Texas Art History

with an emphasis on representational art



This section of the Traditional Fine Arts Organization (TFAO) catalogue Topics in American Art is devoted to the topic "Texas Art History." Articles and essays specific to this topic published in TFAO's Resource Library are listed at the beginning of the section. Clicking on titles takes readers directly to the articles and essays.

Following the links to Resource Library articles and essays are a listing of museums in the state which have provided materials to Resource Library for this or any other topic.

Listed after Resource Library articles, essays and museums are links to online resources outside the TFAO website. Following these resources is information about offline resources including DVDs, paper-printed books, journals and articles. Our goal is to present complete knowledge relating to this section of Topics in American Art.

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Texts contained in Resource Library by named authors listed by author name in alphabetical order:

Picturing Palo Duro by Michael Grauer

Texas Impressionism: Branding with Brushstroke and Color, 1885-1935 by Michael Grauer

Introduction from "Celebrating America: Masterworks from Texas Collections" by Jane Myers and Barbara McCandless

The Amarillo High School Art Collection, by Graziella Marchicelli


Articles contained in Resource Library without named authors listed by article name in alphabetical order:

Blooming Texas!

Crossing State Lines: Texas Art from the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston

The Eyes of Texas - the Lone Star State as Seen by Her Artists

Lone Star Legacy: The Barrett Collection of Early Texas Art

Lone Star Still Lifes

The Pictures of Texas Monthly: Twenty-five Years

Self-Taught Texas Artists

Texas State Capitol Historical Art Collection


(above: Vera Bock, Work Pays America! Prosperity, c. 1936-1941, WPA Federal Art Project. Photo courtesy of the Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, WPA Poster Collection, POS-WPA-NY.B635, no. 12)


Museums and other non-profit sources of Resource Library articles and essays:

Please click on the name of each source to view articles and essays related to that source:

African American Museum

American Plains Artists

Amon Carter Museum

Archer M. Huntington Art Gallery

Art Museum of Southeast Texas

Art Studio, Inc.

Austin Museum of Art

Baylor University Art Museums

Blaffer Gallery, the Art Museum of the University of Houston

Cowboy Artists of America Museum

Dallas Museum of Art

Dougherty Arts Center / Julia Butridge Gallery

Ellen Noël Art Museum

El Paso Museum of Art

Grace Museum

Jack S. Blanton Museum of Art

McNay Art Museum

Meadows Museum at Southern Methodist University

Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth

Michelson Museum of Art

Museum of Texas Tech University

Museum of Fine Arts, Houston

Museum of the Southwest

National Scouting Museum

Old Jail Art Center

Panhandle-Plains Historical Museum

San Antonio Museum of Art

Sid Richardson Collection of Western Art

Southwestern Watercolor Society

Stark Museum of Art

Stark University Center Galleries

Texas State Capitol Historical Art Collection

Tyler Museum of Art

Witte Museum


Other Texas Art Museums

Museum of the Big Bend


(above: San Antonio Museum of Art. Photo © 2005 by John Hazeltine)


Other online information:

Artists from Texas from Wikipedia. Accessed August, 2015.

Bluebonnets and Beyond: Julian Onderdonk, American Impressionist, an exhibit held 3//23/08 - 7/20/08 at Dallas Museum of Art. Includes gallery photos. Accessed August, 2015.

Center for the Advancement and Study of Early Texas Art website has a calendar of early Texas art events. Accessed August, 2015.

Chicano Mural Movement from the Texas State Historical Association. Accessed August, 2015.

Dallas Nine from the Texas State Historical Association. Accessed August, 2015.

Discovering Texas: The Works of Robert Jenkins Onderdonk, an exhibit held 3//23/08 - 7/20/08 at Dallas Museum of Art. Includes gallery photos. Accessed August, 2015.

"Early Texas: A Fall Selection" November 11 - December 17, 2011 catalog from William Reaves Fine Art. Accessed 5/20

Fort Worth School of artists from the Texas State Historical Association. Accessed August, 2015.

