OUT OF THE BACKGROUND: CECILIA BEAUX AND THE ART OF PORTRAITURE

By Tara Leigh Tappert

copyright, 1994



 

Notes to Chapter Seven

1 Beaux, Background with Figures, p. 86.
 
2 "Cecilia Beaux, Artist, Her Home, Work and Ideals," Sunday Herald [Boston], September [23], 1910, Magazine Section, p. 7, Jesse Wilcox Smith Papers, AAA.
 
3 Beaux, Background with Figures, pp. 86 - 87; Bowen, Family Portrait, p. 135.
 
4 Beaux diary, 1875, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
5 Beaux, Background with Figures, p. 86; Beaux diary, 1875, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
6 Beaux diary, 1875, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
7 Beaux, Background with Figures, p. 86.
 
8 Beaux diary, 1875, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
9 Family Portrait, research notes, box 10, Bowen Papers, LC.
 
10 Bowen, Family Portrait, pp. 135 - 36.
 
11 Beaux, Background with Figures, p. 86.
 
12 Henry Thuron to Cecilia Beaux, January 10, 1888, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
13 Beaux to "My Dear Friend" [Henry Thuron], January 1888, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
14 Bailey, "The Cecilia Beaux Papers," p. 16; Beaux to "My Dear Friend" [Henry Thuron], January, 1888, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
15 Beaux, Background with Figures, p. 100.
 
16 Beaux to "My Dear Friend" [Henry Thuron], January 1888, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
17 Henry Thuron to Cecilia Beaux, January 10, 1888, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
18 [Eliza Leavitt] to Cecilia Beaux, [January 1888], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
19 [William Biddle] to Cecilia Beaux, Tuesday 17, correspondence (1863 - 1968), letters dated by day of week only, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
20 Eliza Leavitt to Cecilia Beaux, April 15, 1888, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
21 Eliza Leavitt and William Biddle to Cecilia Beaux, January 19, 1888; Beaux to her family, February 2, 1888; Beaux to Dear 4305, February 12, 1888; Beaux to [her family], Sunday [February - March 1888]; Beaux to Grandma Leavitt [February - March 1888], correspondence (1863 - 1968), undated letters arranged alphabetically by correspondent, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
22 Beaux to Grandma Leavitt, [February - March 1888], correspondence (1863 - 1968), undated letters arranged alphabetically by correspondent, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
23 Beaux to her family, February 2, 1888, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
24 Beaux to Etta Drinker, March 18, [1888], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
25 Beaux to Eliza Leavitt, May 17, 1888, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
26 Beaux to Grandma Leavitt, June 14, 1888, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
27 Beaux to Eliza Leavitt, May 17, 1888, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
28 Eliza Leavitt to Cecilia Beaux, Sunday p.m. [February - March 1888], correspondence (1863 - 1968), letters dated by day of week only, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
29 Eliza Leavitt to Cecilia Beaux, April 1, 1888, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
30 Beaux to [her family], Sunday [February - March 1888], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
31 Beaux to Eliza Leavitt, April 12, 1888, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
32 Beaux to Etta Drinker, April 27, 1888, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
33 Beaux to William Biddle, June 2, 1888, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
34 Set in the early sixteenth century the tale woven by Meyerbeer is a complex one of exploration, intrigue, and love triangles in L'Africaine (The African Maid). The slave Nelusko loves Queen Selika, who is in love with the explorer Vasco da Gama. He in turn loves Inez Diego, but she has been promised to another. Jail scenes and high-sea adventures carry the story along, but the ending takes place in the tropical paradise where Selika benevolently rules. Allowing Vasco and Inez to sail peacefully away, the Queen sacrifices her love and dies under the branches of the poisonous mancanilla tree. Just moments later Nelusko joins her in death under the fatal tree (Earl of Harewood, ed., Kobbe's Complete Opera Book [New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1972], pp. 708 - 13; Beaux to Etta Drinker, June 10, 1888, Beaux Papers, AAA).
 
35 William Biddle to Cecilia Beaux, July 24, 1888, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
36 Beaux to [her family], [July - August 1888], correspondence (1863 - 1968), undated letters arranged alphabetically by correspondent, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
37 Beaux's decision not to marry was a source of interest later in her life, with any number of stories told about her youthful romances. Elizabeth Cady (Stanton) Blake, possibly referring to Edwin Swift Balch, noted that "she did have some sort of unhappy love affair.... I've heard that she was in love with this artist and then found that he had Negro blood somewhere in his background, so that ended that, because in those days it would have been impossible" (Volume 1, interview with Elizabeth Cady Stanton (Mrs. William H. Blake) by Kitty Gellhorn, Columbia University Oral History Research Office, September 1974 to October 1975, p. 105).
 
38 Falk, ed., Who Was Who in American Art, p. 30; Philadelphia City Directory, 1888 (Philadelphia: James Gopsill's Sons, 1888), p. 133.
 
39 Beaux to William Biddle, September 30, 1888, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
40 William Biddle to Cecilia Beaux, October 10, 1888, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
41 Beaux to Etta Drinker, October 14, 1888, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
42 The characteristics of the nineteenth-century ideal man were as clearly defined as that of the true woman. He should be pure-minded, sincere and spotless in his moral character... a self-denying man; rejecting the wine cup, tobacco, and all other forms of intemperance.... He should be an energetic man, or he will sink in seas of difficulty.... He should possess a cultivated intellect, otherwise he will either keep you in obscurity, or subject you to incessant mortification by his ignorance. He should be industrious; if he is a drone he will pluck down ruin on your habitation. He must be economical; a spendthrift husband will sow the field of your afterlife with the seed of...thorns and briars. He must be benevolent, since a covetous man, who sacrifices his own soul at the shrine of the gold demon, will not hesitate to immolate your happiness on the same accursed altar. He must not be a proud man; for pride is always cruel, selfish, remorseless. He should not be clownish on the one hand, nor foppish on the other, because a stupid clown and a conceited fop are alike mortifying to the sensibilities of every woman of good sense. He should not be deformed or badly disfigured... [or] your heart will recoil from him. Above all things, he ought to be religious. No man's character is reliable, if his virtues are not founded on reverence and love for his Creator (Rev. Daniel Wise, The Young Lady's Counselor, or Outlines and Illustrations of the Sphere, the Duties and the Dangers of Young Women [New York: Carlton & Phillips, 1852], pp. 243 - 45 in Lee Virginia Chambers-Schiller, Liberty, a Better Husband -- Single Women in America: The Generations of 1780 - 1840 [New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1984], p. 37).
 
43 Beaux, Background with Figures, p. 86.
 
44 Beaux to Grandma Leavitt, December 15, 1888, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
45 While the painting of Louise Kinsella is lost and an image has never been reproduced, there is nevertheless some information that could be helpful in finding the painting. Beaux gave the portrait to Kinsella when she finished it, but Louise died when she was quite young. Her sister Kate, who like Beaux was also an artist, outlived her sister. Born in Brooklyn, New York, Katherine P. Kinsella took art training in Paris with Charles Lasar, studied with Whistler, and was also a member of the New York Woman's Art Club. Kinsella married an Italian marquis who died sometime in the 1920s, and in 1907/1908 one wrote to Kate in care of Drexel, Harjes & Co., Paris. In May of 1931, the artist Colin Campbell Cooper wrote Beaux that Kate was then living in London and "was very successful with her painting," and at least one London address for her was 38 Saint George's Road (Beaux to her family, January 6, 1889; Colin Campbell Cooper to Beaux, May 24, 1931, Beaux Papers, AAA; Beaux, Background with Figures, pp. 177 - 78).
 
46 Beaux to her family, July 15, 1888, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
47 Clarence L. Barnhart, ed., The New Century Cyclopedia of Names, vol. 1 (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 1954), p. 239.
 
48 Earl of Harewood, ed., Kobbe's Complete Opera Book, pp. 690 - 700. A discussion of Millais's painting is found in John Guille Millais, The Life and Letters of Sir John Everett Millais, vol. 1 (New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company, 1919), pp. 130 - 43.
 
49 Beaux to Grandma Leavitt, December 15, 1888, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
50 The heroine of a popular tale, images of Gertrude were painted and illustrated in both England and the United States by such artists as the Pre-Raphaelite Thomas Seecombe (circa 1871), and Americans, Martin Johnson Heade (circa 1850), Ralph Albert Blakelock (circa 1870s), and Currier and Ives (Roger B. Stein, Susquehanna: Images of the Settled Landscape [Binghamton, N.Y.: Robertson Center for the Arts and Sciences, 1981)] pp. 130 - 31, n. 18; Theodore Stebbins, Jr., Martin Johnson Heade [College Park, Md.: University of Maryland, 1969], n.p.; Ralph Albert Blakelock, 1847 - 1919 [Lincoln, Neb.: Nebraska Art Association, 1974], pp. 44 - 86).
 
51 Stein, Susquehanna, p. 30. The poem itself is found in J. Logue Robertson, ed., The Complete Poetical Works of Thomas Campbell (New York: Haskell House Publishers, Ltd., 1968), pp. 43 - 94.
 
52 Henry James, "The Lessons of the Master" (1888) in Daisy Miller and Other Stories, ed. Michael Swan, (New York: Viking Penguin, Inc., 1963), pp. 94, 116, 117, 119.
 
53 Louisa May Alcott, An Old Fashioned Girl, (1870: reprint ed., Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1950), p. 258.
 
54 Sarah Orne Jewett, A Country Doctor (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin Co., 1884).
 
55 Henry James, The Portrait of a Lady, ed. Leon Edel (1881; reprint ed., Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1956), p. v.
 
56 Elizabeth Stuart (Phelps) Ward, The Story of Avis (Boston: James R. Osgood and Company, 1877); Harris and Nochlin, Women Artists, p. 57.
 
57 William Dean Howells, The Coast of Bohemia (New York: Harper & Bros., 1893).
 
58 Dinah Maria (Mulock) Craik, Olive (New York: Harper & Bros., 1851); Harris and Nochlin, Women Artists, p. 57.
 
59 Beaux to her family, July 15, 1888, January 6, January 20, and February 11, 1889, Beaux Papers, AAA; Beaux, Background with Figures, pp. 177 - 78.
 
60 Lois W. Banner, American Beauty (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1983), pp. 5, 129 - 30, 136 - 37.
 
61 Ibid., p. 110.
 
62 Beaux to Etta Drinker, February 7, 1888, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
63 Beaux to her family, January 20, 1889, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
64 Judith Walzer Leavitt and Whitney Walton, "'Down to Death's Door': Women's Perceptions of Childbirth in America," in Leavitt, ed., Women and Health in America -- Historical Readings (Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984), pp. 155 - 65; see also Leavitt, Brought to Bed: Childbearing in America, 1750 - 1950 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986).
 
65 The "cult of single blessedness," Chambers-Schiller points out, developed out of early-nineteenth-century Perfectionism. Its exponents believed that "no true Christian should regard marriage as either a primary or a sole goal in life. Through marriage one might serve God's will, but marriage was, in and of itself, neither everyone's calling nor anyone's salvation. The idea of remaining single appealed to a number of women in the nineteenth century. Besides the decision to pursue a career, some women found the marital institution wanting and in conflict with autonomy, self-development, and achievement. They consciously rejected the self-abnegation inherent in domesticity. Others internalized a "beau ideal" and rejected the idea of binding themselves legally, sexually, or intellectually to lesser men. Some women shied away from sexual intercourse or feared the dangers of pregnancy and childbirth and therefore avoided marriage (Chambers-Schiller, Liberty, a Better Husband, pp. 2, 18 - 19, 21 - 22).
 
66 Ibid., pp. 2, 20 - 22.
 
67 Beaux, "Why the Girl Art Student Fails," Harper's Bazar 47, no. 5 (May 1913): 221.
 
68 Beaux, "Portraiture," Simmons College, May 14, 1907, manuscript, p. 7, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
69 Banner, American Beauty, pp. 63, 124, 121 - 27, 135 - 36.
 
70 Beaux, Background with Figures, p. 178.
 
71 "Cecilia Beaux, Artist, Her Home, Work and Ideals," Sunday Herald [Boston], September [23], 1910), Magazine Section, p. 7, Jesse Wilcox Smith Papers, AAA.
 
72 Etta Drinker to Cecilia Beaux, January 25, 1889, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
73 Beaux to Etta Drinker, February 4, [1889], correspondence (1863 - 1968), letters dated by day and month, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
74 Ibid.
 
75 Beaux, Background with Figures, p. 86.
 
76 Stein, "Profile of Cecilia Beaux," pp. 26, 31, note 9.
 
77 Beaux, Background with Figures, p. 84; Bowen, Family Portrait, pp. 162 - 63.
 
78 Beaux to her family, Monday, June 1889, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
79 Beaux to May Whitlock, [May 21, 1889]; and Beaux to [Etta Drinker], [circa late July 1889], incomplete letter, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
80 Beaux to [May Whitlock], May 23, 1889, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
81 Beaux to her family, Monday, June 1889; and Beaux to Etta Drinker, July 1, 1889, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
82 Beaux to William Biddle, [August 1889], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
83 George Dudley Seymour to Cecilia Beaux, November 11, 1897, Beaux Papers, AAA.


Notes to Chapter Eight

1 Beaux, Background with Figures, p. 203.
 
2 Ibid, pp. 203 - 204; Gopsill's Philadelphia City Directory for 1890 (Philadelphia: James Gopsill's Sons, 1890).
 
3 Beaux, Background with Figures, p. 204.
 
4 In 1889 Beaux created paintings and pastels of Ethel Page, Ethel Burnham, Mrs. Sabin W. Colton, Sr., Mrs. Sabin W. Colton, Jr., and Mrs. Thomas Kilby Smith.
 
5 Etta Drinker to Cecilia Beaux, February 22, 1889, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
6 The most useful scholarship on grand-manner portraiture in America is Quick, American Portraiture in the Grand Manner.
 
7 Quest for Unity, p. 19.
 
8 Newspaper clipping, Beaux scrapbook, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
9 "'The Academy of Design'-Some of the paintings in the sixty-seventh Annual Exhibition," newspaper clipping, 1892, Beaux scrapbook, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
10 For a discussion of the life and career of Cecil K. Drinker, see Bowen, Family Portrait.
 
11 William W. L. Glenn, M.D., to Catherine Drinker Bowen, May 5, 1969, box 7, Bowen Papers, LC.
 
12 A pencil sketch of this portrait also exists.
 
13 Estelle Ansley Worrel, Children`s Costume in America, 1607 - 1910 (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1980), p. 174. For illustrations of Cassatt's and Boldini's portraits see Gary A. Reynolds, Giovanni Boldini and Society Portraiture, 1880 - 1920, November 13 - December 22, 1984, (New York: Grey Art Gallery and Study Center, New York University, 1984), pp. 24 - 25.
 
14 Cecilia kept Rosina's portrait of her all her life. It is now owned by a great-niece of hers who lives in Philadelphia. To my knowledge, it has never been exhibited.
 
15 Pauline King, "Cecilia Beaux," Harper's Bazar 32, no. 10 (March 11, 1899): 208; Harrison S. Morris, "American Portraiture of Children," Scribner's Magazine 30, no. 6 (December 1901): 647.
 
16 Rosina Emmet Sherwood to Cecilia Beaux, [circa 1895], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
17 Beaux to Rosina Emmet Sherwood, April 7, [1895], Emmet Family Papers, AAA.
 
18 Beaux, December 1940, Family Portrait, research notes, box 10, Bowen Papers, LC.
 
19 An excellent stylistic analysis of the painting is in Doreen Bolger Burke, American Paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, vol. 3 (New York: Princeton University Press for the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1980), pp. 201 - 04.
 
20 Caroline Lewis to Cecilia Beaux, April 4, 1894, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
21 "Paintings by Cecilia Beaux," January 18, 1914, newspaper clipping, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
22 Mrs. Arthur Bell, "The Work of Cecilia Beaux," International Studio 8, no. 32 (October 1899): 216; Pauline King, "The Paintings of Cecilia Beaux," The House Beautiful 11, no. 3 (February 1902): 177.
 
23 At the turn of the century, children were believed to inhabit a different world from that of the adults. At a young age they were often handed over to specialized servants, and for the first time, children were systematically educated in schools. This separation from the adult world was considered necessary to preserve the period of childhood as a time of dependence, free from responsibilities -- a period of innocence and gaiety in which children were free to divide their time between play and lessons. Children, it was argued, needed space and time for play, in order to develop individual personalities. This was a sentiment with which Beaux agreed completely. She noted: "Children, as individuals, need privacy far more than grown people, and it should be automatic." See Anna Davin, "Edwardian Childhoods -- Childhood and Children: Image and Diversity" in Jane Beckett and Deborah Cherry, eds., The Edwardian Era (Oxford: Phaidon Press and Barbican Art Gallery, 1987), pp. 51 - 62. See also Linda A. Pollock, Forgotten Children -- Parent Child Relations from 1500 to 1900 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983); Mary Lynn Stevens Heininger, Karin Calvert, et al., A Century of Childhood 1820 - 1920 (Rochester, N.Y: The Margaret Woodbury Strong Museum, 1984); Bernard Wishy, The Child and the Republic: The Dawn of Modern American Child Nurture (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1968); Anita Schosch, Images of Childhood: An Illustrated Social History (New York: A Main Street Press Book, Mayflower Books, Inc., 1979); Beaux, Background with Figures, p. 27.
 
