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American Spirit: The A.G. Edwards/Wachovia Securities Collection

April 12 - July 13, 2008

 

More than 50 works of art make up American Spirit: The A.G. Edwards/Wachovia Securities Collection, an exhibit that runs from April 12 through July 13, 2008, at the Huntington Museum of Art.

This exhibition captures the "American Spirit" with prints, posters, and photographs from the mid-19th century to the end of the 20th century. Each artwork addresses what it is that makes us uniquely American. Themes of the exhibit include issues of western expansion in the 19th century, small town life, urban life, recreational pastimes, industry, the immigrant experience, our national icons, women's rights, and wartime propaganda.

Artists featured in the exhibit include Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein, Robert Rauschenberg, George Catlin, Howard Chandler Christy, and Edward Penfield.

A special opening reception for the exhibit was held Sunday, April 13, 2008, featuring music by The 1937 Flood and refreshments. That afternoon, the Musical Arts Guild presented "We the People," a concert of patriotic music and song in HMA's Grace Rardin Doherty Auditorium.

This exhibition is sponsored by the Huntington Office of A.G. Edwards. A.G. Edwards is a division of Wachovia Securities, LLC. Additional support for this exhibition comes from the West Virginia Commission on the Arts, St. Mary's Medical Center, Champion Publishing, Inc./The Herald-Dispatch, the West Virginia Chamber of Commerce, and The Earl and Nancy Heiner Donor Advised Fund of the Foundation for the Tri-State Community, Inc.

 

Wall text from the exhibition

In 1991, A.G. Edwards created a traveling exhibition program, encouraging branch offices to partner with local art institutions, bringing a selection of the corporate collection based in St. Louis, Missouri to their communities. The Huntington Museum of Art is excited to host a branch sponsored exhibition, presenting fifty selected works from a large collection of more than 4,000 by noted American and European artists.

This exhibition addresses our "American Spirit" with an array of prints, posters, and photographs from the mid-nineteenth century to the end of the twentieth century. Each work speaks to what it is that makes us uniquely American. The over riding themes of the exhibition deal with artistic renditions of the following issues: western expansion in the nineteenth century, everyday work and life in small towns and urban areas, celebration days, recreational pastimes, industry (steel, oil, rail, steamboats), the immigrant experience, our national icons, women's rights, and war time propaganda.

Artists who are completely disparate, in terms of style and sensibilities, for example George Catlin and Andy Warhol, fit together perfectly in this exhibition. They range from painters depicting the early west; illustrators producing war propaganda posters; photo-journalists; Pop and contemporary artists. Many of these images have become icons of American art, such as Alfred Stieglitz's photograph entitled The Steerage, and James Montgomery Flagg's Uncle Sam posters.

The artists included in this exhibition capture our collective memories, and address the major concerns of Americans both today and throughout our country's history -- the same values as denoted in the Declaration of Independence -- life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.

 


Object labels from the exhibition

 

Vito Acconci (American; b.1940)
Wav(er)ing Flag
1990
Lithograph
6 individually-framed sheets
26 _ x 20 _ inches each [framed]
Condition: Excellent.
 
Vito Acconci began his career as a writer and poet. In the late 1960s and early '70s, he created his first visual artwork by using his own body as a subject for photography, film, video, performance- and conceptual-art. This provocative group of work proved very influential, earning Acconci an international reputation. By the 1980s Acconci became interested in sculpture, multimedia installation, and architecture and landscape design.
 
Wav(er)ing Flag is an unusual print of six individually framed sheets intended to be viewed as one work of art. Acconci's American flag, emblazoned with the pledge of allegiance, waves in the wind. It is important to Acconci that individuals interact in some way with his artwork by touching it or, in this case, reading the words on it. Acconci professes that he does not create a "kind of self-enclosed art, but . . . art as an instrument in the world."
 
In 1892 Francis Bellamy, a Baptist minister, served as the chairman of a National Education Association's committee of state superintendents. As chairman, he prepared the program for the public schools' quadricentennial celebration for Columbus Day. Bellamy structured this public school program around a flag raising ceremony and a flag salute he composed in August -- his "Pledge of Allegiance."

Anonymous
Remember Your First Thrill of American Liberty
1917
Color lithograph
21 x 30 _ inches [framed]
Condition: Good.
 
Sources estimate that World War I cost the United States more than $30 billion. About two-thirds of this amount was raised through the four Liberty Loans and the final Victory Loan government bond campaigns. Part of the success of these campaigns is due to the aggressive publicity techniques employed to sell the American public on the plans.
 
In a time before television, posters provided a critical level of publicity. Remember Your First Thrill of American Liberty was created to promote the Second Liberty Loan of 1917. The scene (rendered in soft reds, blues and grays) shows an immigrant ship passing the Statue of Liberty en route to Ellis Island. The poster was designed to appeal to recent immigrants, for it would remind them of their arrival in America while stressing their duty to support their newly-adopted homeland.

Anonymous
Remember! The Flag of Liberty - Support It!
1918
Color lithograph
28 5/8 x 38 7/8 inches [framed]
Condition: Very good.
 
Sources estimate that World War I cost the United States more than $30 billion. About two-thirds of this amount was raised through the four Liberty Loans and the final Victory Loan government bond campaigns. Part of the success of these campaigns is due to the aggressive publicity techniques employed to sell the American public on the plans.
 
