specific works.
- 73 JDW to his mother, May 13, 1877. The wood engraving of Balcony Falls
appeared in the March 1874 Aldine, p. 50.
- 74 JDW to his mother, Sept. 3, 1876. This comment is puzzling in light
of the many outstanding illustrators designing for wood engravings in England
in the 1860s (see, for example, Eric de Maré, The Victorian Woodblock
Illustrators [New York: The Sandstone Press, 1981]). Perhaps those
Woodward had heard from had in mind artists skilled in producing landscape
illustrations in the style of Picturesque America.
- 75 JDW to his mother, May 27, 1877.
- 76 JDW to his mother, Sept. 30, 1877.
- 77 JDW to Virginia Minor, July 16, 1876.
- 78 JDW to his mother Jan. 27, 1878.
- 79 Montgomery, ed. "J. D. Woodward," American Art and
American Art Collections, p. 638.
- 80 Hovenden painted a portrait of Maria Louise Woodward now owned by
her great nephew William Douglas Riley, Jr., of Dallas TX.
- 81 For descriptions of the artists' colony at Pont-Aven, see David
Sellin, Americans in Brittany and Normandy 1860 - 1910 (Phoenix:
Phoenix Art Museum, 1982), pp. 11 - 42; and Michael Jacobs, The Good
and Simple Life: Art Colonies in Europe and America (Oxford: Phaidon,
1985), ch. 3.
- 82 No paintings dating from this period in Pont-Aven have yet been
identified. Letters reveal that Woodward and his wife became friendly with
Wylie and mourned his sudden death in Feb. 1877. JDW to his mother, Feb.
13, 25, 1877.
- 83 JDW to his mother, Dec. 9, 1877, suggests the Appletons wanted to
keep the new arrangement secret, perhaps until Picturesque Europe
was nearer completion.
- 84 Except for five steel engravings in Vol. I by other artists -- one
each by R. Beavis and H. A. Harper and three by C. Werner -- presumably
based on oil paintings completed prior to the project.
- 85 On the fascination the Holy Land held for many Americans in the
nineteenth century, see Neil A. Silberman, Digging for God and Country:
Exploration, Archeology, and the Secret Struggle for the Holy Land, 1799
- 1917 (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1982); Robert T. Handy, ed.,
with commentary, The Holy Land in American Protestant Life 1800 - 1948:
A Documentary History (New York: Arno Press, 1981); and John Davis,
The Landscape of Belief: Encountering the Holy Land in Nineteenth-Century
American Art and Culture (Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press,
1996), esp. Part I.
- 86 JDW to his mother, Dec. 9, 1877; to his wife, May 6, 1878.
- 87 They sent the artists directly to Jerusalem rather than to the Sinai
area, where there were disturbances among the Bedouins. JDW to his mother,
Dec. 9, 29, 1877; Feb. 3, 1878. Woodward and Fenn insisted upon the terms
they wanted, threatening not to go unless they were met. JDW to his mother,
Feb. 18, 1878.
- 88 Published by Nelson & Phillips, New York. Two wood engravings
have Woodward's initials: the frontispiece, Tower of David, and
Waterfall at Abana (p. 692). I am indebted to Melanie Kirschner
for noting these illustrations.
- 89 JDW to his mother, March 3, 1878; March 12, 1878. Comments in the
letters show Woodward's familiarity with The Innocents Abroad. See
especially: JDW to his mother, March 10, 1877, where he compares his own
fall to Twain's Turkish Bath experience, quoting "the first things
that attracted my attention were my heels" (Innocents Abroad
[Signet Classic, 1966] p. 279); JDW to his wife, Feb. 21 - 22,1878, compares
his disappointing purchase of cigars in Gibraltar to Twain's of gloves
(Innocents Abroad, pp. 59 - 61); and JDW to his wife, May 10, 1878,
says that Twain "gives a good idea of this country but not of the
Bedouins." Woodward and Fenn found the Bedouins more threatening than
- 90 JDW to his wife, April 21, May 10, 1878; to his mother March 22,
- 91 JDW to his mother, March 22, 1878, "An Artist Abroad in the
Seventies," p. 90. He also recounts this experience to his wife, March
- 92 Published by John Murray, London. There was a new, revised edition
in 1875. Woodward refers to "Murray" twice: JDW to his wife,
April 20, May 4, 1879. Fenn evidently also made use of this guide: His
watercolor of Caesarea Philippi (Banias) from the 1878 trip (now
at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York) is inscribed with three Biblical
references Murray cites (reproduced in American Watercolors from the
Metropolitan Museum of Art (1991), # 79).
- 93 See Davis's discussion of other paintings of Jerusalem from the
Mount of Olives, most notably those by Frederic E. Church, The Landscape
of Belief, pp. 162 - 164, 185 - 192.
- 94 JDW to his wife, May 10, 1878.
- 95 JDW to his mother, April 20, 1879.
- 96 In his letter to his mother, Aug. 4, 1878, Woodward wrote that when
they spoke of the beauty of the flowers, Willy Appleton suggested they
use them in the book.
- 97 JDW to his wife, April 14, 1878. See Picturesque Palestine,
I, 133, 285, written by Canon [Henry Baker] Tristram.
- 98 JDW to his wife, April 29, 1878.
- 99 William McClure Thomson, The Land and the Book, 2 vols. (New
York: Harper & Brothers, 1859), II, 468; quoted in Davis, The Landscape
of Belief, p. 48.