24 King, "The Paintings of Cecilia Beaux," p. 180.
 
25 "'The Century's' American Artist Series: Cecilia Beaux," Century Magazine, 48, no. 5 (September 1894): 798.
 
26 Ibid; William Walton, "Cecilia Beaux," Scribner's Magazine 22, no. 4 (October 1897): 478; Carlyle Burrows, "The Portraits of Cecilia Beaux," International Studio, 85, no. 353 (October 1926): 77; "Our Paris Letter" Harper's Bazar [circa 1896], Beaux scrapbook, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
27 John Grier Bartol to William Stevens, Director, Pennsylvania Academy, December 3, 1969, Registrar's files, PAFA; Rossiter Johnson, ed., Twentieth-Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans, vol. 4 (Boston: The Biographical Society, 1904) n.p.
 
28 The prize amount was $300. J. C. Nicholl, Corresponding Secretary, National Academy of Design to Cecilia Beaux, April 6, 1893, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
29 Minutes of the Geographical Society of Philadelphia, April 3, 1893, files of the Geographical Society of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
 
30 Les derniers jours d'enfance and Cecil were shown in the Fine Arts Building at the Fair, and Twilight Confidences and possibly Ethel Burnham were on display in the Women's Building.
 
31 Newspaper clipping, [1893], Beaux scrapbook, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
32 For a discussion of the significance of language in descriptions of Beaux's life and career, see Sarah Burns, "The 'Earnest, Untiring Worker' and the Magician of the Brush: Gender Politics in the Criticism of Cecilia Beaux and John Singer Sargent," Oxford Art Journal, 15, no. 1 (1992): 36 - 53.
 
33 Art Amateur 29, no. 1 (June 1893): 2. I am grateful to Ronald G. Pisano for this reference.
 
34 Alexander Chamberlain compiled a chart comparing characteristics of women to those of men. He noted that women were "less gifted in pure artistic impulse in high culture," and that great genius was particularly rare for women in painting and sculpture. Alexander Francis Chamberlain, The Child: A Study in the Evolution of Man (London: Walter Scott, Ltd., 1900), pp. 418 - 23. See also Cynthia Eagle Russett, The Victorian Construction of Womanhood (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1989). Russett points out that scientists believed that the shape and size of women's skulls revealed weaker brain power.
 
35 "An Art Club Reception," newspaper clipping [1894], Beaux scrapbook, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
36 Beaux's own portraits of women were her response to the typing of women predominant in the artwork of the late nineteenth century. Women were frequently portrayed in allegorical motifs representing the goddesses, the muses and graces as well as the universal virtues of wisdom, freedom and justice. They were also objectified to sell everything from cars and bicycles to coffee, tea, and the First World War. When women were portrayed as types, implicit cultural controls were heightened. Even artists such as Charles Dana Gibson and Howard Chandler Christy who created positive types of the "American Girl" and "New Woman" limited her roles. Other artists negatively used the type motif to create images that suggested the fear and anxiety of late nineteenth century males toward females. These artists created "femmes fatales" and fantasies of "feminine evil," metamorphosing women into vampires, daughters of Dracula, Judith and Salome, and "whores of Babylon." They also portrayed women in collapsed states of illness, sleep, and death, or in sensuous encounters with animals such as cats, snakes, and fowl. In sharp contrast to these extremely negative and misogynistic images of women were Beaux's positive but conservative portraits of American women.
 
A number of recent books and exhibitions have focused on the imaging of women. See Bailey Van Hook, The Ideal Woman in American Art 1875 to 1910 (Ph.D. diss., City University of New York, 1988); Martha Banta, Imaging American Women: Ideas and Ideals in Cultural History (New York: Columbia University Press, 1987); Marina Warner, Monuments and Maidens: The Allegory of the Female Form (New York, Atheneum, 1985).
 
37 Beaux considered pastel a particularly felicitous medium for women's portraits, and when she was just back from Paris she also used it "as an aid in bridging the first of the chasms that opened in the path of a young painter" (Beaux, Background with Figures, p. 194).
 
38 Born to a prominent family in Vincentown, New Jersey, Mary Drexel was twenty-six years old when Beaux painted her portrait. She had married George W. Childs Drexel in November of 1891, and in 1893, he became the managing editor of the Public Ledger, inheriting the paper from his godfather. When Beaux painted Mary's portrait she was just beginning a number of philanthropic projects. During the course of her life, she worked for various welfare causes and was a great patron of the arts "Mrs. Drexel Dies; Social Leader, 80," New York Times (December 17, 1948); "Mrs. George Drexel Rites Tomorrow," Evening Bulletin [Philadelphia], (December 17, 1948); Mabel Ward Cameron, ed., The Biographical Cyclopedia of American Women, vol. 1 (New York: The Halvord Publishing Company, Inc., 1924), pp. 83 - 85; Mrs. George W. C. Drexel file, Sally Stretch Keen Memorial Library, Vincentown, New Jersey).
 
39 There were a number of exhibitions at the turn of the century with women as the theme. See Trevor J. Fairbrother, John Singer Sargent and America (New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1986), p. 186; Illustrated Catalogue - A Loan Collection of Portraits and Pictures of Fair Women (Boston: The Copley Society, 1902); Philip L. Hale, Great Portraits -- Women (Boston: Bates & Guild Co., 1909); "The Portraits of Women," newspaper clipping, [1894], Beaux scrapbook, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
40 J. C. Nicoll, Corresponding Secretary for the National Academy of Design, to Cecilia Beaux, May 10, 1894, Beaux scrapbook, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
41 Beaux resisted the contemporary view that educated and intellectual women were unattractive and sexually undesirable. See "The New Woman as Androgyne: Social Order and Gender Crisis, 1870 - 1936," in Carroll Smith-Rosenberg, Disorderly Conduct -- Visions of Gender in Victorian America (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1985); Linda K. Kerber, "Separate Spheres, Female Worlds, Woman's Place: The Rhetoric of Women's History, Journal of American History 75, no. 1 (June 1988): 9 - 39; Banta, Imaging American Women.
 
42 "An Art Club Reception," and "Women Artists Honored," newspaper clippings [1894], Beaux scrapbook, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
43 The Paintings and Drawings of Cecilia Beaux, pp. 43, 96; Beaux to George Dudley Seymour, July 23, 1894, George Dudley Seymour Papers.
 
44 Interview with Walker Hancock, artist, NMAA, September 8, 1984.
 
45 Beaux to Mrs. Butler, April 6, 1931, Curatorial files, The Butler Institute of American Art, Youngstown, Ohio.
 
46 "The Spring Exhibition at the Academy of Design," and "Cecilia Beaux -- Philadelphia's Talented Portrait Painter," newspaper clippings, 1894, Beaux scrapbook, Beaux Papers, AAA; "American Studio Talk," International Studio Supplement (February 1898): 13 - 14.
 
47 Beaux to George Dudley Seymour, August 30, 1894, George Dudley Seymour Papers.
 
48 The New York Critic, 1895, Family Portrait, research notes, box 10, Bowen Papers, LC.
 
49 "Art Notes," newspaper clipping, [1894], Beaux scrapbook, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
50 Harrison S. Morris to Cecilia Beaux, June 12, 1895, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
51 "Honor to an Artist," [1895], Family Portrait, research notes, box 10, Bowen Papers, LC.
 
52 Beaux's own fascination with beauty carried over even into her selection of students. The sculptor Walker Hancock noted that there was never a bad-looking person in her classes (Interview with Walker Hancock, artist, NMAA, September 8, 1984).
 
53 Beaux, "The Public and Modern Art," Simmons College, April 30, 1907, manuscript, p. 22, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
54 Beaux, "Why the Girl Art Student Fails," p. 249.
 
55 Caroline Peart opened a studio at 1710 Chestnut Street in 1900, and Beaux occasionally offered criticisms of her work. Mary Thrason described Beaux's influence in a letter to Thornton Oakley the year after his short tribute to Cecilia was published. Thrason noted, "Long before I came to Philadelphia as a student, I collected illustrations of Cecilia's work (just as I did of Sargent's -- in a scrap book of sorts) and when I found she was to teach in certain classes in my first year at the PAFA -- I was quite overcome.... I too have loved your Cecilia and admired her vastly from afar -- altho', quite frankly my association with her was the opposite of yours...my admiration and devotion have been truly selfless -- having fed only on imagination.... I envy you from the bottom of my heart (and McCarter and others) your friendship with C.B.... [She was] my one true teacher. When I see you I'll tell you of the only time C.B. ever had a truly human contact with me and the memory of that moment helps me to understand all the Provencal charm and strength and humor - you found in her." Violet Oakley became a well-respected muralist, stained glass designer, and book and magazine illustrator ("Carolina Peart, Portrait Painter, Selections from the Collection of Franklin and Marshall College," Caroline Peart Papers, Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, Pennsylvania; Caroline Peart Exhibition, September 11 - November 21, 1982, Brandywine River Museum, Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania); Mary Thrason to Thornton Oakley, January 4, 1944, Thornton Oakley Papers; Violet Oakley, Contemporary Club Speech, January 11, 1926, Violet Oakley Papers, AAA, cited in Patricia Likos, "Violet Oakley," Philadelphia Museum of Art Bulletin 75, no. 325 [June 1979]: 4, 6, 14).
 
56 Charlotte Herzog, "A Rose by Any Other Name," Woman's Art Journal 14, no. 2 (Fall 1993/Winter 1994): 11 - 16.
 
57 Charles H. Morgan, George Bellows, Painter of America (New York: Reynal and Co., 1965), pp. 94 - 95; Will H. Richardson to Cecilia Beaux, November 11, 1898, Beaux Papers, AAA; Barbara Ann Boese Wolanin, Arthur B. Carles, 1882 - 1952: Philadelphia Modernist (Ph.D. diss., University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1981), pp. 25 - 26.
 
58 Beaux to Rosina Emmet Sherwood, [summer, 1895], Emmet Family Papers, AAA.
 
59 Beaux, Background with Figures, pp. 15 - 16.
 
60 Ibid., p. 205.
 
61 Mary Mitchell Turner, The Three Leavitt Houses and the Leavitt Store, Town History Papers of the Woman's Club of Washington, Connecticut, read before the Meeting of March 2, 1921, in the Gunn Memorial Library, Washington, Connecticut, pp. 3, 7 - 8.
 
62 Ibid., and note 8, n.p., and pp. 2, 6, 8.
 
63 The Pennsylvania Academy not only owns New England Woman, but also an oil sketch of Julia based on an early photograph that was painted in November 1909, eight months after Cecilia's cousin died (Beaux to Harrison S. Morris, January 31, 1896, Registrar's files, PAFA; Beaux to Harrison S. Morris, February 28, [1896], PAFA Papers, AAA; Beaux diary, February 11, and November 5, 1909, Beaux Papers, AAA).
 
64 Turner, The Three Leavitt Houses and the Leavitt Store, p. 8; Katherine De Forest, "Our Paris Letter," Harper's Bazar, [1896], Beaux scrapbook, Beaux Papers, AAA; Walton, "Cecilia Beaux,", p. 478; Beaux, Background with Figures, p. 348; Bell, "The Work of Cecilia Beaux," p. 220.
 
65 The Paintings and Drawings of Cecilia Beaux, p. 93.
 
66 DAB, vol. 2, p. 266 - 69.
 
67 Fielding H. Garrison, John Shaw Billings: A Memoir (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1915), pp. 278 - 87.
 
68 There is a small collection of letters written by Beaux to Dr. Billings regarding the portrait in box 24 (reel 23), John Shaw Billings Papers, Manuscripts and Archives Division, New York Public Library, New York.
 
69 The Paintings and Drawings of Cecilia Beaux, p. 23; Harold Wellington Jones, "A Portrait Gallery of Physicians -- The Collection in the Army Medical Library," Annals of Medical History 9, no. 6 (November 1937): 531 - 32.
 
70 Beaux, Background with Figures, p. 197; Henry McCarter to Cecilia Beaux, April 20, 1896, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
71 Katharine De Forest, "Our Paris Letter," Harper's Bazar [1896], Beaux scrapbook, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
72 New York Journal, May 15, 1896; newspaper clipping, May 13, 1896, Family Portrait, research notes, box 10, Bowen Papers, LC.
 
73 Newspaper clipping, May 13, 1896, Family Portrait, research notes, box 10, Bowen Papers, LC.
 
74 Henri Rochefort, New York Herald, April 25, 1896, newspaper clipping, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
75 Henry McCarter to Cecilia Beaux, April 20, 1896, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
76 Philippe Gill, quoted in Walton, "Cecilia Beaux," p. 478.
 
77 Paul Bion to Augustus St. Gaudens, translated from French in Beaux, Background with Figures, p. 348.
 
78 Bell, "The Work of Cecilia Beaux," p. 216.
 
79 Paul Bion to Augustus St. Gaudens, translated from French in Beaux, Background with Figures, p. 348; also quoted in Walton, "Cecilia Beaux", p. 482.
 
80 King, "Cecilia Beaux," p. 209.
 
81 King, "The Paintings of Cecilia Beaux," p. 176.
 
82 Newspaper clipping, inscribed, "International Ex-London-'97-Eng. paper," Beaux scrapbook, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
83 Harrison S. Morris, "Philadelphia's Contribution to American Art," Century Magazine 49, no. 5 (March 1905): 725.
 
84 E. E. Pattee, "Thoughts on the Salons," The Quartier Latin 1, no. 1 (July 1896): 13. I thank Lois Fink for bringing this article to my attention.
 
85 Mrs. Schuyler Van Rensselaer, "The Great Portrait Exhibition," New York World, November 11, 1894, Beaux scrapbook, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
86 Paul Bion to Augustus St. Gaudens, translated from French in Beaux, Background with Figures, pp. 347, 348, 349.
 
87 The Art Critic, Beaux scrapbook, Beaux Papers, AAA; also Sadakichi Hartmann, A History of American Art, vol. 1 (Boston: L. C. Page and Company, 1901), p. 288.
 
88 Beaux to her family, June 18, 1896; Beaux to "Dear Peeps," June 22, [1896], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
89 Beaux to Etta Drinker, June 16, 1896, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
90 Beaux to her family, June 1, 1896; Beaux to Aunt Emily, June 7, [1896], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
91 Beaux to Aunt Emily, June 7, 1896; Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
92 Beaux to "My Havs," June 30, 1896, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
93 Richard Watson Gilder to Miss Smith, May 4, 1893, Letter book 6, p. 148, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers.
 
94 Beaux to Jim Drinker, July 9, [1896], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
95 Beaux to [her family], September 11, [1896], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
96 Beaux to [her family], September 14, [1896], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
97 Beaux to Rosina Emmet Sherwood, October 19, [1896], Emmet Family Papers, AAA.
 

Notes to Chapter Nine

1 Public Ledger [Philadelphia], February 22, 1897, Registrar's files, PAFA; Nancy Mowll Mathews, Mary Cassatt -- A Life (New York: Villard Books, 1994), pp. 24, 165 - 67, 304, 309.
 
2 The Paintings and Drawings of Cecilia Beaux, p. 82.
 
3 George Dudley Seymour to Cecilia Beaux, January 1, 1898, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
4 "Miss Beaux' Belles," The Criterion, [1897], newspaper clipping, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers; Edith Blair is illustrated in Sargent and Boldini (San Francisco: California Palace of the Legion of Honor, 1959).
 
5 Beaux to Helena de Kay Gilder, November 2, 1897, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers.
 
6 Bessy B. Fisher to Cecilia Beaux, June 2, 1898, Beaux Papers, AAA; Beaux to Mr. Beatty, November 12, 1898, Carnegie Institute Papers, AAA.
 
7 Burrows, "The Portraits of Cecilia Beaux," p. 77.
 
8 Alexander Francis Chamberlain in The Child: A Study in the Evolution of Man (1900) found women to be the proper caregivers for children because they were childlike themselves. Harrison S. Morris, in "American Portraiture of Children", noted that the old masters had depicted ideal motherhood through images of the madonna and child, but believed that the true Madonna type was never even known in America (Chamberlain, The Child, pp. 415, 418 - 23; Harrison S. Morris, "American Portraiture of Children," pp. 641, 643, 645, 650).
 
9 Bell, "The Works of Cecilia Beaux," p. 220.
 
10 "Art," The Detroit News, July 8, 1900, Beaux scrapbook, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
11 Bell, "The Work of Cecilia Beaux," p. 220; Homer St. Gaudens, "Cecilia Beaux," The Critic and Literary World 47, no. 1 (July 1905): 39.
 
12 Borglum, "Cecilia Beaux -- Painter of Heroes," p. 16.
 
13 Gertrude Henry Dodge to Henry Drinker, 1953, Registrar's files, PAFA.
 
14 Beaux to Richard and Helena Gilder, November 6, [1898], Gilder/Palmer Family Papers.
 
15 The use of birds in portraits of children is evident in early European portraiture and eighteenth-century and nineteenth-century portraiture. Some 586 portraits of children with birds are identified in Karin Lee Fishback Calvert, The Perception of Childhood in America: 1670 - 1870 (M.A. thesis, Winterthur Program in Early American Culture, 1979). See also J. E. Cirlot, A Dictionary of Symbols, 2nd ed. (New York: Philosophical Library, Inc., 1971), pp. 26 - 28.
 