The Third Liberty Loan was launched on April 6, 1918, the first anniversary of America's entrance into World War I. President Woodrow Wilson endorsed the campaign and announced that, although he had already overextended his personal budget by purchasing numerous liberty bonds, he would still buy another $50 bond -- this time on an installment plan. Wilson immediately called on all Americans to match his effort.
 
In this poster a newly immigrated family honors the flag and stands before the ship that carried them to America. The poster's message, though, appeals to immigrants and citizens alike.
 
Anonymous
Official United States War Films Now Being Shown
1918-19
Color lithograph
26 x 39 inches [image]
Condition: Good.
 
A week after the United States entered WWI in April 1917, President Woodrow Wilson created the Committee on Public Information (CPI) to publicize American war efforts abroad and promote support domestically. One of many divisions within the CPI, the Division of Films focused upon promoting the war through the cinema. In addition to producing one-reel films, the Division of Films also produced three major feature films, Pershing's Crusaders, America's Answer and Under Four Flags.
 
Thomas Frederick Arndt (American; b.1944)
Two American Flags, Freed Iranian Hostage Tickertape Parade, New York City, Jan. 20, 1981
1981
Gelatin silver print
31 _ x 25 inches [framed]
Condition: Very good.
 
In November 1979, students seized the American embassy in Tehran during Iran's Islamic revolution. In the United States, failure to resolve the crisis contributed to Ronald Reagan's defeat of Jimmy Carter in the 1980 presidential election. After the election, with the assistance of Algerian intermediaries, successful negotiations began. On January 20, 1981, the day of President Reagan's inauguration, the United States released almost $8 billion in Iranian assets, and the hostages were freed after 444 days in Iranian detention. Thomas Arndt's photograph of the tickertape parade in New York City captures the joy of this Liberation.
 
George Caleb Bingham (American; 1811-79)
Canvassing for a Vote
1853
Lithograph with hand-coloring
30 _ x 27 inches [framed]
Condition: Very good.
 
As one of the first major American painters to work west of the Mississippi, George Caleb Bingham may be one of the most well known American genre artists of the pre-Civil War era. In 1849 Bingham was elected to the Missouri State Legislature; in 1868 he lost his bid for Congress. Canvassing for a Vote captures the personalized nature and accessibility of mid-nineteenth-century American politics.
 
George Caleb Bingham (American; 1811-79)
The County Election
1854
Engraving with hand-coloring
29 _ x 22 inches [image]
Condition: Good.
 
As one of the first major American painters to work west of the Mississippi, George Caleb Bingham may be one of the most well known American genre artists of the pre-Civil War era. In 1849 Bingham was elected to the Missouri State Legislature; in 1868 he lost his bid for Congress. The County Election, along with Bingham's Stump Speaking, captures the communal and participatory nature of mid-nineteenth-century American politics.
 
 
Karl Bodmer (Swiss; 1809-93)
View Of the Stone Walls on the Upper Missouri
Tableau 41 from Travels in the Interior of North America, 1832-34
1839-43
Engraving, etching and aquatint with hand-coloring
26 _ x 22 _ inches [framed]
Condition: Excellent.
Prince Maximilian of Wied-Nuwied, along with Swiss artist Karl Bodmer, undertook one of the most important explorations of the Louisiana Purchase territory. Between 1832 and 1834 their expedition, which traveled further up the Missouri River than had artist George Catlin, made a thorough record of flora, fauna and local people. Maximilian's treatise, Travels in the Interior of North America in the Years 1832-34, was later published with Bodmer's prints bound into separate volumes. Each of the 81 plates created for the publication (33 as small-format vignettes and 48 as large-format tableaux) were engraved by hand and underwent five to six different process to achieve the final print.
 
In early August 1833, Maximilian and Bodmer passed through the Stone Walls region of the Missouri River on their way to Fort McKenzie (modern-day Great Falls, Montana). Maximilian recorded, "We came to a most remarkable place. The strata of sandstone . . . run along both banks of the river, which is rather narrow. . . . At some distance before us, the eye fell on an apparently narrow gate, the white walls of the two banks approaching so near to each other, that the river seemed to be very contracted between them. This illusion was heightened by the turn which the Missouri makes in this place to the southwest."
 
Peter Brown (American; b.1948)
Rialto Theater, Brownfield, Texas, 1994
1994/99
Chromogenic print
29 _ x 24 _ inches [framed]
Condition: Very good.
 
Peter Brown first became interested in the Great Plains while on cross-country car trips with his parents. They would travel by state highways, rather than by interstates, and drive through one small town after another. After settling in Houston, Texas, Brown began photographing the Texas Coastal Prairie and eventually places further north. "After a few years," says Brown, "it became clear to me. I was trying to photograph the Great Plains." He has since made hundreds of trips, photographing small-town life -- deserted Main Streets -- and the environs beyond.
 
Rialto Theater, Brownfield, Texas, 1994 features a once-popular, now abandoned, movie theater on Main Street. As in many small American towns, the movie theater was once a major cultural attraction for the community. The mural above the marquee depicts cowboys around a campfire.
 
Esther Bubley (American; 1921-98)
Memorial Day Services, Arlington, Virginia, 1942
1942
Vintage gelatin silver print
23 x 21 inches [framed]
Condition: Very good.
 