The Frances Golden Ware Gift: Landscapes of the Southwest, an exhibit held June 3 - August 19, 2012 at the Meadows Museum at Southern Methodist University. Accessed February, 2015

Frank Reaugh: Landscapes of Texas and the American West is a 2015 exhibit at the Harry Ransom Center which says: "A restless and intrepid traveler, Reaugh sketched scenes while riding with cattlemen during the height of Texas's historic roundups, and he led annual sketch trips to some of Texas's most spectacular and remote locations." Also see article from Resource Library. Accessed 12/18 

Indian Rock Art from the Texas State Historical Association. Accessed August, 2015.

José Arpa, Spanish Painter in Texas  is a 2017 exhibit at the Art Museum of Southeast Texas which says: "Texas culture, especially, provided Arpa with an abundance of inspiration making his work vibrant and diverse. "Texas Impressionism" was greatly impacted by Arpa's style, and his teachings transformed this movement in south-central Texas." Also see Aug/Sep 2016 article in Cowboys and Indians. Accessed 4/17

Julie Speed: East of the Sun and West of the Moon  is a 2018 exhibit at the El Paso Museum of Art which says: "This exhibition will feature nearly fifty works of art from the last five years, many never before exhibited, exploring Speed's mining of Western and Eastern imagery, her combination of structured and spontaneous processes, and her creation of narratives and worlds that ignite the viewer's imagination."   Accessed 9/19

Lone Star Legacy | Texas Artists of the Early 20th Century from Southwest Art, March 2005. Accessed August, 2015.

"A New Visual Vocabulary: Developments in Texas Modernism from 1935-1965" July 18 - October 8, 2014 catalog from William Reaves Fine Art  Accessed 5/20

"Painting West Texas: 35 Artists/100 years" January 1, 2009 - January 31, 2009 catalog from William Reaves Fine Art Accessed 5/20

Post Office Murals from Texas State Historical Association. Accessed August, 2015.

Stampede is an epic mural by Tom Lea on permanent display at the Ellen Noël Art Museum. The mural originally was installed in an Odessa post office. It was later conserved and laced in the museum. Accessed 5/19

"Texas Artists and Art Movements" by Jeffrey Murrah from ezinearticles. Accessed August, 2015.

Texas Artists: Paintings, Sculpture, and Works on Paper is a joint digital collections project between SMU Libraries' Bywaters Special Collections and Norwick Center for Digital Solutions; the Dallas Museum of Art; the Dallas Public Library's Texas/Dallas History & Archives Division and Fine Books Division; the Harry Ransom Center, The University of Texas at Austin; and SMU's Meadows Museum. The goal of the project is to provide access to a wide range of digitized copies of works by Texas artists. Accessed 5/20

Texas in the Twenties: Prints, Drawings, and Photographs from Lone Star Collections, an exhibit held 3/4/12 - 5//27/12 at Dallas Museum of Art. Includes gallery photos. Accessed August, 2015.

Texas Monuments, Statues & Shrines, from Texas Escapes - Blueprints For Travel, LLC., catalogues dozens of monuments and statues in Texas public places. Accessed August, 2015.

Texas Panhandle Artists from West Texas A&M University. Accessed August, 2015.

"Texas Paper: Watercolors, Pastels and Drawings from the Lone Star State" December 10, 2009 - December 19, 2009 catalog from William Reaves Fine Art Accessed 5/20

"Texas Visions of an Earlier Time: An Exhibition of Historic Texas Art" December 5 - December 20, 2014 catalog from William Reaves Fine Art  Accessed 5/20

"3 generations of El Paso Art" By Myrna Zanetell Special to El Paso Inc., February 17, 2013. Accessed August, 2015.