16 John W. Beatty, Director, Carnegie Art Galleries to Cecilia Beaux, September 17, 1897, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
17 Annette Parker Burr, James McNeill Whistler: The Scottish Connection (Ph.D. diss., University of Virginia, 1993), pp. 182, 189.
 
18 Anne D. Blake to Cecilia Beaux, [December, 1897], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
19 Lila Cabot Perry to the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, November 14, 1897, Beaux Papers, PAFA; Beaux to My dearest Gs. H & R, [fall, 1897], Gilder/Palmer Family Papers.
 
20 Carroll Beckwith to Cecilia Beaux, December 25, 1897, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
21 "American Studio Talk," International Studio Supplement, p. 14.
 
22 Beaux to Dearest Lady, November 2, 1897, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers; Thomas B. Wanamaker to Cecilia Beaux, April 29, 1899, Beaux Papers, AAA; "Six Modern American Portrait Painters," The Mentor 12, no. 17 (October 1924): 34.
 
23 Beaux to "My Havs," June 30, 1896, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
24 Stokes was a particularly strong advocate of civil-service reform, free trade, and bimetallism (Burke, American Paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, vol. 2, p. 204).
 
25 I. N. Phelps Stokes to Cecilia Beaux, Sunday evening [1898 - 1899], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
26 Burke, American Paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art vol. 2, pp. 204 - 05.
 
27 The drawings of George Gilder playing his violin, W. A. Hickman, and Francesca with a kitten are listed in The Paintings and Drawings of Cecilia Beaux, pp. 63, 69. The Rodman Gilder drawing is lost, but the chalk drawings of Dorothea Gilder are in the Gilder/Palmer Family Papers.
 
28 Beaux to Helena de Kay Gilder, Sunday [ca. 1897], Gilder/Palmer Family Papers.
 
29 Beaux to George Dudley Seymour, October 4, 1897, George Dudley Seymour Papers.
 
30 Beaux to Harrison S. Morris, September 29, 1897, PAFA Papers, Archives, PAFA; Cecilia Beaux to Helena Gilder, November 2, [1897], Gilder/Palmer Family Papers; An Exhibition of Paintings by Miss Cecilia Beaux, December 22 to December 31, 1897, American Art Galleries, New York, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
31 Illustrated in Cecilia Beaux: Portrait of an Artist, p. 96.
 
32 Beaux to You at 4305, Saturday [Fall, 1898], Beaux Papers, AAA; Beaux, Background With Figures, pp. 217 - 18.
 
33 Beaux, Background with Figures, p. 218.
 
34 Louise L. Heustis to Cecilia Beaux, December 26, 1898, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
35 King, "The Paintings of Cecilia Beaux," p. 180.
 
36 Bell, "The Work of Cecilia Beaux," p. 222.
 
37 "What the aged Clergyman said concerning Cecilia," by Richard Watson Gilder, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
38 "Cecilia Beaux," by Richard Watson Gilder, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
39 Edward Wagenknecht, "Richard Watson Gilder: Poet and Editor of the Transition," Boston University Studies in English 1, nos. 1 - 2 (spring - summer 1955): 91; DAB, vol. 19, pp. 319 - 20.
 
40 The drawing of Hobson was done in New York, August 13, 1898, and illustrated in Century Magazine, 57, no. 5 (March 1899): 753; the drawing of Sampson was done in Glen Ridge, New Jersey, August 30, 1898, and illustrated in Century Magazine, 57, no. 3 (January 1899): 320; the drawing of Wainwright was done in Annapolis, Maryland, the week after Thanksgiving in 1898, and illustrated in Century Magazine, 58, no. 1 (May 1899): 76.
 
41 Richard Watson Gilder to Cecilia Beaux, November 16, 1898; Commander Richard Wainwright to Cecilia Beaux, October 25, 1898, Beaux Papers, AAA; Beaux to Richard Watson Gilder, Sunday [1898], Gilder/Palmer Family Papers.
 
42 Frances Canby Griscom was the younger sister of Helen Biddle Griscom, whom Beaux had portrayed several years earlier.
 
43 "Something about Cecilia Beaux," newspaper clipping, [1899], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
44 Lorado Taft, "Work of Cecilia Beaux," Chicago Record, December 21, 1899, Family Portrait, research notes, box 10, Bowen Papers, LC.
 
45 Clement A. Griscom to Cecilia Beaux, telegram, November 3, 1899, Beaux scrapbook, Beaux Papers, AAA; Beaux to John Beatty, November 17, 1899, Carnegie Institute Papers, AAA; Beaux to Richard and Helena Gilder, [1899], Gilder/Palmer Family Papers.
 
46 The Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Art's Gold Medal of Honor was given "in recognition of high achievement in their profession to American painters and sculptors who may be exhibitors at the Academy or represented in the permanent collection, or who for eminent service in the cause of art or to the Academy have merited distinction." Beaux expressed her thanks for the award in a letter to the Academy (Beaux to the Pennsylvania Academy, February 5, 1898, Beaux Papers, PAFA).
 
47 "Painting in Paris," Boston Evening Transcript, August 24, 1900, Beaux Papers, PAFA; Cecilia Beaux: Portrait of an Artist, p. 13.
 
48 "Palette and Brush -- Philadelphia Instructs New York," Town Topics, March 1, 1900, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
49 Virgilia (Sopieha) Peterson, Ruth Neely, and Mary Love Collins, Eminent Women: Recipients of the National Achievement Award (Chi Omega Fraternity, 1948), p. 19.
 
50 Nancy Hale, Mary Cassatt (New York: Doubleday & Co., 1975), pp. 236, 261; Nancy Mowll Mathews, ed., Cassatt and Her Circle -- Selected Letters (New York: Abbeville Press, 1984), p. 277; Mary Cassatt to Cecilia Beaux, October 19, n.y., Frederick Arnold Sweet Papers, AAA; John B. Caldwell, Director of Fine Arts, U.S. Commission to the Paris Exposition 1900 to Cecilia Beaux, August 29, 1899; Ferdinand W. Peck, Commissioner General, U.S. Commission to the Paris Exposition 1900 to Cecilia Beaux, September 19, 1899, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
51 Beaux to Rodman Gilder, [summer, 1900], Gilder/Palmer Family Papers.
 
52 Beaux to Dorothea Gilder, July 1, 1900, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
53 Leila Mechlin, "The Art of Cecilia Beaux," International Studio, 41, no. 161 (July 1910): 4.
 
54 Adele Le Bourgeois Chapin was born in Louisiana and raised at Belmont, the family plantation. She met her husband, Robert W. Chapin, through her brother when he was a student at Yale. Robert brought Adele to New England; and the couple had three children -- Louis, Jay, and Christina. In connection with Robert's work, the family, at various times, lived in Lenox and Tyringham, Massachusetts, New York City, South Africa, and London. Adele was an intellectual woman with a strong interest in political and social concerns. Much of her charity work was connected with nursing and hospital service. During the First World War she ran an American hospital in London for English soldiers wounded during the war. She wrote that the hospital served over two thousand patients (Adele Le Bourgeois Chapin, "Their Trackless Way," A Book of Memories (London: Constable & Co., Ltd., 1931), pp. 173 - 80; Beaux, Background with Figures, pp. 223 - 24).
 
55 Ibid., pp. 179 - 80, 195; Beaux, Background with Figures, pp. 223 - 24.
 
56 Beaux, Background with Figures, pp. 223 - 25.
 
57 Beaux to Dorothea Gilder, July 1, 1900, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
58 During the three weeks that Cecilia, Henry, and presumably Anne Blake were in Holland, they visited Rotterdam, Dordrech, Delft, Marken, The Hague, Scheingen, Haarlam, Amsterdam, Queen's residence, and Gouda. Cecilia made an oil sketch of the head of a young Dutch girl, signing it to Anne Blake and giving it to her as a memory of their trip. The painting was included in Beaux's 1903 solo exhibition at the Durand-Ruel Galleries under the title Little Lamerche. The painting, now owned by The Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, California, is listed under the title Young Brittany Woman (Drinker, Autobiography of Henry Sandwith Drinker, p. 118).
 
59 Drinker, History of the Drinker Family, p. 85; National Encyclopedia of American Biography, vol. 52, p. 375.
 
60 H. W. Janson, History of Art (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1968), p. 372, illustrated p. 373; Beaux, Background with Figures, p. 129.
 
61 Most of Beaux's sitters came from Philadelphia, Boston, and New York. The following books deal with the development of the upper class in these cities: E. Digby Baltzell, Philadelphia Gentlemen: The Making of a National Upper Class (Glencoe, Ill.: The Free Press, 1958) and Puritan Boston and Quaker Philadelphia; Frederic C. Jaher, The Urban Establishment: Upper Strata in Boston, New York, Charleston, Chicago, and Los Angeles (Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 1982).
 
62 Articles that identify the characteristics of Beaux's sitters include Bell, "The Work of Cecilia Beaux, pp. 215 - 22; St. Gaudens, "Cecilia Beaux," pp. 38 - 39; Anne O'Hagan, "Miss Cecilia Beaux," Harper's Bazar 45, no. 3 (March 1911): 119; Borglum, "Cecilia Beaux -- Painter of Heroes," p. 16; Gray, "The Extraordinary Career of Cecilia Beaux," pp. 61 - 63, 195 - 98; Booth, "America's Twelve Greatest Women," pp. 34 - 35, 165 - 67; King, "The Paintings of Cecilia Beaux," p. 177; Walton, "Cecilia Beaux," p. 478; Katherine De Forest, "Our Paris Letter," Harper's Bazar [1896], Beaux scrapbook, Beaux Papers, AAA; Burrows, "The Portraits of Cecilia Beaux," p. 77; Leila Mechlin, "Rank with the Best," The Evening Star [Washington, D.C.], February 24, 1912, Beaux Papers, CGA.
 
63 King, "The Paintings of Cecilia Beaux," p. 176 - 77.
 
64 Beaux, Background with Figures, p. 219.
 
65 Sittings for the portrait of Edward Seecomb Wallace are documented in the diary of his mother. Grace Seecomb Wallace Diary, October 11 - 14, 19 - 20, 24 - 26, November 8, 1899, Allison Gallery, New York; Franklin Riehlman to the author, February 7, 1990.
 
66 I. N. Phelps Stokes to Cecilia Beaux, Sunday evening, [1898 - 1899], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
67 Beaux to "My Havs," June 30, 1896, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
68 Burke, American Paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art vol. 3, pp. 247 - 48; Fairbrother, John Singer Sargent and America, pp. 368 - 70.
 
69 Beaux to Dorothea Gilder, February 11, 1900, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
70 Beaux to Helena de Kay Gilder, January 2, [1900], Gilder/Palmer Family Papers.
 
71 Beaux to Dorothea Gilder, February 4, [1901], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
72 Letters of Mrs. Nicholas Longworth Anderson to Her Son Larz Anderson (Washington, D.C.: The Society of the Cincinnati, n.d.), p. 325.
 
73 "Art and the Artists -- Portraits by Miss Cecilia Beaux at the Durand-Ruel Galleries," newspaper clipping, [1903], Beaux Papers, AAA; Quick, American Portraiture in the Grand Manner, pp. 71 - 72.
 
74 "Miss Beaux's Portraits," newspaper clipping, March 4, 1903, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
75 St. Gaudens, "Cecilia Beaux," p. 39.
 
76 Beaux to Dorothea Gilder, March 29, 1901, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
77 Carolyn Carr, "Double Take: Master Otis Barton and His Grandfather by William Merritt Chase," The Currier Gallery of Art Bulletin (1984): 2, 9; Beaux, Background with Figures, pp. 222 - 23; The Paintings and Drawings of Cecilia Beaux, p. 17. The Bernhardt portrait is illustrated in McConkey, Edwardian Portraits, pp. 72 - 73.
 
78 Beaux, Background with Figures, p. 222; Beaux to Helena de Kay Gilder, July 3, 1901, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers; Beaux to Harrison S. Morris, January 11, 1903, Harrison S. Morris Papers, Princeton University Library, Princeton, New Jersey; The Paintings and Drawings of Cecilia Beaux, p. 17. Beaux also included the painting in her 1903 exhibit at the Durand Ruel Galleries in New York City, her 1915 exhibit at M. Knoedler & Co. in New York, the 1919 Exposition d'Artistes de l'Ecole Americaine at the Luxembourg in Paris, and her 1935 retrospective at the American Academy of Arts and Letters in New York City.
 
79 Sylvia Jukes Morris, Edith Kermit Roosevelt -- Portrait of a First Lady (New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, Inc., 1981), pp. 210, 540, n. 13; Beaux, Background with Figures, p. 227.
 
80 "Cecilia Beaux Painting Mrs. Roosevelt's Portrait," Philadelphia Times, Sunday, February 2, 1902, Jesse Wilcox Smith Papers, AAA.
 
81 Beaux to Richard Watson Gilder, February 4, 1902, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers; Beaux to Dorothea Gilder, March 27, 1902, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
82 Henry Copley Greene is mentioned in Beaux's correspondence with Richard and Helena Gilder while she was painting the Roosevelt portrait between February and April, 1902, and she probably made her two sketches of him during that time period. Gilder/Palmer Family Papers; The Paintings and Drawings of Cecilia Beaux, p. 66.
 
83 Beaux, Background with Figures, p. 228; Beaux to Dorothea Gilder, March 27, [1902], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
84 Beaux to Richard Watson Gilder, February 4, 1902, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers.
 
85 Beaux, Background with Figures, pp. 291 - 94; Notable American Women vol. 3, pp. 255 - 58.
 
86 Beaux to Helena de Kay Gilder, Sunday, 1902, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers; Beaux to Dorothea Gilder, March 27, 1902, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
87 Beaux to Richard Watson Gilder, April 2, 1902, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers; Beaux, Background with Figures, p. 227.
 
88 Beaux, Background with Figures, pp. 228 - 29.
 
89 Beaux to Richard Watson Gilder, April 7, 1902, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers.
 
90 Beaux to Richard Watson Gilder, April 2, 1902, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers.
 
91 Beaux to Dorothea Gilder, April 3, 1902, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
92 Beaux to Helena de Kay Gilder, April 4, 1902, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers.
 
93 Beaux, Background with Figures, pp. 231 - 32.
 
94 Beaux to George Dudley Seymour, April 2, 1904, George Dudley Seymour Papers.
 
95 Isabel Anderson's mother-in-law, Mrs. Nicholas Anderson, met Cecilia in 1902 when she was painting the Roosevelt portrait. (Letters of Mrs. Nicholas Longworth Anderson to Her Son Larz Anderson, p. 356); Theodore Roosevelt to Cecilia Beaux, May 10, 1904, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
96 The Roosevelt portrait was also sent to a exhibition in Rome in 1910. Beaux to Harrison S. Morris, September 26, [1902] and December 14, 1910, Harrison S. Morris Papers, box 249, folder 3, Princeton University Library, Princeton, New Jersey; Exhibition of Paintings by Cecilia Beaux, March 3 - 14, 1903, Durand-Ruel Galleries, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
97 "Art and Artists -- Portraits by Miss Cecilia Beaux at the Durand Ruel Galleries," newspaper clipping, [1903]; "Miss Beaux's Portraits," newspaper clipping, March 4, 1903, Beaux Papers, AAA; St. Gaudens, "Cecilia Beaux," p. 39.
 
98 Beaux, Background with Figures, p. 223; The Paintings and Drawings of Cecilia Beaux, p. 93; "Cecilia Beaux Honored," New Milford, Connecticut (April 20, 1933), newspaper clipping in the Gunn Memorial Library, Washington, Connecticut (their copy of Beaux, Background with Figures).
 
99 Whistler's The Fur Jacket: Arrangement in Black and Brown (1876) is illustrated in The Quest for Unity, p. 145.
 
100 "Miss Beaux's Pictures at the Art Club," newspaper clipping, [circa 1907], Beaux Papers, AAA; Walter Shaw Sparrow, ed., Women Painters of the World, vol. 3, The Art & Life Library (New York: Frederick A. Stokes, Co., 1905), p. 77.
 
101 Beaux, Background with Figures, p. 220.
 
102 Since Beaux did not have her New York studio until 1899, and this portrait was painted there when Henry Drinker was forty-eight years old (born November 8, 1850), I have expanded the date for this portrait.
 
103 The life and career of Henry Sturgis Drinker is discussed in Bowen, Family Portrait; Drinker, Autobiography of Henry Sturgis Drinker; Drinker, History of the Drinker Family; and Drinker, Autobiography of Henry Sandwith Drinker.
 
104 Beaux held a solo exhibition at the Women's Cosmopolitan Club in New York, January 12 - February 9, 1914. C. Owen Lublin, "Through the Galleries," Town & Country (February 7, 1914): 20, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
105 Craftsman, magazine article, April 1910, Beaux Papers, Archives, CGA.
 
106 Leila Mechlin, "Rank with the Best," The Evening Star [Washington, D.C.], February 24, 1912, Beaux Papers, Archives, CGA.
 
107 Beaux to Helena de Kay Gilder, November 2, [1902], Gilder/Palmer Family Papers.
 
108 Beaux to her family, March 8, 1903, Beaux Papers, AAA; Beaux to George Dudley Seymour, March [9], 1903, George Dudley Seymour Papers.
 