In 1940 Esther Bubley arrived in Washington D.C. after studying photography at the Minneapolis School of Design. After briefly working at the National Archives, she was hired as a darkroom technician by Roy Stryker, head of the documentary photography project for the Farm Security Administration (FSA). On her days off she wandered the city with her camera documenting people and further developing her photography skills. When World War II began, Stryker hired Bubley to work as a staff photographer for the Office of War Information (OWI). It is possible that this photograph of Memorial Day services in Arlington, Virginia was one of Bubley's early assignments for the OWI.
 
Esther Bubley (American; 1921-98)
Main Street, Tomball, Texas, May 1945
1945
Vintage gelatin silver print
21 x 23 inches [framed]
Condition: Very good.
 
In 1940 Esther Bubley arrived in Washington D.C. after studying photography at the Minneapolis School of Design. After briefly working at the National Archives, she was hired as a darkroom technician by Roy Stryker, head of the documentary photography project for the Farm Security Administration (FSA). On her days off she wandered the city with her camera documenting people and further developing her photography skills. When World War II began, Stryker hired Bubley to work as a staff photographer for the Office of War Information (OWI).
 
From 1944 until 1950, Stryker hired Bubley for freelance projects for Standard Oil of New Jersey (SONJ). For one of these projects Bubley traveled to Texas and documented oil boom towns. Tomball, Texas, a small town near Houston, was occupied mostly by the employees of Humble Oil and Refining Company, an affiliate of Standard Oil. In Tomball Bubley captured images of everyday life as well as the odd juxtapositions attributed to the sudden industrial growth.
 
A horse is tethered near a "No Parking" curb while the buildings of Main Street (lined with cars) fill the background.
 
Evelyn Rumsey Cary (American; 1855-1924)
Woman Suffrage -- Give Her the Fruit of Her Hands and Let Her Own Works Praise Her in the Gates
1903-07
Color lithograph
31 x 49 inches [framed]
Condition: Very good.
 
Evelyn Rumsey Cary was born into a prominent Buffalo, New York family. Her father was a founding member of the Buffalo Fine Arts Academy, where Cary trained and exhibited her paintings at the end of the nineteenth century. This poster was Cary's contribution to the women's suffrage movement in the early 1900s. Cary's allegorical figure of 'woman' is literally one with the earth: Her body is depicted in the organic form of a tree that grows upwards to mingle with the leaves, branches and fruit.
 
George Catlin (American; 1796-1872)
Buffalo Hunt, Chase
Plate 6 from North American Indian Portfolio
1844
Hand-colored lithograph
17 _ x 12 _ inches [image]
Condition: Excellent.
In 1832, painter George Catlin left St. Louis for a 2,500-mile trip up the Missouri River to Fort Union near the junction of the Yellowstone and Missouri rivers. He created a remarkable series of images depicting native individuals and their villages, games and ceremonies. He also recorded how the Plains tribes hunted buffalo, antelope and bear as well as the ritual dances associated with these hunts.
 
The works and artifacts he collected formed a large exhibition that opened in New York City in 1837. When the exhibition traveled to Washington, D.C., Catlin tried to persuade Congress to buy his collection. When Congress declined his offer, Catlin sailed with the exhibition to England. In Europe Catlin conceived the idea for the North American Indian Portfolio, a series of prints based on his paintings and sketches. Catlin also wrote Letters and Notes on the Manners, Customs and Condition of the North American Indians, a copiously illustrated two-volume book recalling his experiences among the Native Americans.
 
Catlin enjoyed portraying hunting scenes, particularly of buffalo. Artists who later painted the West depicted at least one "buffalo chase" in Catlin's style.
 
Howard Chandler Christy (American; 1873-1952)
Americans All!
1919
Color halftone
26 7/8 x 40 inches [sheet]
Condition: Very good.
 
Howard Chandler Christy is probably best known for his 'Christy Girl,' a female character-type that appeared in his early prints for Century Magazine and then again in his WWI posters for the Red Cross and Navy. Americans All! was created to advertise the Victory Liberty Loan. Here Lady Liberty raises a laurel wreath to honor a small sampling of Americans who have fallen in battle. The listed surnames speak of a variety of ethnicities that immigrated to America, making it their chosen home for which they gave their lives.
 
Gordon Coster (American; 1906-88)
War Ends, Chicago
1945
Vintage gelatin silver print
22 x 19 inches [framed]
Condition: Very good.
 
Gordon Coster's photographs regularly appeared on the pages of Life magazine. His scenes of the World War II victory celebration in Chicago on August 14, 1945, are among the most recognizable images associated with the end of the war.
 
Walker Evans (American; 1903-75)
Illustrating Bridgeport's War Factories, Fortune, September 1941
1941
Vintage gelatin silver print
17 x 21 1/8 inches [framed]
Condition: Excellent.
 
Best known for the documentary-style photographs of southern farming communities he took for the Farm Security Administration in the 1930s, Walker Evans also had several bodies of work published in Fortune magazine. When America began gearing up its war effort in 1941, Evans was asked by Fortune to photograph the many factories making arms and munitions in Bridgeport, Connecticut. Although the Bridgeport series was stylistically reminiscent of the early street photographs he made in New York, as with his deeply moving work done for the FSA, Evans managed to capture the complex human face of the wartime American worker: women with children.
 