Tom Lea and World War II  is a 2018 exhibit at the El Paso Museum of Art which says: "This is the first museum exhibition in the artist's hometown devoted to Lea's World War II paintings and drawings owned by the renowned U.S. Army Center of Military History at Fort Belvoir, Virginia."  Accessed 9/19

The Amarillo Museum of Art has videos posted on this page. One of the videos, titled "An Uncommon Dream," (25 min, 26 sec) is a documentary made in advance of the opening of an exhibition titled An Uncommon Dream: The Amarillo High School Collection of 19th and 20th Century Art, held in 2010 at the Amarillo Museum of Art. Dr. Graziella Marchicelli wrote an article on the exhibition in the March-April 2010 issue of American Art Review. Dr. Marchicelli also initiated the documentaries program for the Amarillo Museum of Art. Accessed May, 2015


(above: Jose Aceves, Big City News, Borger, TX Post Office, 1939, oil on canvas. Treasury Department Section commission. Photograph courtesy Lynn Hopkins, wpamurals.com)


TFAO's Distinguished Artists catalogue provides online access to biographical information for artists associated with this state. Also, Search Resource Library for online articles and essays concerning both individual artists associated with this state's history and the history of art centers and museums in this state. Resource Library articles and essays devoted to individual artists and institutions are not listed on this page.


Books, listed by year of publication, with most recently published book listed first:

Midcentury Modern Art in Texas, by Katie Robinson Edwards, University of Texas Press, 2014. says: "Before Abstract Expressionism of New York City was canonized as American postwar modernism, the United States was filled with localized manifestations of modern art. One such place where considerable modernist activity occurred was Texas, where artists absorbed and interpreted the latest, most radical formal lessons from Mexico, the East Coast, and Europe, while still responding to the state's dramatic history and geography. This barely known chapter in the story of American art is the focus of Midcentury Modern Art in Texas...." Accessed August, 2015.

Intimate Modernism: Fort Worth Circle Artists in the 1940s, By Jane Myers and Scott Grant Barker, published by Amon Carter Museum, 2008. ISBN-10: 0883601036. 208 pages. Google Books says: "Artspace critic Dave Hickey once identified the Fort Worth Circle as 'Texas' first indigenous group of consciously cosmopolitan and irrefutably modern artists.' Their work, he wrote, 'represents the fruit of a special time in the culture of the western United States.'  This book chronicles the Circle's distinctive output during the 1940s, the decade of their genesis and greatest innovation. These 'genuine citizens of the world,' as Hickey called them, possessed an unconventional vision that radically sidestepped the traditional art of post-Depression Texas. Drawing from their own fertile imaginations, the members of the Circle responded to modern art by creating a unique aesthetic based on contemporary surrealism and abstraction."

Engraved Prints of Texas, 1554-1900, By Mavis Parrott Kelsey, Robin Brandt Hutchison, Published by Texas A&M University Press, 2005. ISBN 1585442704, 9781585442706. 478 pages. Google Books says: "For centuries Texas has fired the imagination of artists as well as explorers and settlers. Before modern photography, engravings were the principal type of illustration used by artists to portray images of the state. Now, in this extensive catalogue, authors Mavis P. Kelsey, Sr., and Robin Brandt Hutchison have surveyed all engraved illustrations about Texas published before 1900. Engraved Prints of Texas, 1554-1900 presents the whole range of early Texas history as portrayed in published engravings: from the first printed representation of a buffalo in 1554 to a 1900 view of the University of Texas Medical School in Galveston. Entries include information on more than 2,000 engravings, 470 of which are illustrated in this volume. Presented chronologically by century and decade of publication, each chapter features a brief introduction to the historical background of the era, highlighting key illustrations and placing the art within the context of major events of the period. Several topical discussions address subjects that span decades or recur as pervasive themes in illustration. Historians, teachers, and scholars will find this catalogue a useful reference for locating pictorial representations of particular events, subjects, or persons. It is an indispensable source for lovers of Texas history and an important contribution to preserving the visual record."

Texas Painters, Sculptors & Graphic Artists: A Biographical Dictionary of Artists in Texas Before 1942, By John E. Powers, Deborah Daniels Powers. Published by Woodmont Books, 2000. ISBN 0966962206, 9780966962208. 606 pages. Contains nformation on the Abilene Art League, Amarillo Art Association. Woodmont Books says: "Texas Painters, Sculptors & Graphic Artists:  A Biographical Dictionary of Artists in Texas Before 1942, with a forward by Ron Tyler, is the most extensive and comprehensive reference book on artists who worked in Texas before the modern era that began with World War II.  Authors John and Deborah Powers include some 3,800 artists in the 606-page book, which distills a great mass of information obtained over fourteen years from archival collections, exhibition catalogs, reference works, monographs, periodicals, unpublished materials, and interviews and correspondence with living artists and relatives of deceased artists...."