109 John W. Beatty, Director of Fine Arts, Carnegie Institute, to Richard Watson Gilder, December 19, 1903, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers.
 
110 Beaux to Richard Watson Gilder, January, 1904, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers.
 
111 Harrison Morris, Managing Director, PAFA, to Cecilia Beaux, March 29, 1904, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
112 Harry W. Watrous, Corresponding Secretary, National Academy of Design, to Cecilia Beaux, May 4 and 14, 1902, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
113 Halsey C. Ives, chief, Department of Art, World's Fair, St. Louis, 1904, to Cecilia Beaux, August 12, 1904, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
114 Beaux to her family, March 8, 1903, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
115 Beaux to George Dudley Seymour, March [9], 1903, George Dudley Seymour Papers.
 
116 "Art and Artists -- Portraits by Miss Cecilia Beaux at the Durand-Ruel Galleries," newspaper clipping, [1903], Cecilia Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
117 Beaux had met Dean Irwin nearly ten years earlier when she served on the committee that organized the reception for Beaux and Anna Lea Merritt at the Philadelphia Art Club.
 
118 Beaux, Background with Figures, p. 232.
 
119 Beaux to George Dudley Seymour, October 27, 1899, George Dudley Seymour Papers.
 
120 Beaux to Richard Watson Gilder, November 10, 1902, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers; Beaux to Dorothea Gilder, October 21, and November 15, 1902, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
121 Beaux to Helena de Kay Gilder, May 27, 1903, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers.
 
122 Beaux to Helena de Kay Gilder, June 14, 1903, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers; Beaux to Dorothea Gilder, June 27, 1903, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
123 Beaux to George Dudley Seymour, December 18, 1903 and April 13, 1904, George Dudley Seymour Papers; The Paintings and Drawings of Cecilia Beaux, pp. 98 - 99.
 
124 Mechlin, "The Art of Cecilia Beaux," p. 4.
 
125 Beaux to Helena Gilder, April 14, 1903, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers; Beaux to Dorothea Gilder, May 15, 1903, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
126 The Paintings and Drawings of Cecilia Beaux, p. 14.
 
127 Leila Mechlin, "Corcoran Portraits," The Sunday Star [Washington, D.C.], November 24, 1935, clipping file, Beaux Papers, Archives, CGA.
 
128 For illustrations of Emmet's and Wiles's portraits, see The Emmets: A Family of Women Painters (Pittsfield, Massachusetts: Berkshire Museum, 1982), plate 6, p. 48; Worcester Art Museum-Fifteenth Annual Exhibition of Oil Paintings, June 7 - September 15, 1912, illustration 56, Philip E. Hale Papers, AAA.
 
129 Beaux to Richard Watson Gilder, 1903, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers.
 
130 Beaux to Dorothea Gilder, June 5, 1903, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
131 Beaux to Dorothea Gilder, October 23, 1902, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
132 Beaux to Helena de Kay Gilder, April 14, 1903; Beaux to the Gilders, May 1, 1903, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers.
 
133 Beaux to George Dudley Seymour, April 21, 1903, George Dudley Seymour Papers.
 
134 Beaux to Dorothea Gilder, October 31, 1903, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
135 Beaux Diary, May 8 - 9, 1905; Handwritten note by Beaux on letter, Alice King to Cecilia Beaux, July 17, [1905], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
136 Ellen Emmet's portrait Boy with Bow is owned by the William Benton Museum of Art, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut, and is illustrated in The Emmets: A Family of Women Painters, p. 34, fig. 23.
 
137 Alice King to Cecilia Beaux, July 17, [1905], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
138 Henry P. King to Cecilia Beaux, July 6, [1905], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
139 Beaux to Dorothea Gilder, June 20, 1905, Beaux Papers, AAA.

 

Notes to Chapter Ten

1 Beaux, "Barnard College Anniversary Dinner," Thursday, April 29, [1915], Lectures, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
2 Bowen, Family Portrait, p. 207.
 
3 Ibid., p. 21.
 
4 From 1880 to 1887 the Drinkers lived at 4052 Irving Street, from 1887 to 1889 they lived at 4101 Spruce Street, from 1889 to 1893 they lived at 229 South 42nd Street, and from 1893 to 1905 at 1 College Lane, in Haverford (Drinker, History of the Drinker Family, pp. 71, 76).
 
5 Drinker, History of the Drinker Family, pp. 80 - 81.
 
6 Drinker, Autobiography of Henry Sturgis Drinker, p. 88; Bowen, Family Portrait, p. 145.
 
7 Drinker, Autobiography of Henry Sturgis Drinker, p. 88; Drinker, History of the Drinker Family, p. 82.
 
8 Bowen, Family Portrait, p. 207.
 
9 "Cecilia Beaux, Artist, Her Home, Work and Ideals," Sunday Herald [Boston], September [23], 1910, Magazine Section, p. 7, Jesse Wilcox Smith Papers, AAA.
 
10 Fairview Inn Guest Book, July 2, 1887, Cape Ann Historical Association.
 
11 Ibid.; Parrish and Este were there in the summers of 1880 to 1883, and 1885 to 1887.
 
12 Ernesta Barlow, "Gloucester Summers," typescript, Cecilia D. Saltonstall.
 
13 Fairview Inn Guest Book, entries between 1896 and 1900, Cape Ann Historical Association.
 
14 Morris B. Robinson, "Some Artists Who Called Squam, Lanesville and the Folly 'Home'," (Gloucester, 1973), typescript in the Cape Ann Historical Association.
 
15 Beaux, Background with Figures, p. 338.
 
16 Beaux to George Dudley Seymour, June 14, [1903], George Dudley Seymour Papers.
 
17 Beaux to Helena de Kay Gilder, June 14, 1903, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers; Beaux to George Dudley Seymour, July 9, 1903, George Dudley Seymour Papers.
 
18 Beaux to George Dudley Seymour, August 18, 1903, George Dudley Seymour Papers; Beaux to Dorothea Gilder, August 12, 1903, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
19 Beaux to "Dear Head of the House," August 19, [1904]; Beaux to Helena de Kay Gilder, September 6, [1904], Gilder/Palmer Family Papers.
 
20 DAB, Supp. 2, Vol. 11, Part 2, p. 15; "The Caretaker's Letters," Yankee 35, no. 7 (July 1971): 82. See also Joseph E. Garland, Eastern Point (Peterborough, N.H.: Noone House, 1971); Joseph E. Garland, Boston's North Shore (Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1978).
 
21 "The Caretaker's Letters," p. 76; Ernesta Barlow, "Gloucester's Way," Vogue, magazine article, Cecilia D. Saltonstall. See also William B. and Elizabeth C. Blanford, Beauport Impressions (Boston: Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities, 1965); "The New Old House," The House Beautiful 25, no. 3 (August 1916): 129 - 33, 164; Andrew Gray and E. Parker Hayden, compilers, Beauport Guest Book 1907 - 1921, unpublished manuscript, Cape Ann Historical Association. Thanks to Philip Hayden for providing me with many of these sources.
 
22 Gray and Hayden, compilers, Beauport Guest Book, 1907 - 1921; D. R. M., Joanna Randall-MacIver: A Memoir (Oxford: Printed at the University, 1932), p. 16; "Caroline Sinkler Dies Here at 89," newspaper clipping, [1949], Thornton Oakley Papers; Mrs. George H. Denny to the author, October 30, 1984; Beaux, Background with Figures, pp. 253, 255, 257.
 
23 Drinker, History of the Drinker Family, p. 160.
 
24 Beaux, Background with Figures, p. 339.
 
25 Drinker, History of the Drinker Family, p. 160; Dallas L. McGrew to Catherine Drinker Bowen, August 31, 1970, box 9, fan mail 1970, Bowen Papers, LC; Cecilia Beaux to Dorothea Gilder, March 31, 1905, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
26 Hildegarde Hawthorne, "A Garden of the Heart," Century Magazine, 80, no. 4 (August 1910): 581 - 87; Beaux, Background with Figures, pp. 340 - 41.
 
27 Ibid.
 
28 "Cecilia Beaux, Artist, Her Home, Work and Ideals," Sunday Herald [Boston], September [23], 1910, Magazine Section, p. 7, Jesse Wilcox Smith Papers, AAA.
 
29 Hawthorne, "A Garden of the Heart," p. 585.
 
30 Beaux asked Rodman Gilder to go see off Natale on his return home by ship from New York. "His going is one of the sharp corners of my life -- a veritable crisis -- and I really don't know where to turn" (Beaux to Rodman Gilder, October 8, 1928, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers).
 
31 Ernesta Barlow, "Gloucester Summers," typescript, Cecilia D. Saltonstall; Bowen, Family Portrait, pp. 207 - 208.
 
32 Interview with Ernesta Barlow by Frank Goodyear at Green Alley, Gloucester, Massachusetts, August 16, 1973, Beaux Papers, Archives, PAFA.
 
33 Ibid.
 
34 "The Caretaker's Letters," pp. 77, 85; Louise Hall Tharp, Mrs. Jack (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1965), pp. 278 - 79; Beaux to Dorothea Gilder, July 24, 1908, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
35 Fairview Inn Guest Book, September 6, 1898, Cape Ann Historical Association.
 
36 Thornton Oakley, January 22 - March 20, 1983 (Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania: Brandywine River Museum, 1983), pp. 10 - 11.
 
37 Thornton Oakley, Cecilia Beaux (Philadelphia: Howard Biddle Printing Company, 1943), pp. 1 - 4.
 
38 Beaux Diary, June 22 - 28, 1908, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
39 Thronton Oakley commented on Beaux's unusual punctuation, noting that "dots played among her written words." Beaux had once informed him, "There is nothing like dots to suggest what in writing would be far less clear" (Beaux to Thornton Oakley, February 3, 1909, Thornton Oakley Papers; Oakley, Cecilia Beaux, p. 17).
 
40 Beaux diary, February 3, 1909, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
41 Ibid., May 20, 1911.
 
42 Beaux, "A Girl to her Lover," n.d., Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
43 Lansdale (Oakley) Humphreys to the author, September 10, 1984; Oakley, Cecilia Beaux, p. 27. These trips are chronicled in the Oakley-Beaux correspondence in the Thornton Oakley Papers.
 
44 Thornton Oakley to "Dear Lady," Saturday, n.d., Thornton Oakley Papers.
 
45 Lansdale (Oakley) Humphreys to the author, September 10, 1984.
 
46 Beaux diary, January 5 and 11, 1909, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
47 "Great Interest in Coming Visit of Cecilia Beaux," The Columbus Sunday Dispatch, January 3, 1909, Beaux Papers, Archives, PAFA.
 
48 Beaux diary, January 5 and 11, 1909; George Bellows to Cecilia Beaux, January 9, 1909, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
49 Beaux diary, April 23, 1909, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
50 Beaux diary, August 1 and 2, and December 12, 1911, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
51 Bowen, Family Portrait, p. 208.
 
52 Beaux diary, March 25, 1911, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
53 Ibid., April 15, 1911.
 
54 Ibid., May 25, 1911.
 
55 Ibid., November 28, 29, December 12, 15, and 21, 1911.
 
56 Ibid., December 27, 1911; January 1, 1912.
 
57 Ibid., January 28, 1912.
 
58 Ibid., March 9, 1912.
 
59 Ibid., April 5, 1912.
 
60 Ibid., May 3 and 15, 1912.
 
61 Ibid., June 1, 1912.
 
62 Ibid., June 2, and 3, 1912.
 
63 Ibid., July 30, November 23, and December 27, 1912.
 
64 Beaux's apartment and studio at 132 East 19th Street had an eighteen foot ceiling, good north light, a wood-burning fireplace, two bedrooms, a kitchenette, and bath (American Academy of Arts and Letters, Archives, New York).
 
65 Henry Davis Sleeper's eclectic home, Beauport, attracted a steady stream of wealthy curiosity seekers, and his guest book list includes no less than thirty of Beaux's sitters. Among his many visitors were New York capitalist and real-estate developer Joseph B. Thomas and his wife Clara; George Arliss, the actor; Indiana Senator Albert J. Beveridge and his wife Catherine; Gloucester neighbor and young actor Leslie Buswell; and the family of New York banker Henry P. Davison. All of these people, at some point, sat to Beaux for their portraits (Gray and Hayden, compilers, Beauport Guest Book 1907 - 1921).

 

Notes to Chapter Eleven

1 "Portrait of Sarah E. Doyle," Bulletin of Rhode Island School of Design Museum Notes 64, no. 1 (April 1977): 127 - 29.
 
2 Ibid.; p. 127; note 9, p. 128.
 
3 Beaux to Dorothea Gilder, August 15, 1902, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
4 "Art and the Artists -- Portraits by Miss Cecilia Beaux at the Durand-Ruel Galleries," newspaper clipping, [1903]; "Miss Beaux's Portraits," newspaper clipping, (March 4, 1903), Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
5 Beaux to Dorothea Gilder, January 5, 1906, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
6 Beaux diary, March 1 - April 3, 1906, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
7 Beaux to A. Piatt Andrew, April 6, 1906, A. Piatt Andrew Papers, Andrew Gray, Washington, D.C. (hereafter cited as A. Piatt Andrew Papers).
 
8 Beaux diary, April 10 - May 4, 1906, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
9 Charles W. Stewart to Cecilia Beaux, June 14, 1906, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
10 Beaux to George Dudley Seymour, [May 1906], George Dudley Seymour Papers.
 
11 The Naval Academy's heightened interest in the Scottish-born Revolutionary War hero was due to the recent discovery of his French unmarked gravesite and the exhumation and transfer of his body to the grounds of the Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland. Beaux's portrait was just one of many commemorations extended at this time to the famous naval officer (Charles W. Stewart to Cecilia Beaux, June 14, 1906, Beaux Papers, AAA; Mame Warren, Everybody Works but John Paul Jones: A Portrait of the U.S. Naval Academy [Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1981]).
 
12 Charles W. Stewart to Cecilia Beaux, June 25, 1906, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
13 Ethel Johns and Blanche Pfefferkorn, The Johns Hopkins Hospital School of Nursing: 1889 - 1949 (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1954), p. 153.
 
14 Ibid., p. 156.
 
15 Beaux diary, June 20, 1906, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
16 Johns and Pfefferkorn, The Johns Hopkins Hospital School of Nursing, p. 157.
 
17 Ibid., p. 158.
 
18 Ibid., pp. 158 - 59.
 
19 Ibid., pp. 159, 161; Beaux diary, June 20 - July 27, 1906, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
20 Beaux also included the Nutting portrait in her December 1907 solo exhibition at the Boston Art Club. "Exhibition of Paintings by Cecilia Beaux," Boston Art Club, December 4 - 14, 1907; Beaux diary, September 19 and November 26, 1906, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
21 Johns and Pfefferkorn, The Johns Hopkins Hospital School of Nursing, p. 162.
 
22 Ibid., pp. 161, 162; First Annual Exhibition: Oil Paintings by Contemporary American Artists, February 7 - March 9, 1907 (Washington, D.C.: CGA, 1907).
 
23 Henry stayed with his aunt for six weeks, recovering from "trying to work ten hours at the office, beginning a book on Interstate Commerce, and [going] dancing until 3 A.M." Henry's doctor told him that "these blow-ups were frequent in ambitious young men just starting their careers and fearful of failure, and in men near the end of their careers when they first [feel] their powers and prestige waning" (Beaux to George Dudley Seymour, [August 1906], George Dudley Seymour Papers; Drinker, Autobiography of Henry Sandwith Drinker, pp. 111 - 12).
 
24 Beaux diary, August 30, 1906, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
25 Johns and Pfefferkorn, The Johns Hopkins Hospital School of Nursing, pp. 159, 161.
 
26 Beaux diary, October 4 and 5, 1906, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
27 Ibid., October 10, 1906.
 
28 Ibid., March 2, and 3, 1907.
 
29 Beaux to John Beatty, February 27, 1907; John Beatty to Cecilia Beaux, February 6, 1907, Carnegie Institute Papers, AAA.
 
30 Beaux diary, March 6-10, 1907, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
31 Ibid., April 24, 1907.
 
32 Beaux, "The Public and Modern Art," Simmons College, April 30, 1907, manuscript, pp. 1, 2, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
33 Ibid., pp. 5, 6.
 
34 Ibid., pp. 12, 14, 15 - 16, 17.
 
35 Ibid., pp. 18 - 20, 24 - 25.
 
36 Beaux worked on the Bulkley portrait in April, May, and November (Beaux diary, April 20 - May 9 and November 12 - 29, 1907, Beaux Papers, AAA); Beaux to Thornton Oakley, May 2, 1907, Thornton Oakley Papers; Beaux to George Dudley Seymour, May 7, 1907, George Dudley Seymour Papers.
 
37 Beaux to William Biddle, Thursday evening [1907], Beaux Papers, AAA; The Paintings and Drawings of Cecilia Beaux, p. 27; "Miss Beaux's Pictures at the Art Club," newspaper clipping, [circa 1907], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
38 Cecilia Beaux, "Portraiture," Simmons College, May 14, 1907, manuscript, pp. 1, 4, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
39 Ibid., pp. 5 - 6, 7.
 