Nat Fein (American; 1914-2000)
Babe Ruth Bows Out, June 13, 1948
1948/57
Gelatin silver print
17 x 21 inches [framed]
Condition: Very good.
Nat Fein began working as a copyboy for the New York Herald Tribune in 1932. Three years later he bought a Speed Graphic camera and became a press photographer. He quickly established himself as a risk-taker with a keen ability to both shoot straight and stage shots. During the thirty-three years he photographed for the Tribune he won numerous awards for his large body of work, which has been described as a photo-documentary of bygone New York City.
 
Fein was assigned to cover Babe Ruth's farewell at Yankee Stadium in 1948. The day was overcast, and Fein chose to use natural light to create a clear, yet soft, image of Ruth standing at the plate saying goodbye to his fans. Even though Fein did not capture Ruth's face, the identity of the stolid figure is unmistakable. Dozens of photographers shot hundreds of photos of Ruth bowing out, yet Fein's image was awarded the 1949 Pulitzer Prize for the best journalistic photograph.
 
Harrison Fisher (American; 1875-1934)
Have You Answered the Red Cross Christmas Roll Call?
1918
Color lithograph
31 _ x 28 3/8 inches [framed]
Condition: Good.
 
In the first quarter of the twentieth century Harrison Fisher's work was widely recognized in the United States. An illustrator for numerous Hearst publications, Fisher's work appeared in magazines and newspapers coast-to-coast. During World War I, Fisher worked for the Division of Pictorial Publicity created by President Woodrow Wilson. The committee's mission was to create posters that would generate a widespread appeal for individuals to enlist, invest in war bonds and conserve food and fuel. The Committee selected four of Fisher's designs, including this image of an American Red Cross nurse reaching out her hands. Have You Answered the Red Cross Christmas Roll Call? became a symbol of the Red Cross and played a major role in its war campaigns.
 
James Montgomery Flagg (American; 1877-1960)
Tell that to the Marines!
1917
Color halftone offset
38 x 47 _ inches [framed]
Condition: Very good.
 
As a member of President Woodrow Wilson's Division of Pictorial Publicity during World War I, James Montgomery Flagg designed numerous posters for the government. One of the more famous images he produced was the I Want You For the U.S. Army poster with Uncle Sam. Tell That to the Marines was inspired by an August 1914 newspaper headline reporting the German troops' swift march through Belgium. Here a white-collar worker is so enraged by the atrocities committed against women and children that he is determined to enlist in the Marines.
 
James Montgomery Flagg (American; 1877-1960)
Boys and Girls! You Can Help Your Uncle Sam Win the War
1918
Color lithograph
20 x 30 inches [sheet]
Condition: Good.
 
James Montgomery Flagg was an early master of pen and ink, selling his first illustration to the St. Nicholas Magazine at age twelve. By the age of fifteen he was on staff at Life and Judge Magazines. His rendering of Uncle Sam in this and other posters has been championed as an icon of Liberty and Duty.
 
William Gottlieb (American; b.1917)
Duke Ellington
1946/printed later
Gelatin silver print
23 x 27 inches [framed]
Condition: Very good.
 
William Gottlieb's photographs of jazz musicians are among his most notable. In addition to Duke Ellington, his subjects have included Billie Holiday, Ella Fitzgerald and Charlie Parker. While Gottlieb's photographs have been featured in numerous museum exhibitions, they have also graced the covers of record albums and have even served as the basis of a series of United States postal stamps depicting famous jazz artists. In 1997, Gottlieb was awarded Downbeat magazine's "Lifetime Achievement Award for Contributions to Jazz."
 
Rene Gregg (American; b.1953)
Liberty
1993
Ilfochrome
46 _ x 31 _ inches [framed]
Condition: Very good.
 
Rene Greg studied finance in college and began her career as the comptroller for a small film company. She soon became interested in filmmaking and abandoned her calculator for a camera. Today, she works in New York City as a commercial and fine art photographer.
 
Harold Leroy Harvey (American; 1899-1971)
Untitled (NewYork, Flags Blowing)
1931-36
Vintage gelatin silver print
15 x 23 _ inches [framed]
Condition: Very good.
 
During the 1920s, Harold Leroy Harvey worked as an assistant to renowned American photographer and painter Man Ray. During this period Man Ray began exploring different photographic methods, including the photogram -- an image created directly on photographic paper without using a camera. During the 1930s Harvey began to make his own photographs.
 
Untitled shows the recently completed Empire State Building from Fifth Avenue with blowing flags in the foreground. Harvey successfully captured the majestic American architectural feat that reigned as the world's tallest building for nearly fifty years.
 
Lewis Hine (American; 1874-1940)
Untitled Industry Series, Woman at Machine
1920-29
Vintage gelatin silver print
19 x 22 inches [framed]
Condition: Very good.
 
Lewis Hine's early work was primarily concerned with social reform. After World War I, however, Hine returned from Europe, where he had been working with the Red Cross and documenting war refugees, and began his self-described 'work portraits' series. With this series, upon which Hine worked until his death in 1940, Hine sought to portray workers as individuals who controlled the machinery of industrialization rather than as victims of mechanization. His images are well-lit and aesthetically-structured to emphasize the subject's dominance over the machine. He called his approach 'interpretive photography' and published his photographs in the form of picture essays in two publications edited by social reformist Paul Kellogg, The Survey and The Survey Graphic.

 
Peter B. Kaplan (American; b.1939)
1st Sunset
1983/90
Dye-transfer print
50 x 37 _ inches [framed]
Condition: Very good.
 
