The Eight and American Modernisms

March 6 - May 24, 2009



 

The Eight's Chronology: 1907-57

 
INSTITUTIONS (abbreviations in text)
 
American Association of Painters and
Sculptors (AAPS)
Art Institute of Chicago (AIC)
Barnes Foundation, Merion,
Pennsylvania (BF)
Brooklyn Museum (BM)
Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh (CI)
Corcoran Gallery of Art,
Washington, DC (CGA)
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (MMA)
Museum of Modern Art, New York (MoMA)
National Academy of Design, New York (NAD)
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts,
Philadelphia (PAFA)
Philadelphia Museum of Art (PMA)
Phillips Memorial Gallery, later The Phillips Collection, Washington, DC (PC)
Whitney Museum of American Art, New York (WMAA)
 
 
 
1907
 
Socialite and sculptor Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney establishes studio in MacDougal Alley, Greenwich Village, becoming Lawson's neighbor
 
Lawson solo show at PAFA, wins Sesnan Medal for best landscape painting for The River in Winter (1907; WMAA)
 
March Henri withdraws from NAD spring show after colleagues' works are rejected
 
April Henri and friends first meet to plan independent show
 
May "The Eight" first appears in New York Sun article
 
Prendergast accepts Davies's invitation, leaves for France, returns late October
 
Fall Newspaper articles on The Eight's show appear
 
 
1908
 
Corporate lawyer and modern art collector John Quinn acquires two Lawson landscapes (unrecorded)
 
Feb. 3-17 The Eight show at Macbeth Galleries:
63 paintings, 7000 visitors
 
March 7-19 The Eight show travels to PAFA
 
Spring The Eight and Henri's students' artworks hung together at NAD's annual show
 
Lawson awarded NAD's First Hallgarten Prize for Ice on the Hudson (unlocated), elected NAD associate member
 
Sept.-Dec. The Eight show travels to AIC; Toledo Museum of Art; Detroit Museum of Art
 
 
1909
 
Jan.-May The Eight show travels to John Herron Art Institute, Indianapolis; Cincinnati Art Museum; Carnegie Institute; Bridgeport Public Library,
Connecticut; Newark Public Library, New Jersey
 
Henri School of Art opens
 
Modern art collector Lizzie Bliss acquires first Davies painting
 
Henri meets color theorist, paint manufacturer Hardesty G. Maratta
 
 
1910
 
April Independent Artists Exhibition, organized by Henri and Sloan, includes Prendergast, Glackens, Shinn, Lawson, and Davies
 
Luks first solo show at Macbeth Galleries
 
June Henri awarded International Fine Arts Exposition, Buenos Aires's Silver Medal for Willie Gee (1904; Newark Museum)
 
Nov. Sloan joins Socialist Party, runs for New York State Assembly on Socialist ticket.
 
 
1911
 
Jan. Davies solo show at AIC, which acquires Maya, Mirror of Illusions (c. 1910)
 
March Independent Artists Exhibition, organized by Rockwell Kent, includes Davies, Luks, and Prendergast but not Henri
 
April Union League Club of New York show, organized by Henri with Glackens, includes The Eight
 
Shinn solo show at Union League Club
 
June Prendergast to Italy, returns January 1912
 
Nov. Emma Goldman invites Henri to teach classes at the Modern School of the Ferrer Center
 
Dec. Davies, Glackens, Lawson, and Luks present at the first meeting of the AAPS, instrumental in organizing "International Exhibition of Modern Art," known as the Armory Show
 
 
1912
 
Modern art collector Duncan Phillips acquires first Lawson painting, High Bridge - Early Moon (by 1910) and Albert C. Barnes purchases several of Lawson's paintings
 
Sloan acting art director of socialist political magazine The Masses; in 1916 resigns from the publication and from the Socialist Party
 
Jan. Davies elected AAPS president
 
Feb. Glackens to Paris for Barnes, purchases modern French art
 
March Davies solo show at Macbeth Galleries
 
Glackens first solo show at Madison Art Gallery
 
Sept. Henri visits the Salon d'Automne and Gertrude Stein in Paris
 
Dec. Davies makes AAPS appointments: Glackens chair of Committee on Domestic Exhibits; Lawson and Henri on Committee on Foreign Exhibits; only Prendergast on both committees
 
 
1913
 
Barnes purchases first work by Sloan, Nude, Green Scarf (1913; unlocated)
 
Feb. 17- March 15 Armory Show draws some 300,000 visitors to view 1300 works; The Eight artists, except Shinn, participate; modified show travels to Chicago and European section to Boston
 
April Davies awarded CI's honorable mention for Sleep Lies Perfect in Them (1908; Worcester Art Museum)
 