Texas: 150 Works from the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, By Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, Alison de Lima Greene, Alejandra Jimenez. Published by Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, 2000. Original from the University of Michigan. Digitized Nov 13, 2007. ISBN 0810967065, 9780810967069. 278 pages. Google Books says: "This fascinating book provides the first assessment of the artists who have shaped the rich history of art in Texas, from its 19th-century origins to the diversity of the present scene. Published to accompany an exhibition of selected works from the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, this lavishly illustrated volume reveals the complexity of America's most fabled state as seen through the eyes of its leading artists. The artists highlighted here include figures of national prominence like Robert Wilson; emerging artists such as Helen Altman and Jesse Amado; and artists who have made a significant impact on the evolution of American art, from the Texas-born Robert Rauschenberg to artists who have worked in Texas for extended periods like Rackstraw Downes and Donald Judd. Exploring and exploding the cliches that have defined the Lone Star state and its art, this is an important contribution both to regional history and contemporary art."

Dictionary of Texas Artists: 1800-1945 by Paula L. Grauer & Michael R. Grauer, Texas A&M Press, College Station, TX, 1999. Texas A&M Press says: The first comprehensive listing of Texas artists in more than sixty years, the Dictionary of Texas Artists, 1800­1945 highlights more than 2,500 artists who have lived, worked, and exhibited in Texas. Drawing on archival documents, press releases, periodicals, and exhibition brochures in all known collections and archives, Paula L. and Michael R. Grauer provide as much information possible on the artists' birth and death dates and place, primary city of residence, art education, professional credentials, and exhibition record...."

Texas Art and a Wildcatter's Dream: Edgar B. Davis and the San Antonio Art League, By William E. Reaves. Contributor Richard Casagrande, Cecilia Steinfeldt. Published by Texas A&M University Press, 1998. ISBN 0890968209, 9780890968208. 97 pages. Google Books says: "When a Texas oilman funded a national art competition in the late 1920s, the generous prize money swiftly attracted such artists as Oscar E. Berninghaus and Herbert Dunton (founding members of the Taos Society of Artists). In addition to a gallery of color plates representing the best of the winning entries, this book offers an intriguing portrait of art philanthropy and the development of artistic trends. The San Antonio Art League w From this alliance of philanthropy and talent came what Cecilia Steinfeldt calls "a milestone in the saga of Texas art history". Eventually, the controversy and visibility generated by the competition fueled the regionalist movement that would reject impressionism and gain prominence in the 1930s. The story of Edgar B. Davis, the Yankee entrepreneur -- turned -- Luling, Texas, oilman, is as intriguing as that of the competitions he sponsored. Inspired by a mystical conviction that his success was intended for the public good, he established charitable foundations and supported the arts. A foreword by art historian Cecilia Steinfeldt places the competitions in historical perspective, and an afterword by art appraiser and teacher Richard Casagrande provides commentary on individual paintings." (right: front cover of Texas Art and a Wildcatter's Dream: Edgar B. Davis and the San Antonio Art League, image courtesy of Google Books)

A Comprehensive Guide to Outdoor Sculpture in Texas, By Carol Morris Little. Published by University of Texas Press, 1996. ISBN 0292760361, 9780292760363. 499 pages. Google Books says: "Travel anywhere in Texas, and you're sure to see sculpture in public settings. From the Confederate soldiers that stand sentinel on many courthouse lawns to the works of internationally renowned modern artists such as Alexander Calder, Texas' outdoor sculpture encompasses an amazing range of subjects, styles, and artists. In this irresistibly browsable book, Carol Morris Little offers thumbnail descriptions of over 1,200 pieces of outdoor sculpture. The entries are grouped by city and, within city, by artist. A typical entry includes the artist' name, birth date, and nationality; the sculpture' date, type, size, material, location, and source of funding; and a comments section that gives interesting facts about the work. Many of the sculptures are also illustrated by black-and-white photographs. Carol Little' introduction offers a concise, reliable history of outdoor sculpture in Texas, from early memorial pieces to current whimsies such as Stanley Marsh' Cadillac Ranch near Amarillo. Along the way, she discusses the contributions of Texas sculptors such as Elisabet Ney, Charles Umlauf, and Glenna Goodacre, as well as non-Texans such as Barbara Hepworth, Joan Miro, Henry Moore, Louise Nevelson, Auguste Rodin, and many others. With this comprehensive guide in hand, all Texas residents and visitors will discover the wealth of sculpture that enlivens our public spaces. Perfect for trips around the state, the book will be equally valuable for art historians, landscape designers, teachers, librarians, and local historical associations-indeed, everyone seeking information on Texas' sculptural heritage." (right: front cover of A Comprehensive Guide to Outdoor Sculpture in Texas, image courtesy of Google Books)