Known for his specialty of 'height photography,' Peter B. Kaplan climbs tall buildings, monuments and bridges, and then places his camera -- on the end of a 20-foot pole -- over the edge to capture a unique vantage point. He has photographed the Empire State Building, Chrysler Building, St. Louis Arch, World Trade Center and numerous other tall landmarks using this unique method. Kaplan was honored when the United States and French governments selected this image for the Statue of Liberty's 100th anniversary commemorative stamp issued on July 4, 1986. His images of the Statue of Liberty were also selected to appear on 170 different commemorative stamps in thirteen other nations. This 'height photograph' was taken while Kaplan stood on the torch observatory of the Statue.
 
Peter B. Kaplan (American; b.1939)
April 13, 1983
1983/90
Dye-transfer print
50 x 37 _ inches [framed]
Condition: Very good.
 
This dramatic image taken in the early morning of April 13, 1983, captures the left foot of the Statue of Liberty and the New York skyline (dominated by the Twin Towers) rising out of the fog. Peter B. Kaplan has created over 125,000 images painstakingly documenting every aspect of the Statue of Liberty's historic restoration, completed in 1986. Kaplan's exhaustive Statue of Liberty series speaks to his ability to view landmarks in fresh ways. He was awarded the title 'Preferred Photographer' of the Statue of Liberty/Ellis Island Foundation and was a volunteer for ten years in anticipation of the 100th anniversaries of both landmarks.
 
Walter Kelleher
Soldiers and Crowds at War Bond Rally in Wall Street, May 18, 1942
1942/2000
Gelatin silver print
14 x 11 inches [sheet]
Condition: Very good.
 
Here civilians and soldiers occupy Wall Street and the financial district to promote the sale of war bonds -- essentially a loan to the U.S. government -- that paid 4% a year in interest until the debt was repaid. Respected leaders urged patriotic citizens to stretch a little and borrow money so they could buy a larger bond. Banks, they were told, would approve six-month loans for this purpose.
 
"You mustn't be timid," financier Thomas W. Lamont told potential investors at rallies to stir up interest in Liberty Bonds. "Think of the courage that our soldiers must show in the trenches, and then stop for a moment and consider whether you are showing anything like equal courage in the way you are proposing to handle this loan."

Julio Larraz (Cuban/American; b.1944)
George Washington
1991
Monoprint
43 5/8 x 32 _ inches [framed]
Condition: Excellent.
 
Julio Larraz was born in Cuba, arrived in the United States in 1961, and began painting in 1967. He is best known for his realistic still lifes and figurative paintings and prints. George Washington presents an image of America's founding father that is reminiscent of his portrait on the $1 bill. Perhaps this image speaks of Larraz's admiration for the democratic American Revolution and his hope for a similar future in his native Cuba. This is merely speculation, for, according to an interview published in Southern Accents, Larraz does not like to discuss his work, claiming that "once the artist tells the story, he becomes a storyteller, not a painter."
 
George Washington is a monoprint, meaning that it is a unique print of which no copies exist.
 
Roy Lichtenstein (American; 1923-97)
As I Opened Fire
1966
Offset lithograph on white wove paper
3 individually-framed sheets
22 x 26 _ inches each[framed]
Condition: Very good.
 
Roy Lichtenstein was among the pioneers of Pop Art in the 1960s. He composed his early paintings of comic book scenes with Benday dots, which are used in commercial printing to add tone. Throughout his career, Lichtenstein continually explored popular imagery, seeking to elevate 'low brow' subjects to 'high brow' levels. He used printmaking as a vehicle to reach wider audiences.
 
World War II pilots had a life expectancy of 48 hours. As I Opened Fire presents three sequential mid-dogfight scenes offering intense bursts of action and examples of the fast thinking essential to a pilot's survival.
 
Roy Lichtenstein (American; 1923-97)
I Love Liberty
1982
Serigraph
36 x 48 _ inches [framed]
Condition: Excellent.
 
Roy Lichtenstein was among the pioneers of Pop Art in the 1960s. He composed his early paintings of comic book scenes with Benday dots, which are used in commercial printing to add tone. Throughout his career, Lichtenstein continually explored popular imagery, seeking to elevate 'low brow' subjects to 'high brow' levels. He used printmaking as a vehicle to reach wider audiences.
 
I Love Liberty was created in conjunction with the "I Love Liberty" television special aired nationally during the winter of 1982.
 
O. Winston Link (American; 1914-2001)
Hot Shot East Bound, Iager, West Virginia
1957/89
Gelatin silver print
27 x 23 inches [framed]
Condition: Very good.
 
O. Winston Link was trained as a civil engineer at the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, where he was also photo editor of the student newspaper. He began working as a photographer with public relations firms and then developed a fascination with steam locomotives in the mid-1950s. He became determined to record them -- often in dramatic or romanticized images -- as signs of a passing age and did just that for the next five years. Rather than take isolated images of trains, Link preferred to incorporate a human element: the couple in the foreground were paid ten dollars to sit in the front seat of the photographer's convertible for the shot.
 
Link's images required extensive preparation and meticulous timing, particularly with the self-devised flash system used to illuminate the trains and various aspects of the scene. In Hot Shot, Link and his assistant used 43 flashbulbs. The burst of light washed out the image on the movie screen, so Link had to print the image of the plane from a negative he had already made from that night's showing of Battle Taxi.
 
Richard M. Hollingshead opened the first drive-in theater in 1933. By the late '50s over 5,000 drive-ins existed in the U.S.
 
