George Luks: The Watercolors
by Judith Hansen O'Toole
- August 13th, George Benjamin Luks is born to Emil Charles
Luks and Bertha Amalia von Kraemer Luks in Williamsport. The Luks have
four children, each of them talented in the arts. The eldest child, Anna,
becomes a singer in Lillian Russel's company; Leo excels as a violinist;
George works as an artist, and Will writes poetry, sings and composes.
- The Luks family moves from Williamsport, Pennsylvania,
to Shenandoah, Pennsylvania, where they stay, except for two brief periods
when they live in Pottsville, Pennsylvania, and Vineland, New Jersey.
- Begins a vaudeville act with his brother Will under the
stage name of "Buzzey & Anstock" touring Pennsylvania and
- November, fire destroys the town of Shenandoah, prompting
the Luks brothers to give up their act and return home to help their family.
- April, George enrolls at the Pennsylvania Academy of
the Fine Arts, staying only one month.
- October, Luks enrolls at the Staatliche, Kunstakademie,
at the Düsseldorf Academy, where he studies for only a short time.
- c. 1890
- Luks travels to Paris and London after his study in Düsseldorf.
Enjoys the work of Rembrandt, van Steen, Hals, and Renoir.
- Luks returns to the United States. His illustrations
appear in Puck and Truth, humor magazines.
- May, Luks returns to Europe. While there he visits the
Prado in Madrid. There he enjoys the work of Velasquez and Goya.
- Luks returns to the United States. While returning he
paints Ponta Delgada, one of his earliest examples of watercolor.
- Luks joins the staff of the Philadelphia Press
as an illustrator. He moves into a one room flat with Everett Shinn at
the corner of Eighth and Chestnut. Through their work at the Philadelphia
Press Luks and Everett Shinn become acquainted with William Glackens,
a fellow employee. Shinn then meets John Sloan through his next job at
the Inquirer. Through Sloan, Luks and Shinn begin attending the
informal Tuesday evening discussion group hosted by Robert Henri at his
806 Walnut Street studio. Henri's interest in the plight of the common
man and America, in general, was also central to Luks work.
- 1894 - 95
- Luks is associated with the "Philadelphia Five,"
which also includes: William Glackens, Everett Shinn, John Sloan, and Robert
- Luks leaves the Philadelphia Press to join the
staff of the Philadelphia Evening Bulletin. In December of this
year Luks leaves for Cuba. He serves as a war correspondent in Cuba for
the Evening Bulletin.
- January - March, The Bulletin publishes thirty
of Luks drawings of Cuba. March, Luks is reportedly fired from The Bulletin
for drunkenness and for failure to submit work regularly. While in Cuba
he does two watercolors, In Havana and Cuban Dancers. April,
Luks moves to New York where he begins working for The New York World
as an illustrator. In the fall, Luks begins to draw for the comic strip
The Yellow Kid. He continues this strip until December 1897.
- Luks leaves The New York World to become the chief
cartoonist for The Verdict.
- Exhibits a painting entitled Street Scene: East Side
New York at the Pennsylvania Academy's Sixty-Ninth Annual Exhibition
(Jan. 15 - Feb. 24). This is the first time he participates in a major
exhibition. Luks receives his first significant recognition through a review
of the exhibition written by R. Armstrong.
- Exhibits oil paintings at a group show in the Allan Gallery
which was organized by Robert Henri and included Sloan, Glackens, Alfred
Maurer and two others.
- c. 1902
- Luks marries the first of his three wives, Lois, who
bears his only child, a son, Kent. George and his son are to have no relationship
after his subsequent divorce from Lois.
- c. 1902 - 03
- Travels to Paris and England, leaving his pregnant wife
in New York. They are later, legally separated. While in France he paints
a series of wooden panels of Parisian scenes as well as On the Marne,
which he sketches. In the late Teens, he does an impressionistic watercolor
of the scene. Returns to America within the same year.
- Leaves the newspaper to devote his energy to painting.
William Macbeth becomes Luk's dealer. His watercolor, Heckscher Building,
has been dated to circa 1902.
- This is the first time Luks' work is included in a major
New York show in the Society of American Artists Twenty-Fifth Anniversary
Exhibition. Also exhibits at The Pennsylvania Academy's Seventy-Second
Annual Exhibition (Jan. 19 - Feb. 28).
- George marries Emma Louise Noble, sister of a newspaper
acquaintance. He returns to Paris for a brief trip. He also becomes a member
of the Society of American Artists. Exhibits at the Art Institute of Chicago's
Seventeenth Annual Exhibition of American Paintings & Sculpture (Oct.