- 100 Italics in original, quoted in Silberman, Digging for God and
County, p. 86. This book illuminates the politics and international
rivalries involved in efforts to identify and control sites in the Holy
- 101 See Yehoshua Ben-Arieh, The Rediscovery of the Holy Land in
the Nineteenth Century, 2nd ed. Jerusalem: Magnes Press, Hebrew University,
1983); Silberman, Digging for God and Country, esp. chs. 9 - 12;
and Davis, The Landscape of Belief, esp. ch. 2.
- 102 JDW to his mother, Aug. 4, 1878.
- 103 JDW to his mother, Sept. 15, 1878. Woodward's letters of Aug. 25
and Sept. 8, 1878, reveal his surprise at the sudden "failure"
of the Virtue firm, which briefly put the future of the project in doubt.
Satisfactory arrangements were made, however, between the Appleton firm
and the assignees of Virtue and Co. by Sept. 15, and plans proceeded for
the second journey.
- 104 JDW to his father, Nov. 5, 1878, and Mary Woodward to JDW and his
wife, undated [late Nov. 1878].
- 105 JDW to his mother, June 21, July 14, 28, 1878.
- 106 JDW to his mother, April 1, 1877. He also writes of his "long
legs" enabling him to climb the Pyramids more easily than most people
(to his wife, Feb. 15, 1879). When wolves are spotted in the vicinity of
Pont-Aven, he writes his mother that he wouldn't furnish a wolf a "square
meal," although he might do for lunch (Jan. 12, 1877).
- 107 Lu to Mary Woodward, July 23, 1878. The Frederic Church house,
Olana, still has a wardrobe full of costumes from Church's trip to the
- 108 JDW to his mother, Dec. 22, 1878.
- 109 JDW to his mother, Aug. 25, 1878.
- 110 JDW to his mother, Dec. 28, 1878.
- 111 I am indebted to John Davis for calling Stanley's American tour
to my attention. See John Davis, "Frederic Church's 'Sacred Geography,'"
Smithsonian Studies in American Art, 1 (Spring 1987), 82 - 83; and
Rowland E. Prothero, Life and Correspondence of Arthur Penrhyn Stanley,
D.D. 2 vols. (London: John Murray, 1894).
- 112 JDW to his mother, Jan. 5, 1879.
- 113 Co-authored with Captain Charles Warren, the book had received
widespread attention in both Britain and the United States. Excerpts and
illustrations from it appeared, for example, in the April 29, 1871, Illustrated
- 114 JDW to his wife, Feb. 9, April 6, 20, 1879. He worked on his unfinished
sketches in his hotel room in Port Said.
- 115 JDW to his wife, April 20, 1879.
- 116 JDW to his wife, June 4, 1879; to his mother, May 14, 1879.
- 117 Most of the latter illustrations were drawn by Fenn, although several
were unsigned. In a few cases Fenn signed his monogram and "1881,"
suggesting the images were developed after their journeys, perhaps based
on photographs (see PP, II, 209, 371). The images in which one or more
figures face the viewer directly are rare enough to raise the possibility
they were based on photographs (see PP, I, 22; II, 335). Fenn could have
used the same photograph of women spinning in preparing both II, 192 and
I, 237. A few of Woodward's illustrations featuring people also have the
look of being based on photographs (see I, 417). On one of his drawings,
The Houses of Lazarus and Dives, Via Dolorosa, Jerusalem, he wrote,
"See photo for details." In addition, in a letter from Jerusalem
he mentions buying photographs (to his wife, March 17, 1878).
- 118 JDW to his mother, June 15, 1879. His determination to paint may
have been intensified by meeting his American friend Ernest Parton (1845
- 1933) in London shortly after his return. Parton, who had recently married
an English woman (for money, Woodward surmised) had achieved considerable
success at the recent Royal Academy Exhibition.
- 119 He reached London in June 1879, hoping to sail immediately to the
United States. His wife had returned in Jan. to be with his parents, who
were still mourning his brother's death, and he longed to join them. He
was required, however, to await the arrival of Mr. Appleton in order to
discuss arrangements for the book. JDW to his mother, June 15, 1879.
- 120 Fenn's drawings have apparently been scattered. The Metropolitan
Museum of Art, New York, owns one watercolor for Picturesque Palestine
(see note 92), and they occasionally appear in auctions.
- 121 The steel engravers, on the other hand, were mostly British. The
only names appearing on any of the wood engravings definitely known to
be English are Whymper and Dalziel. Josiah Wood Whymper had been the manager
and chief wood engraver for Picturesque Europe (probably assisted
by his firm of wood engravers). Dalziel was the signature for the prominent
London firm of wood engravers, the Dalziel Brothers. See de Maré,
The Victorian Woodblock Illustrators, esp. pp. 53 - 66.
- 122 In 1884 J. C. Derby wrote that Picturesque America, Picturesque
Europe, and Picturesque Palestine all "continue to sell
largely and by subscription only" (Fifty Years Among Authors, Books
and Publishers [New York: G. W. Carleton, 1884]). Most of Picturesque
Palestine's wood engravings were reused (no doubt from electrotypes)
in a loosely-translated German edition, Palästina in Bild und Wort
nebs der Sinaihalbinsel und dem Lande Gosen, 2 voIs., ed. Georg Ebers
and Hermann Guthe (Stuttgart and Leipzig: Deutsche verlags-anstalt, 1883
- This book omitted most of the Egyptian material (probably because Ebers
had published Aegypten in Bild und Wort ca. 1879), used only two
steel engravings as frontispieces, and added notes from Guthe about discoveries
of the German Palestine Exploration Society. The French publication by
Victor Guérin, La Terre Sainte (Paris: E. Plon, 1882 - 84),
used about half of the illustrations -- a total of 340, including 22 steel
engravings -- without mentioning the artists' names.
- 123 "Venice," Nov. 1882.
- 124 In 1881, two illustrations by him appeared in