Joan Myers (American; b.1944)
Inscription Rock, Oklahoma
1982
Platinum and palladium print
27 x 23 inches [framed]
Condition: Very good.
 
In 1981 Joan Myers was one of twelve photographers selected to join the New Mexico Photographic Survey, a project partially funded by the National Endowment for the Arts; each member was awarded a grant to photograph a subject of his or her choosing within the state. The landscape of northeastern New Mexico had long fascinated Myers. While poring over a map, she noticed a dotted line that traced the Santa Fe Trail, which had not been used for more than a century. It seemed, to Myers, that the Trail had been forgotten -- so she decided to take on the documentation of the Southwest's former lifeline as her project.
 
Beginning in 1982, she worked for three years, traveling eastward on the trail from New Mexico to the trailhead in Missouri. She traveled with her 4 x 5 field camera for more than 15,000 miles, searching out weather-worn fragments and artifacts from a rich period in the settlement of the Southwest. Myers' photographic essay was published in 1986 under the title Along the Santa Fe Trail.
 
Inscription Rock, located in the northwestern corner of Oklahoma, is a sandstone bluff on which Santa Fe Trail travelers carefully incised their names and dates of passage.
 
Frances Flora Bond Palmer (American, born in England; 1812-76)
The Champions of the Mississippi, a Race for the Buckhorns
1866
Lithograph with hand-coloring
43 _ x 35 _ inches [framed]
Condition: Very good.
 
The Mississippi once served as the backbone of America's thriving waterway navigation system. Steamships carried cargo and passengers up and down its length and along its many tributaries. This midnight race along the Mississippi includes the Queen of the West, Morning Star and two unidentified boats. Race scenes were often shown in moonlight with the fiery smokestacks indicating that the boats were traveling at full speed.
 
Palmer's dramatic interpretation also includes a group of cheering spectators at a riverside wood yard. Steamships usually stopped to take on a load of wood once every twenty-four hours, a process that was called 'wooding up.'
 
 
Frances Flora Bond Palmer (American, born in England; 1812-76)
Across the Continent, "Westward the Course of Empire Takes Its Way"
1868
Color lithograph with hand-coloring
36 _ x 28 _ inches [framed]
Condition: Very good.
 
In the year before the completion of the transcontinental railroad, Frances (Fanny) Palmer designed a print that symbolized America's westward expansion. Railroad tracks diagonally divide the vista, with civilization on one side and wilderness on the other. On the left, settlers clear trees, build homes and a school and greet a train that is headed to San Francisco from New York. On the right, Native Americans on horseback are stopped by the train's billowing smoke. In the distance, a wagon train in transit with new settlers parallels the railway.
 
Palmer borrowed her title from Emanuel Leutze's 1861 Westward The Course of Empire Takes Its Way, a well-publicized mural on the west wall of the Capitol in Washington, D.C. Leutze's painting does not include the railroad, but both works celebrate the settlers' conquest of the Western frontier.
 
 
Edward Penfield (American; 1866-1925)
Every Girl Pulling for Victory
1917
Color lithograph
30 _ x 36 5/8 inches [framed]
Condition: Very good.
 
Supportive homeland groups, such as the YMCA, American Liberty Association, Jewish Welfare Board, Salvation Army, YWCA and others, provided crucial services and comforts to troops stationed both domestically and abroad. To succeed, though, these community agencies had to attract strong, daring individuals (such as the woman rowing solo on turbulent waters) that were eager to be of service.
 
Joseph Pennell (American; 1857-1926)
That Liberty Shall Not Perish from the Earth, Buy Liberty Bonds
1917
Color lithograph
35 x 48 inches [framed]
Condition: Very good.
 
Born in Philadelphia, Joseph Pennell produced-as either a writer or illustrator-more than one hundred books. For publications like Century, McClure's, and Harper's, Pennell traveled throughout the world capturing cathedrals, plazas, palaces and street scenes in many different media. During WWI, he designed many important posters for the Division of Pictorial Publicity of the Committee on Public Information. Joseph Pennell once said, "When the United States wished to make public its wants, whether men or money, it found that art-as the European countries had found --
was the best medium."
 
As with any type of financial campaign, people feel as though they have only so much to give. The artists of the Division of Pictorial Publicity were to create images that would persuade individuals to give yet again. Pennell succeeds with this apocalyptic rendering of New York City under fire from the enemy. The Statue of Liberty, now mutilated and decapitated, speaks of the defeat and destruction of American Liberty: unless the American people buy more bonds, this future may be ours.

 
Henry Patrick Raleigh (American; 1880-1944)
Must Children Die and Mothers Plead in Vain?
1918
Color lithograph
29 _ x 46 inches [sheet]
Condition: Very good.
 
Henry Patrick Raleigh made a name for himself through the work he created under the auspices of the Division of Pictorial Publicity. This group of artists and illustrators met every Friday evening to discuss requests made by different governmental departments. The head of the group, artist Charles Dana Gibson, described the meetings:
 
"This is a schoolroom. All are welcome. We come here to learn from each other, to get inspiration, and get religion for the great task the Government has set for us. No
artist is too great to come and give his best. We are fortunate to be alive at this time and to be able to take advantage of the greatest opportunity ever presented to artists."
 
The bold imagery and direct message of Must Children Die and Mothers Plead in Vain? makes powerful use of stereotyped vulnerability of women and children, much as does Flagg's Tell That to the Marines.
 