20 - Nov. 27). Also exhibits with the core group of what would become "The
Eight" at the National Arts Club in January.
- Exhibits at the Pennsylvania Academy's One Hundredth
Anniversary Exhibition (Jan. 23 - March 4) and the Society of American
Artists Twenty-Seventh Annual Exhibition. Exhibits at the Carnegie Institute's
Tenth Annual Exhibition (Nov. 2, 1905 - Jan. 1, 1906). Paints his masterpiece,
The Spielers, (Addison Gallery of American Art, Phillips Academy,
- Joins a new graphics and watercolor group in controversy
with the American Watercolor Society, which quickly disbanded without a
show. Exhibits at the Modern Art Gallery with Henri, Glackens, Shinn, and
- Exhibits at the New Orleans Art Association (Jan. 4 -
16). May, Luks' painting, "Man with Dyed Mustachios" is rejected
by the National Academy of Design, despite Robert Henri's protest. This
prompts Henri to withdraw from the Academy and to later form "The
- "The Eight," among other factors, is formed
from the pre-existing "Philadelphia Five" with the addition of
Maurice Prendergast, Arthur B. Davies, and Ernest Lawson. The group exhibits
at Macbeth Gallery, (Feb. 3 - 15). They also have a travelling show entitled
"Paintings by Eight American Artists Residing in New York & Boston"
which begins at the Art Institute of Chicago (Sept. 8 - Oct. 7) and travels
to the Toldeo Museum of Art (Oct.); to the Detroit Museum of Art (Dec.);
to the Indianapolis Art Association (Jan. 6 - 29); Cincinnati Art Museum
(Feb. 6 - 28); to the Carnegie Institute in Pittsburgh (March 5 - 31);
Bridgeport, Ohio; and ending in Newark in June of 1909. Exhibits in Pittsburgh
at the Carnegie Institute's Twelfth Annual Exhibition (April 30 - June
30). Exhibits at the Corcoran's Second Biennial Exhibition of Oil Paintings
by Contemporary American Artists (Dec. 8, 1908 - Jan. 12, 1909). Elected
as an associate member of the National Academy of Design.
- In addition to the above-mentioned travelling exhibition,
Luks exhibits in Buffalo at the Albright Art Gallery and in New York at
Macbeth Gallery and with "The Eight" in Berlin.
- April, Luks has first one-man show at Macbeth Gallery.
Despite urgings from his friends in "The Eight," Luks declines
from exhibiting at the 1910 Independent Show to focus on his show at Macbeth's.
- Luks joins the American Watercolor Society, exhibiting
Madonna of the Vegetables. Exhibits in Buffalo, Indianapolis, St.
Louis, New Orleans, and at Rome's International Exposition.
- Exhibits in New York at the Folsom Gallery and with the
National Association of Portrait Painters.
- Luks exhibits at the Armory Show in New York City and
becomes a member of the Association of American Painters and Sculptors.
He also moves to High Bridge, on the upper west side of Manhattan near
the Hudson River, from his Greenwich Village apartment. This becomes a
significant locale for his works executed during the 1910s and early 1920s.
Luks exhibits at New York's Kraushaar Gallery. He would exhibit there regularly
until 1924. Also began exhibiting at the New York Water Color Club's annual
exhibitions continuing until 1917. Additional exhibits in Baltimore, Chicago,
Rochester, and St. Louis.
- July, a group of Luks watercolors and drawings appear
in Vanity Fair after having been exhibited in his one-man show at Kraushaar's
Gallery. This is the first publication of his work in Vanity Fair,
an association that would continue for the next twenty years. Exhibits
at the New York Water Color Club's Twenty-Fifth Anniversary Exhibition
with Philosopher. Also exhibits at Pennsylvania Academy, National
Association of Portrait Painters, and the Corcoran.
- Exhibits at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition
in San Francisco. Paints the watercolors Plucking Chickens, River
Boats, Gossip, Playing Soldiers and Harlem River.
- Luks receives the Hudnut Watercolor Prize at the New
York Water Color Club's Twenty-Seventh Annual Exhibition for his work,
On The Marne. He is also awarded the William A. Clark Prize and
an honorable mention both from the Corcoran Gallery in Washington, D.C.
Also exhibits at the Pennsylvania Academy and the Art Institute of Chicago.