Nov. Davies organizes show of contemporary American art for CI
 
 
1914
 
Prendergast elected AAPS president; Henri, Luks, and Sloan later resign; association disbands
 
Feb. Henri awarded PAFA's Beck Medal for Herself (1913; AIC acquired in 1924)
 
June Panama-California Exposition, San Diego, Henri organizes art show
 
Prendergast and brother Charles move to Greenwich Village studio in same building as Glackens
 
 
1915
 
Panama Pacific Exposition, San Francisco: Davies exhibits 40 paintings; Lawson wins gold medal; Henri wins silver medal
 
Lawson awarded AIC's Blair Prize for Winter (1914; MMA), his first painting to enter MMA
 
Prendergast first retrospective at Carroll Galleries: modern art collectors Quinn, Barnes, and Ferdinand Howald buy works
 
 
1916
 
Glackens elected first president of Society of Independent Artists; Prendergast and Sloan are officers
 
Forum Exhibition of Modern American Painters, organized by Alfred Stieglitz and Willard Huntington Wright, with Henri in honorary capacity
 
CGA's Clark Gold Medals awarded to Davies for Castalias (c. 1916; Hirshhorn Gallery); Lawson for Boathouse, Winter Harlem River (c1915; CGA); Luks for Woman with Maccaw (1907; Detroit Institute of Arts)
 
Lawson awarded NAD's Altman Prize for Pigeon Coop (c. 1916; private collection)
 
Sloan solo show at Whitney Studio
 
 
1917
 
Lawson elected Associate Member of NAD; awarded NAD's Inness Gold Medal for Hills at Innwood (1914; Columbus Museum of Art)
 
Sloan elected president of Society of Independent Artists (serves until 1944)
 
 
1918
 
Whitney Studio Club founded; Glackens, Prendergast, Sloan early members
 
Luks awarded PAFA's Temple Gold Medal for Houston Street (1917; St. Louis Art Museum)
 
 
1919
 
Prendergast's first work acquired by a museum, monotype The Ships (c. 1895­97; Memorial Art Gallery at the University of Rochester)
 
1920
 
Lawson awarded PAFA's Temple Gold Medal for Ice-Bound Falls (1919; AIC)
 
Davies solo show at AIC
 
Shinn show at Knoedler Galleries (last until 1937)
 
 
1921
 
MMA organizes its first modern art show, "Loan Exhibition of Impressionist and Post-Impressionist Paintings," proposed by Bliss and Quinn
 
Sloan sells Dust Storm (1906) to MMA
 
Lawson awarded NAD's Altman Prize and CI's First Class medal for Vanishing Mist (c. 1916-21; CI)
 
March "Overseas Exhibition of American Paintings," organized by Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney, travels to International Art Exhibition in Venice; London's Grafton Galleries; and Whitney Studio (in November); includes Davies, Glackens, Henri, Lawson, Luks, Prendergast, and Sloan
 
April National Arts Club honors Henri at testimonial dinner at Salmagundi Club
 
Fall PC founded, acquires Davies's Flood (c. 1903) and Along the Erie Canal (1890); Luks's Sulky Boy (c. 1908) and The Dominican (1912); and Henri's Dutch Girl (1910, later reworked)
 
 
1922
 
Barnes Foundation established
 
Glackens solo show at Whitney Studio Club
 
Duncan Phillips purchases Sloan's Wake of the Ferry II (1907) and Six O'Clock, Winter (1912) and works by Lawson, Luks, and Prendergast
 
 
1923
 
Davies awarded CI's First Class medal for Afterthoughts of Earth (c. 1921; Jane F. Clark collection, fig. 7)
 
Henri's The Art Spirit is published
 
Prendergast awarded CGA's Clark Third Prize Bronze Medal for Landscape with Figures (1921; CGA)
 
 
1924
 
Davies solo show at Dayton Art Institute; AIC; Worcester Art Museum
 
Glackens awarded PAFA's Temple Gold Medal for Nude (1924, unlocated)
 
Feb. 1 Prendergast dies
 
Summer Henri spends five months in Ireland annually until 1929
 
 
1925
 
Barnes publishes The Art in Painting and the short-lived Journal of the Barnes Foundation to pioneer education on modern art; BF's museum functions as an educational institution with little public access
 
Davies solo shows at CGA; CI; Baltimore Museum of Art
 
Luks opens the George Luks School of Painting
 
Glackens travels frequently to France until 1931; health begins to decline
 
Fall AIC purchases Glackens's At Mouquin's (1905)
 
 
1926
 
Luks awarded AIC's Logan Medal for The Player (c.1925; The Arkell Museum)
 
Cleveland Museum of Art organizes first Prendergast memorial retrospective
 
Sloan awarded Philadelphia Sesquicentennial International Exposition's gold medal for etching Hell-Hole (1917)
 