Robert Rauschenberg (American; b. 1925)
Statue of Liberty
1983
Serigraph with postcard collage
32. _ 44 _ inches [framed]
Condition: Very good.
 
In the 1950s, Robert Rauschenberg broke loose from Abstract Expressionism and increasingly used real-life, everyday objects as the basis of his art. He began to make assemblages out of old chairs, stuffed animals, tires, anything that could be recycled into something new. He also used silk-screened images lifted from photojournalism, magazines and advertisements. Rauschenberg transformed the traditional notions of painting with his juxtapositions and collage techniques. His position as an outsider among the Abstract Expressionists made him a hero to artists such as Andy Warhol, who identified with Rauschenberg's struggle for artistic recognition. In recent years Rauschenberg has become an activist who uses his art to communicate concerns about human rights, cultural awareness and the environment.
 
James Rosenquist (American; b. 1933)
Free for All
1976
Lithograph with collage string
28 x 33 inches [framed]
Condition: Excellent.
 
James Rosenquist began his career as a sign painter in the Midwest, creating billboards for Phillips 66 gas stations, and first achieved wide recognition as a result of his pioneering contributions to Pop Art in the 1960s. Like the artists Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein, Rosenquist has been fascinated by the visual language and objects of mass culture. Rosenquist depicts objects that stick in the mind as well as items from the culture at large-consumer products, canned foods, even car fenders.
 
Free for All was created to commemorate the American Bicentennial in 1976.
 
Michael Schwab (American; b.1952)
Recycle or Die
1991
Screenprint
24 x 36 inches [sheet]
Condition: Excellent.
 
One of the leading graphic designers of the late twentieth century, Michael Schwab has won numerous awards for his designs, including images for several Fortune 500 companies. Schwab often works from posed models and Polaroid images, simplifying his renderings to broad planes of color with dramatic or stylized perspectives.
 
Recycle or Die bluntly addresses a crucial issue in the future of waste-prone contemporary America. Featuring personified Mother Nature choking, Schwab designed Recycle or Die for the San Francisco chapter of the American Institute of Graphic Arts (AIGA) in an edition of 100 for inclusion in an environmental poster exhibition.
 
Arthur S. Siegel (American; 1913-78)
Right to Assembly
1941
Vintage gelatin silver print
17 x 21 inches [framed]
Condition: Good.
 
In 1937 Arthur Siegel was among the first students to take courses at the Chicago School of Design. Right to Assembly's extreme perspective (shot from above) reduces the massive crowd to a mere graphic pattern and plays with the viewer's sense of scale. Siegel's image creates the illusion that something as large as a public gathering (guaranteed by the Bill of Rights) can simultaneously be viewed as something microscopic.
 
 
George Skadding (American; worked in the 20th century)
Truman and Churchill
1946
Vintage gelatin silver print
10 7/8 x 10 3/8 inches [image]
Condition: Very good.
 
George Skadding captured this photograph in Fulton, Missouri on March 5, 1946, the occasion of Winston Churchill's "Iron Curtain" speech. Churchill spoke at Westminster College, where he coined the term "Iron Curtain" to describe the line in Europe between self-governing nations of the West and those in the East under Soviet Communist control. The car carries Harry Truman and Winston Churchill, Missouri Governor Phil M. Donnelly in the front seat and Westminster College President Frank L. McCluer in the back seat.
 
W. Eugene Smith (American; 1918-78)
Steelworker, Pittsburgh
1955
Vintage gelatin silver print
17 x 21 inches [sheet]
Condition: Very good.
 
W. Eugene Smith came to New York in 1937, as photojournalism was changing the nature of newsmagazines and providing unparalleled opportunities for young photographers. Smith brought a strong sense of compassion and superb technical skills to his work. Within two years he had a part-time contract with Life magazine. In 1945, while on assignment during World War II, he was wounded in Okinawa. After the war he joined the New York Photo League, becoming its president in 1949.
 
An advocate of the poor and working class, Smith believed photography provided a "great power for betterment and understanding." In order to "force the genre in an epic poetic mode" he completed a number of ambitious photo essays, including his Pittsburgh Project from 1955-56. This project resulted in more than 10,000 negatives; from these Smith selected 2,000 to create his final photo essay.
 
This close-up portrait of a steelworker is one of the strongest images from his Pittsburgh series.
 

Alfred Stieglitz (American; 1864-1946)
The Steerage
1907/1911 or 1915
Photogravure on Japan vellum
20 _ x 23 _ inches [framed]
Condition: Very good.
One of the most important promoters of modern art in the early twentieth century, Alfred Stieglitz's personal passion was photography. While sailing across the Atlantic in 1907, Stieglitz noticed passengers crowded into the less-costly steerage area beneath the first-class upper deck. Of this scene Stieglitz recalls,
 
"The scene fascinated me: A round straw hat; the funnel leaning left, the stairway leaning right; the white drawbridge, its railings made of chain; white suspenders crossed on the back of a man below; circular iron machinery; a mast that cut into the sky, completing a triangle. I stood spellbound for a while. I saw shapes related to one another-a picture of shapes, and underlying it, a new vision that held me: simple people; the feeling of ship, ocean, sky; a sense of release that I was away from the mob called 'rich.'"
 