Becomes a member of the Society of Independent Artists, of which his friends
William Glackens and John Sloan are presidents. Luks is on the advisory
board. Commences exhibiting at the Toledo Museum of Art's Annual Exhibitions
of American Painters (1916 - 1923, 1926 - 27, 1932 - 33).
- Exhibits at the Pennsylvania Academy and the Art Institute
of Chicago. Also has a one-man show at the Newark Museum.
- Luks wins the Temple Gold Medal at the Pennsylvania Academy;
exhibits at the Indianapolis Art Association and the Art Institute of Chicago.
Exhibits at the Milwaukee Art Institute with Augustus Vincent Tack and
John Sloan. In a one-man show at Kraushaar Gallery he exhibits sixteen
watercolors and fourteen oils. He spends time that autumn in Connecticut
with his friend, the sculptor of Mt. Rushmore, Gutzon Borglum. While there
he executes a series of Czechoslovakian theme paintings inspired by his
time spent with Czech emigrés who were also staying with Borglum.
Luks also paints a series of French scenes taken from a sketchbook of renderings
done in the early 1900s. Watercolors from this series include Verdun,
France, Rue Royal, Night, On the Seine, Serene
(Paris) and Cathedral. Other watercolors done during Luks' World
War I period include: Art Student, Lamp Light, Harlem
Bridge and High Bridge.
- Luks summers in Nova Scotia where he paints a series
of oils and watercolors. Luks exhibits at the Corcoran, the Art Institute
of Chicago, the Pennsylvania Academy (where he serves as a juror of painting)
and exhibits in the first exhibition of the Society of American Painters,
Sculptors, and Gravers at the Albright Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York.
- January, Luks exhibits his Nova Scotia work at the Kraushaar
Gallery to good reviews. He wins the Logan Medal at the Art Institute of
Chicago for his painting Otis Skinner. He begins teaching at the
Art Students League in New York.
- Exhibits at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts One
Hundred Sixteenth Annual Exhibition. Travels to the Schuylkill Coal Region
of Pennsylvania where he will return in 1923, 1925, and in 1927. While
visiting there he begins a series of watercolors. Also exhibits six of
his watercolors at the Rochester Memorial Art
- Gallery in a show entitled Watercolors by Nine American
Artists (Jan.). This show travels to the Toldeo Museum of Art and the Buffalo
Fine Arts Academy (Albright Art Gallery) in the same year. Works exhibited:
Euniskillers Lodge, The Runaway, Fifth Lake Carry,
The Screecher, Guides in a Storm and Trout Fishing.
- Luks exhibits at the Art Institute of Chicago's Watercolor
Exhibition (Spring Street and The Candy Woman) (April 15
- May 15). He becomes ill and enters a sanitarium after he separates from
his second wife. He then goes to Boston where he stays with a former student,
patron, and friend, Mrs. Q.A. Shaw McKean, formerly Margaret Sargeant.
There he paints several oils and does another series of watercolors. He
also does a series of watercolors inspired by his summer visit to Pond
Cove, Maine. Across the Inlet and Maine Island are two such
works. In October, He exhibits his Maine work at the Kraushaar Gallery.
Exhibits Spring Street at the Pennsylvania Academy and The Cleveland
Museum of Art's Second Annual Watercolor Exhibition (Nov. 15 - Dec. 15).
- In January Luks has a retrospective show of 39 of his
works at the Kraushaar Gallery. Luks also exhibits at the Brooklyn Museum's
watercolor exhibition (Nov. 19 - Dec 20th) showing: Mike Cummins
and A Daughter of the Mines. Additionally, he exhibits at Saint
Louis City Art Museum's International Watercolor Exhibition. Also shows
at the Pennsylvania Academy and the Art Institute of Chicago.
- Luks' last year in association with the Kraushaar Gallery.
He stops teaching at the Art Students League and exhibits at the Art Institute
- Opens the George Luks School of Painting in midtown Manhattan.
He teaches at this school until his death in 1933 at which point John Sloan
succeeds him. Luks has an exhibition of his "Anthracite" paintings,
watercolors, and drawings at the Rehn Galleries. Rehn respresents him until
his death. This group of work is based upon his experiences in the Anthracite
coal mining region of northern Pennsylvania. His second marriage ends in
divorce. Luks forfeits a sizeable block of his work to his ex-wife in the
divorce settlement. Luks arranges a temporary studio this summer in his
childhood hometown of Pottsville, Pennsylvania. Exhibits at the Pennsylvania
Academy and the Art Institute of Chicago. Luks buys a farmhouse in Old
Chatham, New York in the Berkshire Mountains for a summer home. He paints
a series of watercolors there over the next several years.