Painting Texas History to 1900, By Sam DeShong Ratcliffe. Published by University of Texas Press, 1992. ISBN 029278113X, 9780292781139. 140 pages. Google Books says: "T'exas history has long been celebrated by historians, fiction writers, and film makers, but this handsome volume represents the first detailed examination of the state' history in paintings. . . . A useful contribution to historians' understanding of how artworks have functioned to create, reflect, and reinforce Americans' visions of this specific part of America' multiple Wests.'--Western Historical Quarterly. Dramatic historical events have frequently provided subject matter for artists, particularly in pre-twentieth-century Texas, where works portraying historical, often legendary, events and individuals predominated. Until now, however, these paintings of Texas history have never received the kind of study given to historical, fictional, and film versions of the same events. Painting Texas History to 1900 fills this gap with an interdisciplinary approach that explores these paintings both as works of art and as historical documents.The author examines the works of more than forty artists, including Henry McArdle, Theodore Gentilz, Robert Onderdonk, William Huddle, Frederic Remington, Friedrich Richard Petri, Arthur T. Lee, Seth Eastman, Sarah Hardinge, Frank Reaugh, W. G. M. Samuel, Carl G. von Iwonski, and Julius Stockfleth. He places each work within its historical and cultural context to show why such subject matter was chosen, why it was depicted in a particular way, and why such a depiction gained popular acceptance. For example, paintings of heroic events of the Texas Revolution were especially popular in the years following the Civil War, when, in Ratcliffe' view, Texans needed such images to assuage the loss of the war and the humiliation of Reconstruction.Though the paintings cut across traditional art history categories--from the pictographs of early historic Indians to European-inspired oil paintings--they are bound together by their artists' intent for them to function as historically evocative documents. With their visual narratives of events that characterized all of America' westward expansion--Indian encounters, military battles, farming, ranching, surveying, and the closing of the frontier--these works add an important chapter to the story of the American West." (left: front cover of Painting Texas History to 1900, image courtesy of Google Books)

Artists of Texas: Volume III by J. Pat Breedlove & Cindy Breedlove, Mountain Productions Inc, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 1990

A Century of Sculpture in Texas, 1889-1989, By Patricia D. Hendricks, Becky Duval Reese, Archer M. Huntington Art Gallery, University of Texas at Austin. Published by University of Texas at Austin, 1989. Original from the University of Michigan. Digitized Nov 13, 2007. 185 pages. Google Books says: "Issued in connection with the exhibition held at Archer M. Huntington Art Gallery, College of Fine Arts, the University of Texas at Austin, June 16-August 13, 1989, and other museums."

Artists of Texas: Volume II by J. Pat Breedlove & Cindy Breedlove, Mountain Productions Inc, Albuquerque, New Mexico, c.1988

The Texas Hill Country : Interpretations by Thirteen Artists (Joe and Betty Moore Texas Art Series, No 5), by A. C. Greene. Paperback (December 1987)

Artists of Texas: Volume I by J. Pat Breedlove / Cindy Breedlove , Mountain Productions Inc, Albuquerque / Alto, New Mexico, 1986

The Texas Landscape, 1900-1986, By Susie Kalil, Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. Published by Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, 1986. Original from the University of California. Digitized May 21, 2008. ISBN 0890900345, 9780890900345. 96 pages. Google Books says: "Issued on the occasion of an exhibition to be held May 17-Sept. 7, 1986 in celebration of the Texas sesquicentennial."