The repeated circles, triangles, and rectangles that captivated him also serve as the photograph's structure. The sunlit bridge provides a bold diagonal that visually connects the distinctively different upper and lower decks. The upper group consists primarily of darkly dressed men, while the lower crowd is made up mostly of women and children wearing lighter colors. The inactivity of the standing group above contrasts with the active lines of the flowing garments, makeshift clothesline and movement of the figures below.
 
The Steerage is the photograph Stieglitz said he would want to represent him if he could choose only one. He felt that this spontaneous photograph perfectly captured related shapes as well as human feelings.
 
Andy Warhol (American; 1928-87)
Uncle Sam
Trial proof
1981
Screenprint with diamond dust on Lenox Museum Board
43 x 43 inches [framed]
Condition: Very good.
 
The beginning of the printmaking renaissance in the early 1960s owes much to the rise of Pop Art. As a young artist in New York during the 1950s, Andy Warhol initially worked as an advertising illustrator to earn his living. His exposure to commercial art eventually inspired his choice of subject matter, including Campbell's Soup cans and Coca-Cola bottles. Warhol used lithography and screenprinting, two media historically tied to reproduction and commercial use, as the basis for his artistic expression because he declared that he "wanted to be a machine" and mimic the mass-production and consumerism of American culture.
 
Uncle Sam comes from Andy Warhol's Myths portfolio of ten prints. Uncle Sam was created from Warhol's own photograph of a model dressed in an Uncle Sam costume. Other images from the portfolio include Santa Claus, Mickey Mouse and the Shadow-a self-portrait of Andy Warhol.
 
Andy Warhol (American; 1928-87)
Indian Head Nickel
1986
Screenprint on Lenox Museum Board
36 _ x 36 _ inches [framed]
Condition: Very good.
 
The beginning of the printmaking renaissance in the early 1960s owes much to the rise of Pop Art. As a young artist in New York during the 1950s, Andy Warhol initially worked as an advertising illustrator to earn his living. His exposure to commercial art eventually inspired his choice of subject matter, including Campbell's Soup cans and Coca-Cola bottles. Warhol used lithography and screenprinting, two media historically tied to reproduction and commercial use, as the basis for his artistic expression because he declared that he "wanted to be a machine" and mimic the mass-production and consumerism of American culture.
 
Indian Head Nickel comes from Andy Warhol's Cowboys and Indians portfolio of ten prints that depict men, women and artifacts commonly associated with the legends of the 'Wild West.' Other images from the portfolio include John Wayne and Annie Oakley.
 
Weegee (Arthur Fellig) (American; 1899-1968)
Time is Short
1942-45
Vintage gelatin silver print
20 x 17 _ inches [framed]
Condition: Good.
 
Arthur Fellig began his career as a Manhattan crime photographer in 1936. He equipped his car with a police radio and a makeshift photography lab in order to quickly capture, develop and deliver his images to eager city newspapers. Because he was nearly always first at a scene and seemingly knew about events before they happened, Fellig dubbed himself "Weegee" (a reference to the clairvoyant Ouija board). Weegee was the quintessential street photographer because he captured almost every aspect of city life, from murder scenes to society events to beach scenes at Coney Island. During World War II, he photographed the soldiers who traveled in and out of New York on their way to and from Europe.
 
Weegee was also a fixture at public gatherings in support of the war effort, such as this street scene in lower Manhattan. The title of the print, Time Is Short, taken from the banners in the background, is echoed in the anxious expressions of the crowd, especially that of the young boy who looks out from the lower left corner.
 
Eudora Welty (American; 1909-2001)
Side Show, State Fair/Jackson/1939
1939/printed later
Gelatin silver print
21 _ x 22 _ inches [framed]
Condition: Excellent.
 
Long before she published her first short story, Eudora Welty was a photographer. During the Great Depression Welty worked for the Works Progress Administration, serving as a junior publicity agent and traveling to many parts of the Deep South to promote the building of roads and new airstrips as well as other efforts to bring economic progress to poor and remote areas of the region. A native of Mississippi, Welty had intimate knowledge of the land and people, which she acutely captured in her photographs and later in her fictional writings.
 
Welty eventually published her photographs in a book, One Time, One Place. In discussing her photographic work, Welty stressed the importance of her subjects, "I wasn't trying to say anything about myself," she told an interviewer, "I was trying to say everything about them."
 
According to papers held in the Eudora Welty Collection in Mississippi, the boys in Side Show, State Fair/Jackson/1939, were watching a hypnotist.
 
George S. Zimbel (American; b. 1929)
Mrs. Roosevelt's Birthday Party, Harry Truman & Senator Kennedy 1959
1959/68
Gelatin silver print
9 x 13 _ inches [image]
Condition: Very good.
 
A noted documentary photographer whose work has been featured in major American news publications, George S. Zimbel studied liberal arts at Columbia. He then worked with photographer Alexey Brodovitch at the New School before studying the photo collection at the Museum of Modern Art under the tutelage of Edward Steichen. Zimbel is perhaps best known for his street photography and portraits of politicians and celebrities-at-work. In 1954 Zimbel began a ten-year project focused on Harry Truman; the Truman archive accessioned the study prints.
 
On October 11, 1959, Eleanor Roosevelt celebrated her 75th birthday and was lauded by several speakers, including former President Harry Truman (He had become president in 1945, after Franklin Roosevelt's death only three months into his fourth term.) and Senator John F. Kennedy from Massachusetts. Kennedy had already begun campaigning for the Democratic presidential candidacy.

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