40 Ibid., pp. 8, 11, 12, 13.
 
41 Ibid., pp. 16, 18, 19.
 
42 Ibid., p. 22.
 
43 Beaux diary, July 4 - 6, 8, 1907, Beaux Papers, AAA; Catalogue of the Collection (Columbus, Ohio: Columbus Museum of Art, 1978), p. 44; Dorinda Evans, "Cecilia Beaux, Portraitist," American Art Review, 2, no. 1 (January - February 1975): 98 - 99.
 
44 Beaux diary, July 21, August 20, September 1, 20, 24, and November 1, 5, 1907, Beaux Papers, AAA; Beaux to Richard Watson Gilder, November 5, 1907, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers.
 
45 Beaux diary, January 3 - 10, 1909, Beaux Papers, AAA; "Great Interest in Coming Visit of Cecilia Beaux," The Columbus Dispatch, January 3, 1909; "First Talk Given by Cecilia Beaux," The Ohio State Journal, January 5, 1909, Beaux Papers, Archives, PAFA.
 
46 Charles C. Harrison, University of Pennsylvania to Cecilia Beaux, January 8, 1908, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
47 Charles C. Harrison, University of Pennsylvania to Cecilia Beaux, February 15, 1908; "U. of P. Student Body Cheers Woman Artist and Other Recipients," Public Ledger [Philadelphia], February 23, 1908; "'Praise of Portraiture': Richard Watson Gilder Reads Poem on Miss Beaux's Honor," newspaper clipping, [February 1908], Bowen Papers, LC; "Cecilia Beaux, L.L.D.," pp. 9 - 11, Beaux Papers, AAA; Cecilia Beaux to Richard Watson Gilder, March 1, 1908, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers.
 
48 "Honors of Women Painters," New York Sun, Sunday, [circa 1908], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
49 John F. Ohles, ed., Biographical Dictionary of American Educators vol. 2 (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1978), pp. 622 - 23; "Caroline Hazard, Educator, Is Dead," New York Times, March 19, 1945.
 
50 Caroline Hazard wrote Catharine (Drinker) Janvier's obituary. See Hazard, "Mrs. Janvier's Varied Life," sec. 8, p. 20; Beaux diary, March 31, April 1 - 13, November 9 - December 22, 1908, Beaux Papers, AAA; Beaux to Richard Watson Gilder, 1908, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers; The Paintings and Drawings of Cecilia Beaux, p. 68.
 
51 Biddle and Lowrie, eds., Notable Women of Pennsylvania, p. 204.
 
52 Ibid., pp. 301 - 02; Carol W. Campbell, Curator, Bryn Mawr College to Vandy Cook, NPG, August 19, 1993.
 
53 Beaux diary, 1918, Beaux Papers, AAA; "Miss Reilly's Portrait in Academy Exhibit," The College News, Bryn Mawr College, (February 12, 1919): 1, in Marion Reilly file, Archives, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania.
 
54 "Cecilia Beaux, Artist, Her Home, Work and Ideals," Sunday Herald [Boston], September [23], 1910, magazine section, p. 7, Jesse Wilcox Smith Papers, AAA.
 
55 Beaux, "Why the Girl Art Student Fails," p. 221.
 
56 Ibid., pp. 221, 249.
 
57 Beaux diary, August 30, 1909; Beaux to William Biddle, November 4, 1909; Beaux, "Portraiture," Simmons College, May 14, 1907, manuscript, p. 1, Beaux Papers, AAA; The Paintings and Drawings of Cecilia Beaux, p. 30; the Cassatt painting is illustrated in Morris, "American Portraiture of Children," p. 648.
 
58 "Great Interest in Coming Visit of Cecilia Beaux," The Columbus Dispatch, January 3, 1909, Beaux Papers, Archives, PAFA.
 
59 O'Hagan, "Miss Cecilia Beaux," p. 119.
 
60 Beaux diary, June 25, 1910, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
61 Beaux to Helena de Kay Gilder, July 24, 1910, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers.
 
62 Ibid.; Beaux to William Biddle, July 21, 1910, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
63 Beaux diary, July 24 - August 9, 1910, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
64 Leila Mechlin, "Rank with the Best," The Evening Star [Washington, D.C.], February 24, 1912, Beaux Papers, Archives, CGA.
 
65 Beaux to Dorothea Gilder, May 3, 1911, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
66 Beaux to George Dudley Seymour, October 4, 1910, George Dudley Seymour Papers.
 
67 The Paintings and Drawings of Cecilia Beaux, pp. 64, 78; Beaux to Dorothea Gilder, May 3, 1911, Beaux diary, 1911; Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
68 During James's brief visit to America in 1911, Helena Gilder invited both him and Beaux to dinner on March 18. Beaux was a friend of Henry's nephew William, and Helena's sister and Venice resident, Katherine de Kay Bronson, was a close friend of Henry's. At the dinner Helena announced that "she had engaged [Henry] to sit for [Cecilia] for a drawing for her" (R. W. B. Lewis to Alan Fern, December 8, 1987, curatorial files, NPG; Beaux diary, March 18, 1911, Beaux Papers, AAA).
 
69 Beaux diary, April 12 - 13, May 8, and June 12, 1911, Beaux Papers, AAA; Marvin Sadik and Harold Francis Pfister, American Portrait Drawings (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press for the National Portrait Gallery, 1980), p. 116. The editors at Century Magazine wanted to publish the James sketch, but Beaux did not consider it "up to the level" (Beaux, Background with Figures, p. 233).
 
70 Drinker, Autobiography of Henry Sandwith Drinker, p. 112.
 
71 Beaux to Helena de Kay Gilder, July 29, 1911, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers.
 
72 Bowen, Family Portrait, p. 62.
 
73 Drinker, Autobiography of Henry Sandwith Drinker, p. 108.
 
74 Beaux to Dorothea Gilder, May 20, 1911, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
75 Beaux Diary, June 1 and 8, 1911, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
76 Beaux to John Beatty, March 1, 1912, Carnegie Institute Papers, AAA.
 
77 Bowen, Family Portrait, p. 62.
 
78 Beaux again served on the juries for exhibitions at the Carnegie Institute in 1911 and 1914 and at the National Academy of Design in 1915. Between 1910 and 1920, Beaux had solo exhibitions at the Macbeth Galleries in New York (March 3 - 16, 1910), the Corcoran Gallery in Washington, D.C. (February 24 - March 17, 1912), the Woman's Cosmopolitan Club in New York (January 12 - February 9, 1914), and M. Knoedler's Gallery in New York (1915 and 1917). Her work continued to win prizes at the annual shows. The National Academy of Design awarded her the Saltus medal in 1914 for her portrait of Mrs. Harry G. Day and the Thomas R. Proctor Portrait Prize in 1915 for Mrs. Samuel Hamilton Brooks. A medal of honor was bestowed upon her at the Panama-Pacific Exposition in San Francisco in 1915, even though a number of artists believed she should have won the Grand Prix. It was reported that the jury had "discriminated against [her]...on the score of her being a woman." In 1917, the National Association of Women Painters and Sculptors awarded her the National Arts Club Prize and $100 for the best work of art in their exhibition. Beaux was also elected to the newly formed National Association of Portrait Painters in 1912, an exclusive membership limited to thirty artists of whom only five were women. Beaux gave lectures on professional art schools for the American Federation of Arts in Washington, D.C., in 1915, on "What Should the College A.B. Course Offer to the Future Artist?" for the College Art Association in 1916, and on Thomas Eakins for his memorial exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum in 1917 (Ronald G. Pisano, One Hundred Years: A Centennial Celebration of the National Association of Women Painters, October 16 - December 31, 1988 [Roslyn Harbor, N.Y.: Nassau County Museum of Fine Art, 1988], pp. 10 - 11; "Exposition Art Jury Accused of Injustice," Philadelphia Inquirer, newspaper clipping, July 1915, Beaux Papers, AAA; Portraits of Americans by Americans Exhibition -- National Association of Portrait Painters, April 1 - May 5, 1945 [New York: New York Historical Society, (1945)]; Beaux, "Professional Art Schools," Art and Progress, 7, no. 1 [November 1915]: 3 - 8; Beaux, "What Should the College A.B. Course Offer to the Future Artist?" The American Magazine of Art 7, no. 12 [October 1916]: 479 - 84; "The Eakins Exhibition," essays, Beaux Papers, AAA).
 
79 "Commencement," Yale Alumni Weekly, 21, no. 40 (July 5, 1912): 1,000.
 
80 "Landscape a Departure for Cecilia Beaux," Brooklyn Eagle, April 14, 1918, Family Portrait, printed matter, box 9, Bowen Papers, LC.
 
81 "The Home Forum," The Christian Science Monitor, March 6, 1922.
 
82 DAB, supp. 3; D. R. Hooker, Department of Physiology, Johns Hopkins University, to Cecilia Beaux, December 18, 1909 and March 4, 1910; Dr. Howell's last summer sitting was July 19, but he came again for a weekend in October (Beaux diary, July 19, October 22 - 23, 1910, Beaux Papers, AAA).
 
83 Burrow, "The Portraits of Cecilia Beaux," p. 77; Gray, "The Extraordinary Career of Cecilia Beaux," pp. 195 - 96.
 
84 "Who was Stephen Merrell Clement?" Bulletin of the Yale University Divinity School (Fall 1991); Gray, "The Extraordinary Career of Cecilia Beaux," p. 63; "Obituary Notice," New York Times, May 3, 1905; Beaux diary, March 11, 1912 and February 8, 1913, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
85 Gray, "The Extraordinary Career of Cecilia Beaux," p. 195.
 
86 Beaux diary, September 19, 20 - 29, 1912, Beaux Papers, AAA; Winfield Scott Downs, ed., Who's Who in New York (City and State), 1904 (New York: Who's Who Publications, Inc., 1904); Charles E. Fairman, Art and Artists of the Capitol (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1927), p. 474.
 
87 Bunn held several positions with the city of Springfield and the state of Illinois and was also the owner of the Illinois Watch Company, President of the Marine Bank in Springfield, Illinois (1903 - 1920), and President of the John W. Bunn & Co. (telephone interview by Claire Kelly, NPG, with Willard Bunn, Marine Bank of Springfield, December 17, 1993; New York Times, June 8, 1920).
 
88 Beaux diary, February 17 - 18, 1913, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
89 Ibid., February 19, 1913.
 
90 The Paintings and Drawings of Cecilia Beaux, p. 28.
 
91 Beaux diary, February 26, 1913, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
92 J. O. Humphery, U.S. Court, Judges Chambers, Springfield, Illinois, to Cecilia Beaux, October 6, 1913, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
93 Beaux diary, April - September, 1913, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
94 Beaux to Helena de Kay Gilder, July 9 and September 4, 1913, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers; Gerda Boethius, Anders Zorn: An International Swedish Artist, His Life and Work (Stockholm: Nordisk Rotogravyr, 1954), p. 71; Beaux diary, April 29, May 2, 5, 6, 1913, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
95 George Arliss to Cecilia Beaux, October 14, 1913; Beaux diary, October 26, 1913, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
96 Lillian B. Miller and Nancy A. Johnson, Portraits from the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters (Washington, D.C.: NPG, 1987), p. 39; Beaux to Helena Gilder, November 10, 1913, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers; Beaux diary, October 26, 1913, Beaux Papers, AAA; James L. Ford, "George Arliss, Portrayer of Stage Gentlemen," Vanity Fair 4, no. 8 (October 1915): 57.
 
97 The Cushing portrait was painted in twenty-seven sittings between October 30 and December 11, 1913 (Beaux diary, Beaux Papers, AAA; Mrs. Joshua Hale to the Histo.rical Society of Old Newbury, October 3, 1956, Historical Society of Old Newbury, Newburyport, Massachusetts).
 
98 Peter W. Cook, "Hunt-Cushing House: The Historical Society of Old Newbury," in Essex Institute Historical Collections; and Tempa Pagel, "The Tall Ships and the Cushings," Essex County Newspapers, newspaper clipping, n.d., The Historical Society of Old Newbury, Newburyport, Massachusetts.
 
99 New York Sun, newspaper clipping, May 2, 1915, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
100 Interview with Walker Hancock, artist, NMAA, September 8, 1984; Gray, "The Extraordinary Career of Cecilia Beaux," p. 196.
 
101 An interest in the collection and study of eighteenth century grand-manner portraiture by early twentieth-century artists, collectors, and scholars was part of a larger fascination for the entire colonial era. The work of many American portraitists in the first decades of the twentieth-century suggested a familiarity with the conventions of the eighteenth century English grand manner, yet their translations did not always result in satisfactory portrayals. The style, while nostalgic, could not always successfully suggest the sitter's modern life (Margaret Maynard, "'A Dream of Fair Women': Revival Dress and the Formation of Late Victorian Images of Femininity," Art History 12, no. 3 (September 1989): 322 - 41).
 
102 Telephone interview with Dorothy (Perkins) Freeman, Damariscotta, Maine, November 12, 1987. While Beaux did not personally know young Dorothy Perkins, the commission nevertheless reveals the artist's interconnecting worlds. In particular, it suggests that her work was known among a circle of J. P. Morgan bankers. Dorothy Perkins was the daughter of Morgan banker George Perkins. The same year Beaux painted Dorothy Perkins's portrait, she also painted one of Mrs. Henry Pomeroy Davison, wife of a partner at J. P. Morgan. The Davisons frequently visited Gloucester and occasionally called on Henry Davis Sleeper, at Beauport. Beaux may have met them there (Gray and Hayden, compilers, Beauport Guest Book 1907 - 1921, unpublished manuscript, Cape Ann Historical Association).
 
103 Ibid.
 
104 "Remarks and Criticisms on the Portrait of D. Perkins -- by her friends," May, 1909, estate of Dorothy (Perkins) Freeman, Damariscotta, Maine.
 
105 Ibid.; "News and Notes of Art," The Star [Washington, D.C.], March 2, 1912, Beaux Papers, Archives, CGA; Lublin, "Through the Galleries," p. 20; William B. McCormick, "Nineteen Oils and Five Drawings on Walls of Women's Cosmopolitan Club are Gems," newspaper clipping, [January 1914], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
106 McCormick, "Nineteen Oils and Five Drawings on Walls of Women's Cosmopolitan Club are Gems," [January 1914], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
107 Florence Este to Thornton Oakley, July 8, 1920, and December 13, 1922, Thornton Oakley Papers.
 
108 Cecilia Beaux: Portrait of an Artist, n. p.
 
109 Bowen, Family Portrait, p. 41; Interview with Rosamond Sherwood, Strawberry Hill, Stockbridge, Massachusetts, October 17, 1986.
 
110 Beaux did promote Rosamond Gilder, suggesting her as a possible candidate for membership in the National Institute of Arts and Letters (Beaux to William Adam Delano, March 26, 1941, Cecilia Beaux files, American Academy of Arts and Letters, Archives, New York).
 
111 Bowen, Family Portrait, pp. 205 - 06.
 
112 Ibid., p. 206.
 
113 Drinker, History of the Drinker Family, pp. 81 - 82.
 
114 In a letter to her nephew Jim, Beaux wrote, "There are two little Gilder girls who look so like Ernesta.... They have just the same big black eyes" (Beaux to Jim Drinker, July 9, [1896], Beaux Papers, AAA).
 
115 Art and Progress, 6, no. 1 (November 1914): n. p.
 
116 Beaux to George Dudley Seymour, December 13, 1914, George Dudley Seymour Papers.
 
117 Burrows, "The Portraits of Cecilia Beaux," p. 80; Cortissoz, "Cecilia Beaux," in A Catalogue of an Exhibition of Paintings by Cecilia Beaux (New York: American Academy of Arts and Letters, 1935), p. 10.
 
118 Beaux to George Dudley Seymour, October 30, [1914], George Dudley Seymour Papers.
 
119 "Art Museum Gets Two New Pictures," New York Times, July 12, 1915, Beaux Papers, Archives, CGA.
 
120 Burke, American Paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, vol. 3, p. 205.
 
121 "Honoring Cecilia Beaux," The Literary Digest 115, no. 18 (May 6, 1933): 13.

 

Notes to Chapter Twelve

1 DAB, supp. 2, vol. 11, part 2, p. 15.
 
2 Beaux to Helena de Kay Gilder, August 27, 1915, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers.
 
3 Both Andrew and Buswell recorded their American Field Service experiences in letters that they wrote home, and then later published (A. Piatt Andrew, Letters Written Home From France -- in the First Half of 1915 [privately printed, 1915]; Leslie Buswell, With the American Ambulance Field Service in France [Cambridge: The Riverside Press, 1915]; Ambulance No. 10 [Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1916]).
 
4 Beaux to Helena Gilder, October 16, and November 2, 1915, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers; Beaux to Helen Andrew, December 28, 1915, A. Piatt Andrew Papers; Mary Buswell to Thornton Oakley, September 29, 1943, Thornton Oakley Papers.
 
5 Other Red Cross officers whom Beaux painted or sketched were General Charles H. Sherrill (1918), painted in uniform in her New York studio, and Robert Davis (1920), drawn in T. Alexander Harrison's studio in Paris. Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney and Juliana Force organized these war relief shows, which were called "50 - 50" exhibitions. Half the proceeds went to the artist and the other half for war relief. (The Paintings and Drawings of Cecilia Beaux, pp. 15, 29; Rosamond Gilder to Francesca Gilder, June 2, 1920, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers; the Davis drawing is illustrated in the Beaux Papers, AAA; M. Amado, Chef à la Hospital No. 110, Avignon, to Cecilia Beaux, September 20, 1915; Beaux to Isaac Patch, June 23, 1917; Printed invitation, September 19, [1917], A. Piatt Andrew Papers; Bernard Harper Friedman, Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney [Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1978], p. 350.
 
