The Eight and American Modernisms

March 6 - May 24, 2009


The Eight's Chronology: 1907-57

INSTITUTIONS (abbreviations in text)
American Association of Painters and
Sculptors (AAPS)
Art Institute of Chicago (AIC)
Barnes Foundation, Merion,
Pennsylvania (BF)
Brooklyn Museum (BM)
Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh (CI)
Corcoran Gallery of Art,
Washington, DC (CGA)
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (MMA)
Museum of Modern Art, New York (MoMA)
National Academy of Design, New York (NAD)
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts,
Philadelphia (PAFA)
Philadelphia Museum of Art (PMA)
Phillips Memorial Gallery, later The Phillips Collection, Washington, DC (PC)
Whitney Museum of American Art, New York (WMAA)
Socialite and sculptor Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney establishes studio in MacDougal Alley, Greenwich Village, becoming Lawson's neighbor
Lawson solo show at PAFA, wins Sesnan Medal for best landscape painting for The River in Winter (1907; WMAA)
March Henri withdraws from NAD spring show after colleagues' works are rejected
April Henri and friends first meet to plan independent show
May "The Eight" first appears in New York Sun article
Prendergast accepts Davies's invitation, leaves for France, returns late October
Fall Newspaper articles on The Eight's show appear
Corporate lawyer and modern art collector John Quinn acquires two Lawson landscapes (unrecorded)
Feb. 3-17 The Eight show at Macbeth Galleries:
63 paintings, 7000 visitors
March 7-19 The Eight show travels to PAFA
Spring The Eight and Henri's students' artworks hung together at NAD's annual show
Lawson awarded NAD's First Hallgarten Prize for Ice on the Hudson (unlocated), elected NAD associate member
Sept.-Dec. The Eight show travels to AIC; Toledo Museum of Art; Detroit Museum of Art
Jan.-May The Eight show travels to John Herron Art Institute, Indianapolis; Cincinnati Art Museum; Carnegie Institute; Bridgeport Public Library,
Connecticut; Newark Public Library, New Jersey
Henri School of Art opens
Modern art collector Lizzie Bliss acquires first Davies painting
Henri meets color theorist, paint manufacturer Hardesty G. Maratta
April Independent Artists Exhibition, organized by Henri and Sloan, includes Prendergast, Glackens, Shinn, Lawson, and Davies
Luks first solo show at Macbeth Galleries
June Henri awarded International Fine Arts Exposition, Buenos Aires's Silver Medal for Willie Gee (1904; Newark Museum)
Nov. Sloan joins Socialist Party, runs for New York State Assembly on Socialist ticket.
Jan. Davies solo show at AIC, which acquires Maya, Mirror of Illusions (c. 1910)
March Independent Artists Exhibition, organized by Rockwell Kent, includes Davies, Luks, and Prendergast but not Henri
April Union League Club of New York show, organized by Henri with Glackens, includes The Eight
Shinn solo show at Union League Club
June Prendergast to Italy, returns January 1912
Nov. Emma Goldman invites Henri to teach classes at the Modern School of the Ferrer Center
Dec. Davies, Glackens, Lawson, and Luks present at the first meeting of the AAPS, instrumental in organizing "International Exhibition of Modern Art," known as the Armory Show
Modern art collector Duncan Phillips acquires first Lawson painting, High Bridge - Early Moon (by 1910) and Albert C. Barnes purchases several of Lawson's paintings
Sloan acting art director of socialist political magazine The Masses; in 1916 resigns from the publication and from the Socialist Party
Jan. Davies elected AAPS president
Feb. Glackens to Paris for Barnes, purchases modern French art
March Davies solo show at Macbeth Galleries
Glackens first solo show at Madison Art Gallery
Sept. Henri visits the Salon d'Automne and Gertrude Stein in Paris
Dec. Davies makes AAPS appointments: Glackens chair of Committee on Domestic Exhibits; Lawson and Henri on Committee on Foreign Exhibits; only Prendergast on both committees
Barnes purchases first work by Sloan, Nude, Green Scarf (1913; unlocated)