Lone Star Regionalism: The Dallas Nine and Their Circle, 1928-1945, By Rick Stewart, Dallas Museum of Art. Published by Texas Monthly Press, 1985. Original from the University of Michigan. Digitized Nov 8, 2007. ISBN 0877190143, 9780877190141. 199 pages

Folk Art in Texas, By Francis Edward Abernethy. Photographs by Francis Edward Abernethy. Published by Southern Methodist University Press, 1985. Original from the University of Michigan. Digitized Oct 7, 2008. ISBN 0870742108, 9780870742101. 203 pages

Texas Images & Visions, By Becky Duval Reese, William H Goetzmann, Archer M. Huntington Art Gallery, Dept. of Rare Books and Special Collections, Library, University of Rochester. Published by Univ. of Texas Press, 1983

Seventy-five Years of Art in Dallas: The History of the Dallas Art Association and the Dallas Museum of Fine Arts, By Jerry Bywaters. Published by Dallas Museum of Fine Arts. Jan. 24 - Feb. 28, 1978

20th century women in Texas art: Exhibition Calendar, September 3-September 29, 1974, Laguna Gloria Art Museum, Austin, Texas, By Patricia D Hendricks, Laguna Gloria Art Museum, Laguna Gloria Art Museum. Published by Laguna Gloria Art Museum, 1974. 36 pages

TEXAS PAINTING AND SCULPTURE: 20TH CENTURY, Published by Southern Methodist University. Pollock Galleries, 1971. 97 pages

Early Texas Art in the Witte Museum, By Witte Memorial Museum, Martha Utterback. Published by Witte Museum, 1968. 64 pages

Painting in Texas: The Nineteenth Century, By Pauline A. Pinckney, Amon Carter Museum of Western Art. Published by Published for the Amon Carter Museum of Western Art, Fort Worth, by the University of Texas Press, 1967. Original from the University of Michigan. Digitized Feb 14, 2008. 232 pages

A Century of Art and Life in Texas: Dallas Museum of Fine Arts, April 9-May 7, 1961, By Dallas Museum of Fine Arts, Dallas Museum of Fine Arts. Published by Dallas Museum of Fine Arts, 1961. 28 pages

Monuments erected by the State of Texas to commemorate the centenary of Texas independence: the report of the Commission of Control for Texas Centennial Celebrations, By Texas Commission of Control for Texas Centennial Celebrations, Harold Schoen, Commission of Control for Texas Centennial Celebrations, Texas. Published by Steck Co., 1939. 214 pages

Art and Artists of Texas by Esse Forrester-O'Brien, Tardy Publishing, Dallas, Texas, 1935

A History of Texas Artists and Sculptors, By Frances Battaile Fisk. Published by F.B. Fisk, 1928. 228 pages

The Creative Arts in Texas: A Handbook of Biography, By Goldie Capers Smith. Published by Cokesbury press, 1926. 178 pages



Rebecca S. Cohen: "The Texas American Art Trail: Introduction" American Art Review November-December 2001 (Volume XIII, Number 6)

Michael R. Grauer: "Women Artists of Texas, 1900-1960" American Art Review November-December 2006 (Volume XVIII, Number 6)

Mark Morey: "Amarillo Museum of Art" American Art Review November-December 2001 (Volume XIII, Number 6)

Emily Ballew Neff & Melina Kervandjian: "Museum of Fine Arts, Houston" American Art Review November-December 2001 (Volume XIII, Number 6)

Ellen Osborne: American Art Review "Bayou Bend Collection and Gardens: Renovation and Restoration" Fall 93

Richard H. Saunders: "The Blanton Museum of Art, C. R. Smith Collection" American Art Review November-December 2004 (Volume XVI, Number 6)

Gerry D. Scott, III: "San Antonio Museum of Art" American Art Review November-December 2001 (Volume XIII, Number 6)

William R. Thompson: "EI Paso Museum of Art" American Art Review November-December 2001 (Volume XIII, Number 6)

Gudmund Vigtel: High Museum of Art: American Landscape Paintings from the High Museum, 1981, Gudmund Vigtel, Introduction. (32 pages total)

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