6 Many of Beaux's friends also had a profound reverence for French culture. Catharine and Thomas Janvier, as well as Richard Watson Gilder, were members of the Felibrige, a French society of poets and men of letters. A. Piatt Andrew was noted for his active involvement with the Cercle Francais, an organization devoted to the propagation of interest in French literature. A detailed description of the objectives of the Felibrige are found in its statutes of 1876 in the Catherine Janvier folder, D. 5, Richard Watson Gilder Papers, New York Public Library, New York. See also National Cyclopedia of American Biography, vol. 15, p. 326; DAB, vol. 5, p. 614; Felibrige certificate of membership for Richard Watson Gilder, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers.
 
7 For a discussion of the American Renaissance, see The American Renaissance, 1876 - 1917 and Kenyon Cox, The Classical Point of View (Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1961, reprint of 1911 ed.). For the use of women as idealized, allegorical figures see Warner, Monuments & Maidens; and Banta, Imaging American Women, pp. 499 - 590.
 
8 Beaux first did Dorothea with a Lyre in a pencil study, illustrated in Dorothea Gilder's photograph album, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers.
 
9 Beaux to Richard Watson Gilder, September 16, 1909, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers.
 
10 Warner, Monuments and Maidens, p. 21; Beaux's poster was done in the same spirit as Edwin Blashfield's Carry On -- a classically dressed young woman surrounded by doughboys, which was also made into a poster, designed to sell Liberty bonds in 1918 (The Paintings and Drawings of Cecilia Beaux, p. 106; The Works of Edwin Howland Blashfield (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1937), plate 62; Banta, Imaging American Women, p. 530). DAB, supplement 2, vol. 11, part 2, p. 15.
 
11 Beaux to George Dudley Seymour, April 12, 1918, George Dudley Seymour Papers.
 
12 "Landscapes for the Offensive," Harper's Bazar 53, no. 7 (July 1918): 39, in Family Portrait, printed matter, box 9, Bowen Papers, LC.
 
13 Beaux to George Dudley Seymour, April 12, 1918, George Dudley Seymour Papers.
 
14 Beaux to Robert W. de Forest, [circa 1918], and December 31, [1918], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
15 Beaux to Robert W. de Forest, December 31, [1918], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
16 Robert W. de Forest to Colonel E. M. House, January 3, 1919, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
17 In 1918 Christoffer Hannevig, a Norwegian shipbuilder and banker, who had recently settled in New York, conceived the idea of creating a collection of portraits of American leaders, "to testify [to] his appreciation of America's efforts in the world war." His idea was that twenty-five portraits would be a nucleus collection for a National Portrait Gallery, "similar to that in the National Gallery in Trafalgar Square in London." Hannevig set up the American Portrait Foundation, committed $100,000 to the project, and initially commissioned the Danish artist J. W. Von Ruhling Quitsgaard to paint the portraits of a number of government and military leaders. Involved with the venture for the next two years, Quitsgaard appointed an art committee that helped him select American portraitists to assist him with the project. While John Singer Sargent, Cecilia Beaux, and Gary Melchers declined to work with the American Portrait Foundation, Wayman Adams, Louis Betts, George Bellows, Adolphe Borie, Joseph De Camp, James McClure Hamilton, Robert Henri, DeWitt Lockman, George Luks, Leopold Seyffert, Eugene Speicher, and Irving Wiles accepted commissions. Hannevig saw his effort to establish a National Portrait Gallery as a patriotic gesture, but it unfortunately came at a time when American sentiment was moving toward isolationism and ethnocentrism, and few of the established business and social leaders were sympathetic to such efforts by a foreigner. In fact, the work of the American Portrait Foundation served as a catalyst for the National Art Committee, the organization that Beaux would work with ("National Portrait Gallery," Evening Transcript, [Boston] December 19, 1918; "The National Portrait Gallery," American Art News, December 21, 1918; "History in Portraits," Art Review International [December 1920]: 55 - 58, War Portraits files, Registrar's Office, NMAA).
 
18 Ethnocentrism in America factored in the development of the National Art Committee. William H. Holmes, curator for the Smithsonian Institution's National Gallery of Art (NMAA) was interested in any scheme that would supersede the efforts of Hannevig. An internal memorandum from the early months of 1919 stated: We feel that the need for an American National Portrait Gallery is urgent, but to have such a foundation secured to our nation by a foreigner would be injurious to our national pride, and carry with it a sense of shame to native Americans, who would certainly give generous support to such a plan if its needs were brought to their attention. The differences between the two organizations were "that the National Art Committee intend[ed] to have portraits painted of the big men of the Allied Nations, and the Danish project [was] considering only Americans" (File N.G.A., subhead NPG, Office of Administrative Assistant, U.S. National Museum [1919]; The Spur [New York] June 15, 1919, War Portraits Files, Registrar's Office, NMAA).
 
19 The National Art Committee was managed by New York businessman Herbert L. Pratt, who served as its secretary and treasurer. Henry White of the American Peace Mission was the honorary chairman, and secretary of the Smithsonian, Charles D. Walcott, acted as the liaison for his institution. Associated with Pratt, White, and Walcott were New Yorkers J. P. Morgan, Henry Clay Frick, Robert W. de Forest, and Mary Averell Harriman. Others involved in the project included Ethel Sparry Crocker -- the wife of San Francisco banker William H. Crocker -- Guy Lowell of Boston, architect Abram Garfield of Cleveland, businessman Arthur S. Meeker of Chicago, T. B. Walker of Minneapolis, and newspaper editor Charles Phelps Taft of Cincinnati. For a thorough discussion of the war portraits project, see Frederick Platt, "The War Portraits," Antiques, vol. 126, no. 1, (July 1984): 142 - 53.
 
20 Platt, "War Portraits," pp. 142 - 44; "America to Picture Leaders in the War," New York Times, June 2, 1919, War Portraits files, Registrar's Office, NMAA.
 
21 Herbert L. Pratt to Arthur Meeker, April 10, 1919, War Portraits Files, Registrar's Office, NMAA; Besides Cecilia Beaux, the other artists commissioned to paint portraits for the National Art Committee were Joseph De Camp, Charles Hopkinson, John C. Johansen, Edmund C. Tarbell, Douglas Volk, Irving Wiles, and Jean McLean (Mrs. John C. Johansen).
 
22 Beaux to Thornton Oakley, May 12, 1919, Thornton Oakley Papers.
 
23 New York Times, June 2, 1919, War Portraits files, Registrar's Office, NMAA.
 
24 Beaux to Aimée Ernesta Drinker, May 27, [1919], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
25 Nearly one-third of Beaux's autobiography is devoted to her experiences with the war portraits: for her account see Beaux, Background with Figures, pp. 235 - 337. See also Beaux, "Address at a Memorial Meeting -- Cardinal Mercier," Cosmopolitan Club, New York, New York, Palm Sunday, 1926, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
26 Beaux to "Dearest E," May 27, [1919], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
27 Henry White to Cecilia Beaux, June 24, 1919; Beaux to Jim Drinker, June 12, 1919, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
28 Beaux to Aimée Ernesta Drinker, July 7, [1919], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
29 Ibid.
 
30 Ibid.
 
31 Beaux, Background with Figures, p. 249.
 
32 Beaux to Aimée Ernesta Drinker, July 14, 1919, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
33 Beaux to Aimée Ernesta Drinker, August 5, 1919, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
34 Beaux to Aimée Ernesta Drinker, July 14, and August 5, 1919, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
35 Beaux to Aimée Ernesta Drinker, October 17, 1919, Beaux Papers, AAA; Cecilia Beaux: Portrait of an Artist, pp. 114 - 15.
 
36 Beaux to Aimée Ernesta Drinker, July 18, 1919, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
37 Beaux to [Aimée Ernesta Drinker], July 23, and August 7, 1919, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
38 Beaux to Aimée Ernesta Drinker, July 7, [1919], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
39 Beaux to Aimée Ernesta Drinker, August 20, and August 28, [1919], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
40 Ibid.
 
41 Beaux, "Address at the Dinner Given by a Committee of Artists to Lieut. Lemordant at the Vanderbilt Hotel on March 28, 1919," manuscript, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
42 Beaux to Aimée Ernesta Drinker, September 24, 28, and October 8, [1919], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
43 Beaux to Aimée Ernesta Drinker, October 17, [1919], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
44 Beaux to Aimée Ernesta Drinker, October 31, and November 17, [1919], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
45 Beaux to Aimée Ernesta Drinker, October 31, November 17, and 24, [1919], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
46 Beaux to Henry S. Drinker, Jr., November 7, [1919], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
47 Beaux to Aimée Ernesta Drinker, October 28 and 31, [1919]; Beaux to Henry S. Drinker, Jr., November 7, [1919]; Beaux to Dorothea McGrew, November 8, 1919, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
48 Beaux to Aimée Ernesta Drinker, November 17, [1919]; Beaux to Dorothea McGrew, December 3, 1919, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
49 Beaux to Aimée Ernesta Drinker, December 14, [1919], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
50 Beaux to Dorothea McGrew, January 4, 1920, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
51 In exchange for rent, Beaux made a drawing of Suzanne Bartlett's daughter, Caroline Ogden Jones, later the wife of Armistead Peter III of Washington, D.C. (Beaux to Aimée Ernesta Drinker, February 2, and 15, [1920], Beaux Papers, AAA; owned by Tudor Place, Washington, D.C., and illustrated in the Frick Art Reference Library, #57234, New York; Beaux, Background with Figures, pp. 307 - 16).
 
52 Beaux to Aimée Ernesta Drinker, February 15, [1920], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
53 Beaux to Thornton Oakley, March 4, 1920, Thornton Oakley Papers.
 
54 "Paris Letter -- National Salon," American Art News 18, no. 29 (May 20, 1920): 6, War Portraits files, Registrar's Office, NMAA.
 
55 Beaux to Aimée Ernesta Drinker, April 22, [1920], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
56 Beaux to Aimée Ernesta Drinker, April 27, [1920], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
57 Rosamond Gilder to Francesca Gilder, April 30, 1920, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers.
 
58 Beaux to Aimée Ernesta Drinker, May 14, and 21, [1920], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
59 Ibid.
 
60 Rosamond Gilder to Francesca Gilder, May 24, 1920, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers.
 
61 Rosamond Gilder to Francesca Gilder, April 30, 1920, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers.
 
62 Cecilia Beaux: Portrait of an Artist, p. 116; "Famous Paintings to be Shown Here," The Evening Star [Washington, D.C.], May 3, 1921, War Portraits files, Registrar's Office, NMAA.
 
63 Rosamond Gilder to Francesca Gilder, July 3, 1920, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers; Beaux to Aimée Ernesta Drinker, June 25, [1920], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
64 Beaux also made a drawing of Dezarrois, "as part of his reward." Beaux to Aimee Ernesta Drinker, June 6, and [July] 8, [1920], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
65 Rosamond Gilder to Francesca Gilder, July 3, 1920, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers; Beaux to Aimée Ernesta Drinker, June 25, [1920], Beaux Papers, AAA; "French Portraits Presented to U.S.," Washington Herald, July 13, 1920, War Portraits files, Registrar's Office, NMAA.
 
66 Rosamond Gilder to Francesca Gilder, July 3 and 8, 1920, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers. See also Thornton Oakley, "The Furniture Designs of Jean Julien Le Mordant," handwritten manuscript, Thornton Oakley Papers. Beaux visited Lemordant several times while she was in Paris in 1919 and 1920, sending him olives on one such visit. On another visit in 1923, she also made a drawing of him bandaged about the head. Owned by Alfred J. Walker Fine Art, Boston, Massachusetts, and illustrated in the supply collection for Cecilia Beaux in the Frick Art Reference Library, New York. See Lieutenant J. J. Lemordant to Cecilia Beaux, April 1, 1919; Beaux diary, 1923, Beaux Papers, AAA; Rosamond Gilder to Francesca Gilder, May 22 and 25, 1920, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers.
 
67 Beaux to Aimée Ernesta Drinker, July 17, [1920], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
68 Dorothea Gilder McGrew died on March 16, 1920; Henry and Sophie Drinker's daughter Ernesta was born May 13, 1920; James and Mary Drinker's son Henry Middleton was born in December of 1919; and Henry and Etta Drinker moved to Merion, Pennsylvania, at the end of the 1919 - 1920 Lehigh University school year.
 
69 Four Brooks Farm Guest Book, August 9, 1920, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers.
 
70 The Cosmopolitan Club dinner was held on December 15, 1920, and Adeline Adams wrote a poem to Beaux titled "To a Great Painter" (Beaux Papers, AAA).
 
71 Beaux to George Dudley Seymour, December 20, 1920, George Dudley Seymour Papers.
 
72 Quick, American Portraiture in the Grand Manner, p. 73; "Notes of Art and Artists," The Sunday Star [Washington, D.C.], January 16, 1921, part 1; memorandum, Smithsonian Institution, National Gallery of Art, May 23, 1921; "Notes of Art and Artists," The Sunday Star [Washington, D.C.], March 23, 1924, War Portraits files, Registrar's Office, NMAA.
 
73 Leila Mechlin, "War Portraits by Eminent Artists," American Magazine of Art 12, no. 3 (March 1921): 83, 86.

 

Notes to Chapter Thirteen

1 Beaux's response when she was awarded the American Academy of Arts and Letters Gold Medal in 1926. Edwin Blashfield files, Archives, American Academy of Arts and Letters, New York.
 
2 Quick, American Portraiture in the Grand Manner, p. 74.
 
3 "American Art Called Vulgar," Philadelphia Press, March 14, [1908], Augustus St. Gaudens Papers; Beaux diary, January 20, 1911, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
4 Beaux, "Address to the Present Day Club," [dated 1937 but should be 1914], manuscript; Beaux diary, September 8, 1912, and February 16, 1913, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
5 "A Feature of Academy Caricature Show," newspaper clipping, March 1914, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
6 Beaux to Aimée Ernesta Drinker, October 1, [1921]; "American Art," newspaper clipping, [circa 1921], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
7 Beaux, "International Art Congress," [September 26, 1921], manuscript, Beaux Papers, AAA; "The American School," American Art News 20, no. 1 (October 15, 1921); "No National Art in America, New York Girl Tells Europe," September 26, [1921], and "Says America Has No National Art," September 26, [1921], newspaper clippings, Elizabeth Cady (Stanton) Blake Papers, AAA; untitled magazine article, [1921], Beaux Papers, Archives, CGA.
 
8 "Famous Portrait Painter Gives Lecture on Color," The College News, Bryn Mawr College, May 20, 1922, p. 2, Archives, Bryn Mawr College Library, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania.
 
9 Beaux to George Dudley Seymour, November 26, 1922, George Dudley Seymour Papers.
 
10 Ohles, ed., Biographical Dictionary of American Educators, vol.1, p. 292 - 93; The Paintings and Drawings of Cecilia Beaux, p. 36.
 
11 Elizabeth Cady (Stanton) Blake, interview by Kitty Gellhorn, Columbia University Oral History Research Office, September 1974 to October 1975, vols. 1 and 2, New York, New York.
 
12 Winfield Scott Downs, ed., Who's Who in New York 1952 (New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Co., Inc., 1952), p. 1084; Elizabeth Cady (Stanton) Blake interview, vol. 1, pp. 19 - 21.
 
13 During the ten years that The Portrait Class was in existence, it met in the Van Dyck Studio from 1918 to 1922; in the Gainsborough Studio, 222 West 59th Street from 1923 to 1924; and at One Gramercy Park from 1925 to 1928. The last location was to accommodate Beaux, who could no longer travel about easily. Stanton paid Beaux in cash -- $30 per criticism -- as she wanted it to be unaccountable money. During the second season of The Portrait Class, Beaux was in Europe painting the war portraits and did not get back in time to teach the class. Her absence created a difficult situation for Stanton, who asked the academician F. Luis Mora to teach until Beaux returned. Thereafter, Mora continued to teach, critiquing the afternoon classes while Beaux critiqued the morning session.
 
14 Elizabeth Cady (Stanton) Blake interview, vol. 1, pp. 25, 33. See account books of The Portrait Class, Elizabeth Cady (Stanton) Blake Papers, AAA.
 
15 Many of the women in Stanton's portrait class were also closely associated with the National Association of Women Painters and Sculptors, a New York-based arts organization to which Stanton served as president from 1928 to 1930. Beaux had been intermittently involved with this organization since 1899, when she was an honored guest at the opening reception of the tenth annual exhibition. Rosa Bonheur and Mary Cassatt also showed in that exhibition, and all three women supported the efforts of this group, originally called the Women's Club of New York (Elizabeth Cady (Stanton) Blake interview, vol. 1, pp. 25 - 27, 32, 41, 174; Aurora Dias-Jorgensen, historian, National Association of Women Artists, Inc., to the author, September 10, 1984; see also Pisano, One Hundred Years: A Centennial Celebration of the National Association of Women Artists).
 