Feb. 17- March 15 Armory Show draws some 300,000 visitors to view 1300 works; The Eight artists, except Shinn, participate; modified show travels to Chicago and European section to Boston
April Davies awarded CI's honorable mention for Sleep Lies Perfect in Them (1908; Worcester Art Museum)
Nov. Davies organizes show of contemporary American art for CI
Prendergast elected AAPS president; Henri, Luks, and Sloan later resign; association disbands
Feb. Henri awarded PAFA's Beck Medal for Herself (1913; AIC acquired in 1924)
June Panama-California Exposition, San Diego, Henri organizes art show
Prendergast and brother Charles move to Greenwich Village studio in same building as Glackens
Panama Pacific Exposition, San Francisco: Davies exhibits 40 paintings; Lawson wins gold medal; Henri wins silver medal
Lawson awarded AIC's Blair Prize for Winter (1914; MMA), his first painting to enter MMA
Prendergast first retrospective at Carroll Galleries: modern art collectors Quinn, Barnes, and Ferdinand Howald buy works
Glackens elected first president of Society of Independent Artists; Prendergast and Sloan are officers
Forum Exhibition of Modern American Painters, organized by Alfred Stieglitz and Willard Huntington Wright, with Henri in honorary capacity
CGA's Clark Gold Medals awarded to Davies for Castalias (c. 1916; Hirshhorn Gallery); Lawson for Boathouse, Winter Harlem River (c1915; CGA); Luks for Woman with Maccaw (1907; Detroit Institute of Arts)
Lawson awarded NAD's Altman Prize for Pigeon Coop (c. 1916; private collection)
Sloan solo show at Whitney Studio
Lawson elected Associate Member of NAD; awarded NAD's Inness Gold Medal for Hills at Innwood (1914; Columbus Museum of Art)
Sloan elected president of Society of Independent Artists (serves until 1944)
Whitney Studio Club founded; Glackens, Prendergast, Sloan early members
Luks awarded PAFA's Temple Gold Medal for Houston Street (1917; St. Louis Art Museum)
Prendergast's first work acquired by a museum, monotype The Ships (c. 1895­97; Memorial Art Gallery at the University of Rochester)
Lawson awarded PAFA's Temple Gold Medal for Ice-Bound Falls (1919; AIC)
Davies solo show at AIC
Shinn show at Knoedler Galleries (last until 1937)
MMA organizes its first modern art show, "Loan Exhibition of Impressionist and Post-Impressionist Paintings," proposed by Bliss and Quinn
Sloan sells Dust Storm (1906) to MMA
Lawson awarded NAD's Altman Prize and CI's First Class medal for Vanishing Mist (c. 1916-21; CI)
March "Overseas Exhibition of American Paintings," organized by Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney, travels to International Art Exhibition in Venice; London's Grafton Galleries; and Whitney Studio (in November); includes Davies, Glackens, Henri, Lawson, Luks, Prendergast, and Sloan
April National Arts Club honors Henri at testimonial dinner at Salmagundi Club
Fall PC founded, acquires Davies's Flood (c. 1903) and Along the Erie Canal (1890); Luks's Sulky Boy (c. 1908) and The Dominican (1912); and Henri's Dutch Girl (1910, later reworked)
Barnes Foundation established
Glackens solo show at Whitney Studio Club
Duncan Phillips purchases Sloan's Wake of the Ferry II (1907) and Six O'Clock, Winter (1912) and works by Lawson, Luks, and Prendergast
Davies awarded CI's First Class medal for Afterthoughts of Earth (c. 1921; Jane F. Clark collection, fig. 7)
Henri's The Art Spirit is published
Prendergast awarded CGA's Clark Third Prize Bronze Medal for Landscape with Figures (1921; CGA)
Davies solo show at Dayton Art Institute; AIC; Worcester Art Museum
Glackens awarded PAFA's Temple Gold Medal for Nude (1924, unlocated)
Feb. 1 Prendergast dies
Summer Henri spends five months in Ireland annually until 1929
Barnes publishes The Art in Painting and the short-lived Journal of the Barnes Foundation to pioneer education on modern art; BF's museum functions as an educational institution with little public access
Davies solo shows at CGA; CI; Baltimore Museum of Art
Luks opens the George Luks School of Painting
Glackens travels frequently to France until 1931; health begins to decline
Fall AIC purchases Glackens's At Mouquin's (1905)