 
1927
 
Quinn's modern art collection is sold at auction (he dies in 1924), includes works by Davies, Luks, Prendergast, Sloan, among others
 
April Davies solo show at John Herron Art Institute, Indianapolis
 
Dec. Albert E. Gallatin founds Gallery of Living Art at New York University to display his modern art collection
 
 
1928
 
Whitney Galleries founded, Studio Club disbands
 
Lawson awarded NAD's Altman Prize for Hills in Winter (unlocated)
 
Oct. 28 Davies dies in Florence
 
 
1929
 
MoMA founded; Alfred H. Barr Jr., director
 
PC and AIC organize Davies memorial show, opens MMA in 1930
 
Glackens awarded CI's prize for Bathers, Isle Adam (1927; unlocated)
 
Sloan elected to National Institute of Arts and Letters
 
Henri awarded PAFA's Temple Gold Medal for The Wee Woman (1927; Grandy collection)
 
July 12 Henri dies in New York
 
Dec. MoMA organizes "Nineteen Living Americans," includes Lawson and Sloan
 
 
1930
 
Feragil Galleries organizes first major Lawson retrospective
 
Lawson awarded NAD's Saltus Gold Medal for Gold Mining, Cripple Creek (1929; Smithsonian American Art Museum)
 
Dec. MoMA organizes "Painting and Sculpture by Living Americans," including Luks and Glackens
 
 
1931
 
Whitney Museum of American Art founded, Juliana Force director
 
Sloan awarded PAFA's Beck Gold Medal for Vagis the Sculptor (1930; private collection)
 
March MMA organizes Henri memorial show
 
 
1932
 
WMAA organizes first "Biennial Exhibition of Contemporary American Painting"; purchases Prendergast's The Bathing Beach (c. 1919)
 
Luks awarded CGA's Clark Gold Medal for Woman with Black Cat (1930; CGA)
 
MoMA organizes "American Painting and Sculpture, 1862-1932," including The Eight except Shinn
 
 
1933
 
Dec. 21 Luks dies in New York
 
 
1934
 
WMAA organizes Prendergast's New York memorial retrospective
 
 
1936
 
WMAA organizes Sloan etchings show
 
Glackens awarded PAFA's Sesnan Medal for Beach, St. Jean de Luz (1929; Terra Foundation for American Art, page 55)
 
 
1937
 
Lawson awarded Salmagundi Club's Shaw Purchase Prize for Newfoundland Coast (unlocated); MMA acquires his The Beach, Miami (after 1928); he receives Federal Arts Program mural commission for Short Hills, New Jersey, post office
 
WMAA organizes "New York Realists, 1900-1914," including Henri, Sloan, Luks, Glackens, Lawson, and Shinn
 
 
1938
 
Glackens awarded PAFA's Schiedt Prize for Bal Martinique (1928 or 1929; private collection)
 
May 22 Glackens dies at Charles Prendergast's Connecticut home
 
Dec. WMAA organizes Glackens memorial show, travels to CI; versions to AIC; Los Angeles; Saint Louis; Louisville; Cleveland; Washington, DC; Norfolk
 
 
1939
 
Shinn awarded AIC's Blair prize for watercolor Early Morning, Paris (1901; AIC)
 
Sloan's autobiography, Gist of Art, is published
 
April-Oct. MMA organizes "Life in America" at 1939 World's Fair; includes Luks's Hester Street (1905; BM); Sloan's Dust Storm (1906; MMA); The Old Haymarket (1907; BM), Wake of the Ferry (PC, 1907), Six O'Clock, Winter (c. 1912; PC), McSorley's Bar (1912; Detroit Institute of Arts)
 
Dec. 18 Lawson dies in Florida
 
 
1942
 
Sloan elected to the American Academy of Arts and Letters
 
 
1943
 
BM organizes retrospective of The Eight, catalogue introduction by Shinn
 
Shinn elected full member of NAD
 
 
1945
 
Sloan delivers Moody Lecture at AIC
 
PMA organizes "Artists of Philadelphia: William Glackens, George Luks, Everett Shinn, John Sloan"
 
 
1946
 
Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire organizes "John Sloan Paintings and Prints: Seventy-Fifth Anniversary Retrospective"
 
 
1950
 
MMA organizes "American Paintings Today," includes Shinn
 
Sloan inducted into American Academy of Arts and Sciences
 
 
1951
 
Sept. 8 Sloan dies in New York
 
 
1952
 
WMAA organizes Sloan memorial retrospective, artworks selected by the artist
 
 
1953
 
May 1 Shinn dies in New York
 
 
1957
 
William Glackens and the Ashcan Group, an anecdotal history of The Eight that describes their development as painters, by Glackens's son Ira, is published

 

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