16 For a transcription of Stanton's "Notes Jotted Down on Criticism Day when Cecilia Beaux came to The Portrait Class on Alternate Friday Mornings," see Tappert, "Choices - The Life and Career of Cecilia Beaux," Appendix F, pp. 470 - 75.
 
17 Lewis Hoyer Rabbage to Alice Padwe, NPG, January 7, 1994.
 
18 "Women Artists Make Bright Parade," The World, January 5, 1930.
 
19 Beaux Diary, 1921, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
20 [Leila Mechlin], "Contemporary American Painting - Ninth Exhibition, Corcoran Gallery of Art," American Magazine of Art, 15, no. 2 (February 1924): 67, 71 - 72.
 
21 Aimée Lamb to Elizabeth Cady Stanton, April 25, [1924], Elizabeth Cady (Stanton) Blake interview, vol. 2; Beaux to Thornton Oakley, June 20, 1924, Thornton Oakley Papers; Beaux to Aimée Lamb, November 30, 1924, Alfred J. Walker Fine Art, Boston, Massachusetts.
 
22 Beaux to Thornton Oakley, June 20, and July 14, 1924; Florence Este to Thornton Oakley, August 12, 1924, Thornton Oakley Papers; interview with Ernesta Barlow by Frank Goodyear, Green Alley, Gloucester, Massachusetts, August 16, 1973, Beaux Papers, Archives, PAFA.
 
23 Beaux's nephew Cecil claimed that the brace was Beaux's own fault, as she refused to have a steel pin put in. This was a new operation at the time, and she feared it. But Beaux had sought the advice of doctors and was told by a Dr. Reisman "that it would be of no use to have an operation -- time ahead was too short" (Bowen, Family Portrait, p. 204; Mrs. Sydney L. Wright, Jr., to Thornton Oakley, October 30, 1943, Thornton Oakley Papers).
 
24 Minister, della Rubblica Istruzione (Italy) to Cecilia Beaux, June 20, 1924, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
25 Booth, "America's Twelve Greatest Women," p. 166; Peterson, Neely, and Collins, Eminent Women: Recipients of the National Achievement Award, p. 14.
 
26 "Self Portrait by Cecilia Beaux," American Magazine of Art 17, no. 4 (April 1926); Leila Mechlin, "Self Portrait by Cecilia Beaux," The Sunday Star [Washington, D.C.], January 17, 1926; Booth, "America's Twelve Greatest Women," p. 166.
 
27 Beaux to George Dudley Seymour, February 13, 1929, George Dudley Seymour Papers.
 
28 Beaux diary, 1928, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
29 "Corcoran Gallery of Art, Painting by Cecilia Beaux Now on View," Washington Star, December 31, 1939.
 
30 When Beaux began investigating publishers in the fall of 1926, her friend Raymond Havens was inclined toward Houghton Mifflin (Beaux to Thornton Oakley, September 19, 1926, and October 17, 1930, Thornton Oakley Papers).
 
31 Isabel Paterson, "Books and Other Things," New York Herald Tribune, November 28, 1930; Elizabeth Luther Cary, "Autobiography of Cecilia Beaux," New York Times Book Review, January 18, 1931, p. 5; [Leila Mechlin], "Book Reviews," American Magazine of Art 22, no. 1 (January 1931): 65; Royal Cortissoz, "With Moving Sincerity," magazine article, [circa 1931], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
32 Aimée Ernesta Drinker to "My great and wondrous Sister," December 1, [1930], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
33 Loring Holmes Dodd to Cecilia Beaux, December 3, and 9, 1930, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
34 Anna Wetherill Olmsted, assistant director, Syracuse Museum of Fine Arts, to Cecilia Beaux, February 6, 1931, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
35 An Exhibition of Portraits by Cecilia Beaux, May 1931, Syracuse Museum of Fine Arts, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
36 George Dudley Seymour to Royal Cortissoz, November 20, 1935, George Dudley Seymour Papers.
 
37 Royal Cortissoz, "The Portraiture of Miss Cecilia Beaux," New York Herald Tribune, December 1, 1935.
 
38 Edward Alden Jewell, "American Academy of Arts and Letters Will Exhibit Art of Cecilia Beaux," New York Times, November 14, 1935; "Retrospective Exhibit Held for Cecilia Beaux, Famous American," The Art Digest 10, no. 5 (December 1, 1935): 11.
 
39 Henry McBride, "Cecilia Beaux Portraits in Retrospective Exhibition," New York Sun, November 23, 1935.
 
40 Sadakichi Hartmann, A History of American Art, vol. 1 (Boston: L. C. Page & Company, 1901), p. 290.
 
41 "Charlotte Brontë, after writing to her publisher that she was 'neither man nor woman,' went on to say, 'I come before you as an author only.'" (quoted in Carolyn G. Heilbrun, Writing a Woman's Life [New York: Ballantine Books, 1988] pp. 110 - 11).
 
42 "Praise Progress of Women at Barnard Celebration," New York Evening Telegram, April [30], 1915, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
43 Cecilia Beaux, "Barnard College Anniversary Dinner," Thursday, April 29, [1915], lectures, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
44 Borglum, "Cecilia Beaux -- Painter of Heroes," p. 16.
 
45 Germaine Greer, The Obstacle Race: The Fortunes of Women Painters and Their Work (New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1979), pp. 75, 77.
 
46 O'Hagan, "Miss Cecilia Beaux," p. 119.
 
47 Ibid.; Beaux to Mrs. Brown, February 9, 1939; Beaux, "Portraiture," Simmons College, May 14, 1907, manuscript, p. 7, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
48 "Twelve Greatest Women," New York Times, June 25, 1922, section 7, p. 20, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
49 In 1922 Beaux was included with such women as Jane Addams, M. Carey Thomas, Edith Wharton, Ida Tarbell, Carrie Chapman Catt, Minnie Maddern Fiske, and Helen Keller. In 1931 Beaux was elected with the following eleven women: Mrs. Grace Coolidge, Helen Keller, Carrie Chapman Catt, Minnie Maddern Fiske, Grace Abbott, Dr. Florence R. Sabin, Martha Berry, Mme. Schumann-Heink, Jane Addams, Willa Cather, and Mary E. Woolley. See "Twelve Greatest Women," New York Times, June 25, 1922, section 7, p. 20; "Here are 'Twelve Greatest Women in America,'" newspaper article, March 23, 1931, Beaux Papers, AAA; Booth, "America's Twelve Greatest Women," pp. 34 - 35, 165 - 67.
 
50 Mrs. Samuel W. Rayburn, The American Woman's Association, Inc., to Cecilia Beaux, November 24, 1928; Beaux to Mrs. Rayburn, [November 1928], George Dudley Seymour Papers.
 
51 For a history of the National Institute of Arts and Letters and the American Academy of Arts and Letters, see Charles A. Fenton, "The Founding of the National Institute of Arts and Letters in 1898," New England Quarterly 32, no. 4 (December 1959); Malcolm Cowley, "Sir: I Have the Honor," Southern Review, n.s., 8, no. 1 (winter 1972): 1 - 14; Geoffrey T. Hellman, "Profiles - Some Splendid and Admirable People," New Yorker, 52, no. 1 (February 23, 1976): 43 - 48, 52 - 54, 56 - 57, 60 - 64, 68 - 81; Miller and Johnson, Portraits from the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters.
 
52 Miller and Johnson, Portraits from the American Academy, pp. 12 - 13.
 
53 Richard Watson Gilder to Edmund Clarence Stedman, January 21, 1905, Women and Academy-Institute files, Archives, American Academy of Arts and Letters, New York.
 
54 Arthur Bird to John Finley, December 10, 1923, Women and Academy-Institute files, Archives, American Academy of Arts and Letters, New York.
 
55 Marion Reilly, "Collegiate Alumnae Association," The College News, Bryn Mawr College, January 28, 1915, p. 4; Caroline L. Humphrey to Robert Underwood Johnson, telegram, November 14, 1916, and M. Carey Thomas to Robert Underwood Johnson, telegram, November 16, 1916, Cecilia Beaux file, Archives, American Academy of Arts and Letters, New York.
 
56 Robert Underwood Johnson to M. Carey Thomas, November 30, 1916, Women and Academy-Institute files, Archives, American Academy of Arts and Letters, New York.
 
57 M. Carey Thomas to Rosamond Gilder, August 19, 1935, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers.
 
58 "Arts, Letters Honors to be Bestowed To-Morrow," New York Herald Tribune, April 22, 1926; "American Academy Honors Two Women," New York Times, April 24, 1926; Cowley, "Sir: I Have the Honor," p. 6.
 
59 "Academy Gold Medal Given to Cecilia Beaux," New York City Graphic, April 24, 1926; "American Academy of Arts and Letters Awards Medal to Woman," newspaper clipping, [April 24, 1926], scrapbook, Archives, American Academy of Arts and Letters, New York.
 
60 Blashfield said of Beaux, She is of Connecticut and of Provence and of that most Provencal of cities, Avignon. Americans usually like to be called Pilgrim or Quaker or Knickerbocker or Cavalier or anything which indicates that they came pretty close to the succession of the Indians, for it makes them such good old Americans, and here is one who by her forbearers is straight Puritan with straight Huguenot ("Address by Edwin Howland Blashfield on the Occasion of the Presentation of the Gold Medal for Painting to Miss Cecilia Beaux, April 23, 1926," Family Portrait, research notes, box 10, Bowen Papers, LC). 61. Beaux acceptance speech for the Academy's Gold Medal, Edwin Blashfield files, Archives, American Academy of Arts and Letters, New York.
 
62 Burton J. Hendrick, secretary, National Institute of Arts and Letters, to Cecilia Beaux, November 20, 1930, Cecilia Beaux files, Archives, American Academy of Arts and Letters, New York; Robert Underwood Johnson, secretary, and Nicholas Murray Butler, president, American Academy of Arts and Letters, to Cecilia Beaux, November 9, 1933, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
63 "Miss Beaux Elected to Academy of Arts," New York World Telegram, November 10, 1933, scrapbook, Archives, American Academy of Arts and Letters, New York.
 
64 Beaux was a trustee of the Hispanic Society of America from 1923 to 1928, and a vice president and member of the advisory board from 1928 to 1942 (A History of the Hispanic Society of America Museum and Library, 1904 - 1954 [New York: Hispanic Society of America, 1954], pp. 542 - 43).
 
65 Arthur Train, president, National Institute of Arts and Letters, to Cecilia Beaux, December 6, 1941, Cecilia Beaux files, Archives, American Academy of Arts and Letters, New York.
 
66 Joint Festival and Ceremonial of the Academy and Institute, May 8, 1942, Cecilia Beaux files, Archives, American Academy of Arts and Letters, New York.
 
67 "Cecilia Beaux Gets Chi Omega Tribute Today," New York Herald Tribune, April 17, 1933.
 
68 "Artist Is Honored by Mrs. Roosevelt," New York Times, April 18, 1933; Peterson, Neely, and Collins, Eminent Women: Recipients of the National Achievement Award, p. 24.
 
69 "Miss Beaux, Ranked as Greatest Woman Painter of America, to Receive Chi Omega Medal Tonight," New York Sun, April 17, 1933; "Artist Is Honored by Mrs. Roosevelt," New York Times, April 18, 1933.
 
70 "First Lady Sees Cecilia Beaux Receive Medal," New York Times, April 23, 1933.
 
71 Ibid.; "Artist Is Honored by Mrs. Roosevelt," New York Times, April 18, 1933; "An Address by Cass Gilbert upon the Award of the Medal for Achievement to Miss Cecilia Beaux by the Chi Omega Fraternity," pp. 1 - 5, General Collections, LC, pp. 1, 5.
 
72 "Honoring Cecilia Beaux," The Literary Digest, p. 13; "Cecilia Beaux Gets Chi Omega Tribute Today," New York Herald Tribune, April 17, 1933.
 
73 "Artist Is Honored by Mrs. Roosevelt," New York Times, April 18, 1933; "First Lady Sees Cecilia Beaux Receive Medal," New York Times, April 23, 1933; acceptance speech for the Chi Omega Award, April 17, 1933, manuscript, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
74 "Miss Beaux, Ranked as Greatest Woman Painter of America, to Receive Chi Omega Medal Tonight," New York Sun, April 17, 1933; "Honoring Cecilia Beaux," Literary Digest, p. 13.
 
75 "Cecilia Beaux," manuscript, Cecilia Beaux files, Archives, American Academy of Arts and Letters, New York.
 
76 Beaux to George Dudley Seymour, April 25, 1933, George Dudley Seymour Papers.

 

Notes to Chapter Fourteen

1 History of the Drinker Family, p. 84.
 
2 Drinker, Autobiography of Henry Sturgis Drinker, pp. 88 - 89.
 
3 Edwin M. Yoder, Jr., "FDR's Roving Ambassador," Washington Post Book World, May 29, 1988, p. 1. See also Will Brownell and Richard N. Billings, So Close to Greatness -- A Biography of William C. Bullitt (New York: Macmillan, 1988).
 
4 Ernesta Drinker Bullitt, An Uncensored Diary from the Central Empires (New York: Doubleday, Page and Company, 1917).
 
5 Beaux to Dorothea Gilder McGrew, November 2, 1917, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
6 The same year that Bullitt was divorced from Ernesta, he married Louise Bryant, widow of the revolutionary John Reed. His second marriage was as troubled as his first. Yoder, "FDR's Roving Ambassador," p. 11.
 
7 Beaux to George Dudley Seymour, October 19, 1923, George Dudley Seymour Papers.
 
8 Bowen, Family Portrait, p. 210.
 
9 Ibid., p. 204; Family Portrait, research notes, box 10, Bowen Papers, LC.
 
10 Some of Cecilia's characteristics were also recognized by people outside of her family ("Cecilia Beaux," manuscript, Cecilia Beaux files, Archives, American Academy of Arts and Letters, New York).
 
11 Bowen, Family Portrait, p. 206.
 
12 Beaux to Thornton Oakley, August 28, 1939, Thornton Oakley Papers.
 
13 Drinker, History of the Drinker Family, p. 84.
 
14 Beaux recounted the anxious weeks of her sister Etta's nervous breakdown in a series of letters to Thornton Oakley (Beaux to Thornton Oakley, May 3, 9, and 26, 1934, Thornton Oakley Papers; Beaux to Thornton Oakley, June 24, 1934, Lansdale Humphreys, Isle of Man, Great Britain).
 
15 Beaux to Thornton Oakley, May 3, 1934, January 15, and February 2, 1935, Thornton Oakley Papers; Beaux to Betty (Elizabeth Cady Stanton Blake), February 8, 1935, Elizabeth Cady (Stanton) Blake interview, vol. 2.
 
16 Harry, Jr., wrote his aunt about his father's death: I took down to Beach Haven the Asst. Rector of the Presbyterian church on Tues[day] afternoon, and we had a nice little service, just what Mater wanted. She was wonderful. We brought Pater up to Phila[delphia] Tuesday evening, and he spent the night in our library under his portrait.... Cecil and Kitty stayed at Beach Haven with Mater.... Mater wanted to have the ashes buried promptly, so Jim and I will bury them in my lot in the West Laurel Hill Cemetery at three o'clock tomorrow afternoon. I thought you would like to know when this was going on (Henry S. Drinker to Cecilia Beaux, July 30, 1937, family correspondence #1, other members of the Drinker family, 1911 - 1970, Bowen Papers, LC; Beaux to Thornton Oakley, September 12, 1937, Thornton Oakley Papers).
 
17 Beaux to Thornton Oakley, April 11, 1939, Thornton Oakley Papers.
 
18 Beaux to Thornton Oakley, August 28, 1939, Thornton Oakley Papers.
 
19 Beaux to "Isabel," November 9, 1939, Cecilia Saltonstall.
 
20 J. Reese Price to Cecilia Beaux, October 22, 1931; Robert Stanley McCordock, professor of history, Lincoln Memorial University, to Cecilia Beaux, July 7, 1937; "Cecilia Beaux" by Mabel Raymond; Elizabeth Calhoun to Cecilia Beaux, April 11, 1930; Elizabeth A. Rogerson, Arden Studios, Inc., to Beaux, February 10, 1934; The Centerdale Women's Club studied the lives of the twelve greatest living women in 1933, Helen (Hodgin) Fawcett, Centerdale Woman's Club -- One Hundred Years (Centerdale, Iowa: Centerdale Woman's Club, [1991], p. 38 -- I thank Paula Deming of Worthington, Ohio, for this reference); "Kentucky State Fair," Rider and Driver, magazine article, [1936], Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
21 Beaux, "Portraiture," Simmons College, May 14, 1907, manuscript, p. 1, Beaux Papers, AAA; Beaux, Background with Figures, p. 301.
 
22 Leila Mechlin to Cecilia Beaux, February 28, 1912, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
23 The Paintings and Drawings of Cecilia Beaux, p. 50.
 
24 Beaux to Thornton Oakley, July 22, 1934, Lansdale Humphreys, Isle of Man, Great Britain.
 
25 Beaux to Thornton Oakley, August 21, 1936, Thornton Oakley Papers.
 
26 Beaux to "Isabel," [June, 1939], Cecilia Saltonstall.
 
27 Beaux to Thornton Oakley, July 21, 1940, Lansdale Humphreys, Isle of Man, Great Britain.
 
28 Beaux to George Dudley Seymour, November 11, 1905; June 28, 1908; December 11, 1908, and November 17, 1922; George Dudley Seymour to Cecilia Beaux, November 18, 1922, George Dudley Seymour Papers.
 