Luks awarded AIC's Logan Medal for The Player (c.1925; The Arkell Museum)
Cleveland Museum of Art organizes first Prendergast memorial retrospective
Sloan awarded Philadelphia Sesquicentennial International Exposition's gold medal for etching Hell-Hole (1917)
Quinn's modern art collection is sold at auction (he dies in 1924), includes works by Davies, Luks, Prendergast, Sloan, among others
April Davies solo show at John Herron Art Institute, Indianapolis
Dec. Albert E. Gallatin founds Gallery of Living Art at New York University to display his modern art collection
Whitney Galleries founded, Studio Club disbands
Lawson awarded NAD's Altman Prize for Hills in Winter (unlocated)
Oct. 28 Davies dies in Florence
MoMA founded; Alfred H. Barr Jr., director
PC and AIC organize Davies memorial show, opens MMA in 1930
Glackens awarded CI's prize for Bathers, Isle Adam (1927; unlocated)
Sloan elected to National Institute of Arts and Letters
Henri awarded PAFA's Temple Gold Medal for The Wee Woman (1927; Grandy collection)
July 12 Henri dies in New York
Dec. MoMA organizes "Nineteen Living Americans," includes Lawson and Sloan
Feragil Galleries organizes first major Lawson retrospective
Lawson awarded NAD's Saltus Gold Medal for Gold Mining, Cripple Creek (1929; Smithsonian American Art Museum)
Dec. MoMA organizes "Painting and Sculpture by Living Americans," including Luks and Glackens
Whitney Museum of American Art founded, Juliana Force director
Sloan awarded PAFA's Beck Gold Medal for Vagis the Sculptor (1930; private collection)
March MMA organizes Henri memorial show
WMAA organizes first "Biennial Exhibition of Contemporary American Painting"; purchases Prendergast's The Bathing Beach (c. 1919)
Luks awarded CGA's Clark Gold Medal for Woman with Black Cat (1930; CGA)
MoMA organizes "American Painting and Sculpture, 1862-1932," including The Eight except Shinn
Dec. 21 Luks dies in New York
WMAA organizes Prendergast's New York memorial retrospective
WMAA organizes Sloan etchings show
Glackens awarded PAFA's Sesnan Medal for Beach, St. Jean de Luz (1929; Terra Foundation for American Art, page 55)
Lawson awarded Salmagundi Club's Shaw Purchase Prize for Newfoundland Coast (unlocated); MMA acquires his The Beach, Miami (after 1928); he receives Federal Arts Program mural commission for Short Hills, New Jersey, post office
WMAA organizes "New York Realists, 1900-1914," including Henri, Sloan, Luks, Glackens, Lawson, and Shinn
Glackens awarded PAFA's Schiedt Prize for Bal Martinique (1928 or 1929; private collection)
May 22 Glackens dies at Charles Prendergast's Connecticut home
Dec. WMAA organizes Glackens memorial show, travels to CI; versions to AIC; Los Angeles; Saint Louis; Louisville; Cleveland; Washington, DC; Norfolk
Shinn awarded AIC's Blair prize for watercolor Early Morning, Paris (1901; AIC)
Sloan's autobiography, Gist of Art, is published
April-Oct. MMA organizes "Life in America" at 1939 World's Fair; includes Luks's Hester Street (1905; BM); Sloan's Dust Storm (1906; MMA); The Old Haymarket (1907; BM), Wake of the Ferry (PC, 1907), Six O'Clock, Winter (c. 1912; PC), McSorley's Bar (1912; Detroit Institute of Arts)
Dec. 18 Lawson dies in Florida
Sloan elected to the American Academy of Arts and Letters
BM organizes retrospective of The Eight, catalogue introduction by Shinn
Shinn elected full member of NAD
Sloan delivers Moody Lecture at AIC
PMA organizes "Artists of Philadelphia: William Glackens, George Luks, Everett Shinn, John Sloan"
Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire organizes "John Sloan Paintings and Prints: Seventy-Fifth Anniversary Retrospective"
MMA organizes "American Paintings Today," includes Shinn
Sloan inducted into American Academy of Arts and Sciences
Sept. 8 Sloan dies in New York
WMAA organizes Sloan memorial retrospective, artworks selected by the artist
May 1 Shinn dies in New York
William Glackens and the Ashcan Group, an anecdotal history of The Eight that describes their development as painters, by Glackens's son Ira, is published


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