- Luks wins the Logan Medal at the Art Institute of Chicago.
Also participates in the Art Institute of Chicago's International Watercolor
Exhibition (The Miner and Market, Early Morning).
Exhibits at the Pennsylvania Academy and begins exhibiting annually at
the Cleveland Museum of Art's annual watercolor exhibition (1926 - 1929).
- Luks marries Mercedes Carbonell, a Cuban woman many years
his junior (aged twenty-eight). Luks wins the Gold Medal at the Locust
Club exhibition in Philadelphia. He exhibits a series of Pennsylvania mining
watercolors at the Rehn Galleries. Exhibits at the Pennsylvania Academy
and the Art Institute of Chicago.
- Exhibits at the Pennsylvania Academy and the Corcoran.
- c. 1928
- Luks executes a series of watercolors at the estate of
his friend, Harrison Tweed, at Montauk, Long Island.
- Luks exhibits at the Fifth Biennial Watercolor Exhibition
at the Brooklyn Museum (Jan. 21 - Feb. 18) showing: By the Pond,
Hickman's Church, The Waterfall and Where the Coal Begins.
He also exhibits The Waterfall at the the Pennsylvania Academy's
Twenty-Seventh Annual Watercolor Exhibition.
- Exhibits at the the Pennsylvania Academy, the Corcoran,
the Art Institute of Chicago and at the Seventeenth International Exhibition
in Venice, Italy.
- c. 1930
- Moved to Gramercy Park from High Bridge.
- Jan. 5 - 24th, Luks exhibits his oils and watercolors
at Rehn Galleries, New York. Exhibits at the Twenty-Ninth Annual Watercolor
Exhibition of the Pennsylvania Academy, showing three works: Corner
Bridge, Schoolhouse and Village Church. He also exhibits
at the Art Institute of Chicago.
- Luks takes a trip to Hadlyme, Connecticut, where he does
the last series of watercolors before his death. Luks wins the William
A. Clark Prize and the Corcoran Gold Medal in Washington. D.C.'s Corcoran
Gallery. He exhibits at the Pennsylvania Academy's Annual Watercolor Exhibition,
showing three works: Hotel Craryville, Old Quaker Meeting House
and House in the Woods. He also exhibits at the Art Institute of
- Exhibits at the Pennsylvania Academy's Thirty-First Annual
Watercolor Exhibition, showing three works: The Annual Hamburg Fair,
The Seven Sisters and Hadlyme Sunset. Exhibits at Cleveland
Museum of Art's Tenth Annual Watercolor Exhibition. October 29, Luks is
found dead on the streets of New York, a casualty of a speakeasy brawl.
- Memorial Exhibitions of the Work of George Benjamin Luks,
Newark Museum, Vose Galleries and Rehn Gallery.
- Included in survey watercolor exhibition at the Whitney
- Estate sale of Luks paintings and drawings at Parke-Bernet
Auction Galleries, New York.
- Sale of watercolors and oils given to Emma Luks Frankenberg
in 1921 (ex-wife), Parke-Bernet Auction Galleries, New York.
- Exhibition of watercolors at The Rehn Gallery, New York.
- One-man show at Washington Irving Gallery, as part of
the anniversary of "The Eight" show; watercolors and drawings.
- One-man show at ACA American Heritage Gallery: oils and
- One-man show at ACA American Heritage Gallery: sketchbooks.
- One-man show at Joan Peterson Gallery, Boston: oils and
watercolors from Shaw-McKean Collection.
- Centennial Exhibit at Williamsport and Lock Haven, Pennsylvania:
paintings and graphics represented in 200 Years of Watercolor Painting
in America at The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrospective exhibit
at ACA Galleries.
- One-man show at ACA Galleries.
- The Watercolors of George
Luks: A Thesis in Art History, dissertation written by Ralph Clayes
Talcott for the Pennsylvania State University.
- George Luks (1866 - 1933),
Munson-Williams-Proctor Institute, Utica, New York.
- George Luks Watercolor Exhibition, Childs Gallery, Boston.
- George Luks: An American Artist,
Sordoni Art Gallery, Wilkes College, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, May 3
- June 14, 1987.
- 1994 - 95
- George Luks: Expressionist Master of Color-- The Watercolors
Rediscovered, Canton Museum of Art (travels to
Westmoreland Museum of Art, Greensburg, Pennsylvania and the Columbus Museum
of Art, Ohio).
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Rediscovered; essay by Judith Hansen O'Toole
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