29 Seymour's dinner for Beaux was held June 16, 1902 (Beaux to George Dudley Seymour, August, 1903, George Dudley Seymour Papers).
 
30 Beaux to George Dudley Seymour, September 28, 1903, George Dudley Seymour Papers.
 
31 Beaux to George Dudley Seymour, October 7, 1906, George Dudley Seymour Papers.
 
32 George Dudley Seymour to Cecilia Beaux, March 7, 1924, George Dudley Seymour Papers.
 
33 Beaux wrote Seymour about her fractured hip, and he wrote her about his shattered spine, his loss of hearing, and his inability to speak (Beaux to George Dudley Seymour, August 20, 1924; George Dudley Seymour to Cecilia Beaux, June 7, 1937; April 29, 1941, George Dudley Seymour Papers).
 
34 Beaux to Thornton Oakley, September 12, 1937, Thornton Oakley Papers.
 
35 Beaux to Walker Hancock, August 21, 1938, Walker Hancock Papers, AAA.
 
36 Edwin L. M. Taggart to the author, June 26, 1984; John G. Hines to the author, May 30, 1986.
 
37 Elizabeth Cady (Stanton) Blake interview, vol. 1, pp. 113 - 114.
 
38 Cecilia Beaux went to the christening of Elizabeth Stanton "Bettina" Blake at the Calvary Episcopal Church on 4th Avenue and 21st Street. After the christening, a luncheon was held at the Gramercy Park Hotel, and Beaux sent a dozen American Beauty roses for the table (Elizabeth Cady (Stanton) Blake interview, vol. 2, n.p.).
 
39 Karen Blair, "The Arts for Community Uplift: The History of Women's Amateur Painting Societies, 1890 - 1930," lecture, NMAA, May 22, 1989; The Torchbearers: Women and Their Amateur Arts Associations in America, 1890 - 1930 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994).
 
40 Beaux to Thornton Oakley, August 10, 1929, Thornton Oakley Papers.
 
41 Bowen, Family Portrait, pp. 207 - 08; Anna Murphy to Mrs. Blake, January 5, 1943, Elizabeth Cady (Stanton) Blake interview, vol. 2.
 
42 Beaux stayed at The Alabama in Winter Park, Florida, from January to April in 1932 and 1936, and was at the Arizona Inn in Tucson from January to April in 1933 and 1934.
 
43 Beaux to Thornton Oakley, April 14, 1932, Thornton Oakley Papers; Beaux to Aimée Lamb, February 12, 1936, Alfred J. Walker Fine Art, Boston.
 
44 Beaux to George Dudley Seymour, February 1, 1933, George Dudley Seymour Papers; "Miss Beaux Will Visit This State," Phoenix Gazette, December 2, 1933.
 
45 Interview with Ernesta Barlow by Frank Goodyear, Green Alley, Gloucester, Massachusetts, August 16, 1973, Beaux Papers, Archives, PAFA.
 
46 Anna Murphy to Mrs. Vanamee, May 3, 1938, Ernesta Barlow to Arthur Train, December 12, [1941], Cecilia Beaux files, Archives, American Academy of Arts and Letters, New York.
 
47 Beaux to Helen Patch, February 10, [circa 1940], A. Piatt Andrew Papers; "Let's Help Finland -- Blind Auction for Finnish Relief to be Held in the Grand Central Galleries -- Gotham Hotel-January 22 to February 2, 1940," Elizabeth Cady (Stanton) Blake interview, vol. 2.
 
48 Beaux to Hans Kindler, president, The Arts Club of Washington, D.C., March 12, 1941, Beaux Papers, AAA; Mrs. John H. Finley to Thornton Oakley, June 7, 1945, Thornton Oakley Papers.
 
49 Edwin L. M. Taggart to the author, June 26, 1984.
 
50 The gold medals were melted down at the Franklin Mint; their value was approximately $2,000 ("The Cecilia Beaux Memorial Prize"; "Artist's Medals to Set Up Fund," Evening Bulletin [Philadelphia], August 13, 1946, Thornton Oakley Papers).
 
51 Bowen, Family Portrait, p. 275.

 

Notes to Chapter Fifteen

1 Both Parker and Pollock and Harris and Nochlin discuss the hierarchy of the arts in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. They explain that the creator's gender influenced the type of work produced, as well as the work's status in the art world. Chambers-Schiller points out other cultural constraints were also placed on women who pursued a profession, most notably the idea that such a choice had to be divinely inspired (Parker and Pollock, Old Mistresses, pp. 50 - 81; Harris and Nochlin, Women Artists, pp. 45 - 67; Chambers-Schiller, Liberty, a Better Husband, pp. 2, 18 - 19, 21 - 22).
 
2 Parker and Pollock, Old Mistresses, p. 44.
 
3 King, "Cecilia Beaux," p. 209; "News and Notes of Art," Washington Star, March 2, 1912, Beaux Papers, Archives, CGA; Walton, "Cecilia Beaux," p. 485; Burrows, "The Portraits of Cecilia Beaux," pp. 74, 77; Katherine De Forest, "Our Paris Letter," Harper's Bazar, [1896], and "Greatest Woman Painter," November 2, [1899], Beaux scrapbook, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
4 King, "The Paintings of Cecilia Beaux," p. 179; Walton, "Cecilia Beaux," p. 478; Katherine De Forest, "Our Paris Letter," Harper's Bazar, [1896], Beaux Cecilia scrapbook, Beaux Papers, AAA; Leila Mechlin, "Rank with the Best," The Evening Star [Washington, D.C.], February 24, 1912, Beaux Papers, Archives, CGA. Other articles that identify the characteristics of Beaux's sitters include Bell, "The Work of Cecilia Beaux, pp. 215 - 22; St. Gaudens, "Cecilia Beaux," pp. 38 - 39; O'Hagan, "Miss Cecilia Beaux," p. 119; Borglum, "Cecilia Beaux -- Painter of Heroes," p. 16; Gray, "The Extraordinary Career of Cecilia Beaux," pp. 61 - 63, 195 - 98; Booth, "America's Twelve Greatest Women -- Cecilia Beaux," p. 34 - 35, 165 - 67.
 
5 Gray, "The Extraordinary Career of Cecilia Beaux," pp. 195, 196.
 
6 When Catherine Drinker Bowen's book Family Portrait was published, her daughter sent her a note with the comments of a friend named Mrs. Prince, who said that "Beaux was a very big name to her mother (a suffragette) because she was the career woman." Catherine D. Bowen to Catherine Drinker Bowen, June 14, 1970, family correspondence #1, Catherine D. Bowen (daughter) file, Bowen Papers, LC.
 
7 In his biography of Liszt, James Huneker included Beaux, along with Cassatt and Morisot, in his catalogue of women who had excelled in such branches of knowledge as music, literature, art, science, and mathematics (Huneker, Franz Liszt [New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1911], pp. 436 - 37; James Britton, "Art," Hartford Daily Courier, July 30, 1910, Beaux Papers, Archives, PAFA; newspaper clipping, inscribed, "International Ex-London-'97-Eng. paper," Beaux scrapbook, Beaux Papers, AAA).
 
8 "Who's Who in American Art," magazine article, Beaux Papers, Archives, CGA.
 
9 Greer, The Obstacle Race, p. 75; Heilbrun, Writing a Woman's Life, p. 81.
 
10 Parker and Pollock, Old Mistresses, pp. 1 - 49.
 
11 The Delineator (February 1911), quoted in Tara Leigh Tappert, The Emmets: A Generation of Gifted Women (New York: Borghi & Co., 1993) n.p.; "Palette and Brush," March 1, 1900, Town Topics, newspaper clipping, [1891], and The Studio, May 15, 1886, Beaux scrapbook, Beaux Papers, AAA; Sparrow, ed., Women Painters of the World, Vol. 3, p. 77; Leila Mechlin, "Rank with the Best," The Evening Star [Washington, D.C.], February 24, 1912; "News and Notes of Art," Washington Star, March 2, 1912, Beaux Papers, Archives, CGA; George Dudley Seymour to Cecilia Beaux, January 1, 1898, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
12 St. Gaudens, "Cecilia Beaux," p. 39.
 
13 "Palette and Brush," March 1, 1900, Town Topics, Beaux scrapbook, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
14 Mechlin, "The Art of Cecilia Beaux," p. 3.
 
15 Eugen Neuhaus, The History and Ideals of American Art (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1931), p. 225.
 
16 For a cogent discussion of the impact of language in descriptions in Beaux's and Sargent`s portraits, and a discussion of the culture in which Beaux produced her work, see Burns, "The 'Earnest, Untiring Worker' and the Magician of the Brush," p. 36 - 53; Tara L. Tappert, "Cecilia Beaux: a Career as a Portraitist," Women's Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal 14, no. 4 (1988): 389 - 411.
 
17 Beaux to Helena de Kay Gilder, June 14, 1903, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers.
 
18 Beaux noted that Rosales "asks and gets very high prices," while George Dudley Seymour recorded that Sargent "was getting some $60,000" (Beaux to Helena de Kay Gilder, August 9, 1913, Gilder/Palmer Family Papers; George Dudley Seymour to Mrs. William Vanamee, American Academy of Arts and Letters, December 22, 1935, George Dudley Seymour Papers).
 
19 Dr. S. Weir Mitchell to Cecilia Beaux, February 2, 1900, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
20 O'Hagan, "Miss Cecilia Beaux," p. 119.
 
21 Burrows, "The Portraits of Cecilia Beaux," p. 74.
 
22 Beaux, Background with Figures, pp. 347, 349.
 
23 Greer, The Obstacle Race, p. 62.
 
24 Beaux, "Portraiture," Simmons College, May 14, 1907, manuscript, p. 1, Beaux Papers, AAA.
 
25 Interview with Walker Hancock, artist, NMAA, September 8, 1984.
 
26 "Cecilia Beaux, Artist, Her Home, Work and Ideals," Sunday Herald [Boston], September [23], 1910, magazine section, p. 7, Jesse Wilcox Smith Papers, AAA.
 
27 Bowen, Family Portrait, p. 221.
 
28 Ibid., p. 204. Carolyn Heilbrun has noted that only since the late 1960s and the advent of contemporary feminism have biographers of women begun "to struggle with the inevitable conflict between the destiny of being unambiguously a woman and the woman subject's palpable desire, or fate, to be something else." In fact, most biographers have been ill at ease writing about women, as "there has been a tendency to see them as somewhat abnormal, monstrous (Heilbrun, Writing a Woman's Life, p. 21).
 
29 W. Francklyn Paris, The Hall of American Artists, vol. 3 (New York: New York University, 1944), pp. 125 - 35; The One Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary Exhibition, January 15 - March 13, 1955 (Philadelphia: PAFA, 1955), pp. 82 - 89; William H. Gerdts, Women Artists of America, 1707 - 1964, April 2 - May 16, 1965 (Newark, N.J.: The Newark Museum, 1965), p. 14; Loring Holmes Dodd, With an Eye on the Gallery: American Painters in Oil (Cambridge, Mass.: Dresser, Chapman & Grimes, 1966), pp. 180 - 83; Winifred and Frances Kirkland, Girls Who Became Artists, (1934; Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, Inc., reprint ed., 1967), pp. 58 - 68; Winthrop and Frances Neilson, Seven Women: Great Painters (Philadelphia: Chilton Book Co., 1969), pp. 97 - 123.
 
30 Some of the important reference sources and exhibitions in which Beaux is listed in the 1970s include: Notable American Women, 1607 - 1950, vol. 1, pp. 119 - 21; The Pennsylvania Academy and Its Women, pp. 6 - 7, 16, 19, 21, 23, 25, 26, 37; Karen Peterson and J. J. Wilson, Women Artists: Recognition and Reappraisal, from the Early Middle Ages to the Twentieth Century (New York: Harper & Row, 1976), pp. 88 - 89; Benezit, Dictionnaire des Peintres, vol. 1, p. 557; Harris and Nochlin, Women Artists, pp. 56, 251 - 54, 292, 352 - 53; Greer, The Obstacle Race, pp. 61, 62, 64, 75, 317 - 18, 322, 323, 326; Charlotte Streifer Rubinstein, American Women Artists from Early Indian Times to the Present (New York: Avon, 1982), pp. 124 - 28.
 
31 When Beaux's papers were donated to the Archives of American Art, Elizabeth Graham Bailey -- who was then the registrar at the Pennsylvania Academy and an assistant for the Academy's Beaux exhibition -- wrote an article that gave a sense of the breadth of the Beaux collection (Bailey, "The Cecilia Beaux Papers," p. 14 - 19).
 
32 Frederick D. Hill, "Cecilia Beaux, the grande dame of American portraiture," Antiques 105, no. 1 (January 1974): 160 - 68; Barbara Whipple, "The Eloquence of Cecilia Beaux," American Artist 38, no. 386 (September 1974): 44 - 51, 80 - 85; Evans, "Cecilia Beaux, Portraitist," pp. 92 - 102; "Art Across North America," Apollo 101, no. 155, n.s. (January 1975): 62; Stein, "Profile of Cecilia Beaux," pp. 25 - 31, 33; Frederick Platt, "A Portrait of Cecilia Beaux," L'Officiel/USA (October 1978): 156 - 61; Elizabeth Graham Bailey, "Cecilia Beaux -- Background with a Figure," Arts & Antiques 3, no. 2 (March - April 1980): 54 - 61.
 
33 Some of the exhibitions and catalogues in the 1980s and early 1990s in which Beaux's work was represented include: Sadik and Pfister, American Portrait Drawings, NPG, May 1 - August 3, 1980; Quick, American Portraiture in the Grand Manner, 1720 - 1920, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, and NPG, 1981 - 1982; Sellin, Americans in Brittany and Normandy, 1860 - 1910, PAFA, Amon Carter Museum, Phoenix Art Museum, NMAA, 1982 - 1983; The Quest for Unity -- American Art Between World's Fairs, 1876 - 1893, Detroit Institute of Arts, 1983; Artists by Themselves -- Artists' Portraits from the National Academy of Design, National Academy of Design, NPG, Everson Museum of Art, Joslyn Art Museum, The Ackland Art Museum, Norton Gallery and School of Art, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1984 - 1985; American Women Artists, 1830 - 1930, The National Museum of Women in the Arts, The Minneapolis Institute of Arts, The Wadsworth Athenaeum, San Diego Museum of Art, Meadows Museum, Southern Methodist University, 1987 - 1988; Pisano, One Hundred Years: A Centennial Celebration of the National Association of Women Painters, Nassau County Museum of Fine Art, 1988; Susan Danly, Light, Air, and Color -- American Impressionist Paintings from the Collection of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, PAFA, 1990; Michael Marlais, Americans and Paris, Colby College Museum of Art, 1990; Susan Danly, Facing the Past -- Nineteenth Century Portraits from the Collection of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, PAFA, 1992; Revisiting the White City -- American Art at the 1893 World's Fair, NMAA and NPG, 1993; Ronald G. Pisano and Bruce Weber, Parodies of the American Masters - Rediscovering the Society of American Fakirs, 1891 - 1914, Berry-Hill Galleries, and The Art Museum, The Museums at Stony Brook, 1993 - 1994.
 
34 Cecilia Beaux, 1855 - 1942 -- Early Drawings (Boston: Alfred J. Walker Fine Art, 1985); Cecilia Beaux (Boston: Alfred J. Walker Fine Art, 1990).
 
35 Some of the students who have done academic work on Cecilia Beaux or have incorporated her in larger topical studies include: Linda Anne Boyte, "Cecilia Beaux and Mary Cassatt: A Comparison" (M.A. thesis, Art History, Emory University, 1982); Elizabeth Ellrodt, (B.A. thesis, Art History, Williams College, 1983); Susan Barnard, (M.A. thesis, American Studies, Case Western Reserve, circa 1988 - 1989); Tappert, "Choices" (Ph.D. diss., George Washington University, 1990); Barbara J. Pearce, (M.A. thesis, Humanities, Temple University, Harrisburg Extension, circa 1991 - 1992); Eliza Hoogland, Beaux's "white paintings," (M.A. thesis, University of Chicago, circa 1991 - 1992); Diane P. Fischer, "The Repatriation of American Art: Paintings at the Exposition Universelle, 1900" (Ph.D. diss., Graduate Center, City University of New York, 1993).
 
36 Great Women Painters, 1986 calendar, (New York: Abbeville Press, Inc., 1985); Mary Gordon, Men and Angels (New York: Ballantine Books, 1985); "Cecilia Beaux: The Strength of Character," Victoria Magazine 4, no. 3 (March 1990): 50 - 55.
 
37 Kathleen Huddle to the author, November 28, 1988; Merrilyn Duzy to the author, October 10, 1985.
 
38 Hills, John Singer Sargent, pp. 176 - 78.
 
39 Peterson and Wilson quote Cassatt scholar Adelyn Breeskin: "It always sorrowed [Cassatt] that she was so little known in America during her lifetime when the more conventional artists like Cecilia Beaux, Fidelia Bridges, Violet Oakley were in vogue" (Peterson and Wilson, Women Artists, pp. 88 - 89; Eleanor C. Munro, Originals: American Women Artists [New York: Simon and Schuster, 1979], p. 60).

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Acknowledgments
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Part I
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Part IV
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Illustrations with Captions
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