Georgia O'Keeffe and the Women of the Stieglitz Circle

February 9 - May 4, 2008

 

Wall text panels and object labels for the exhibition

[Georgia O'Keeffe and the Women of the Stieglitz Circle, Text Panels]
 
[Quote for Opening Gallery]
"Women don't make good painters, they said. I had never thought of it that way. I just painted, that was all." - Georgia O'Keeffe
 
 
Georgia O'Keeffe & the Women of Stieglitz's Circle
 
In the early decades of the twentieth century, New York photographer and art dealer Alfred Stieglitz promoted the work of European and American modernist artists at his Little Galleries at 291 Fifth Avenue (opened in 1905). Stieglitz's circle of artists included Arthur Dove, Marsden Hartley, and John Marin, as well as several extraordinary women; the most celebrated among them was Georgia O'Keeffe.
 
Prior to his discovery of O'Keeffe, Stieglitz championed a number of women artists whose work confirmed his belief that a woman's essential femininity was expressed in the creative process. From the paintings and photographs of Gertrude Käsebier, Anne Brigman, Pamela Colman Smith, Georgia Engelhard, and Katharine Nash Rhoades, Stieglitz fashioned the concept of the woman artist's vision as pure, innocent, and even childlike -- as he would later characterize O'Keeffe's art. This exhibition brings together for the first time the work of these six women artists, whose contributions to the feminine role in modernism shaped Stieglitz's vision of O'Keeffe as the iconic woman modernist.
 
 
 
Gertrude Käsebier
 
A highly accomplished photographer, Gertrude Käsebier found a widespread audience from 1897 to 1910. Although she was one of several women in Stieglitz's Photo-Secession society -- a group of photographers dedicated to making photographic images that rivaled painted images -- it was Käsebier whom he chose as the feminine face of pictorial photography. Her signature image depicts a mother dressed in white, evoking motherhood as a pure, spiritual state of being. Käsebier's aesthetic of whiteness cast the modern woman as a vision of purity and, simultaneously, as a creator in her own right -- an important paradigm in Stieglitz's presentation of the woman modernist.
 
 
Anne Brigman
 
Stieglitz published and exhibited the photographs of California artist Anne Brigman from 1906 to 1913. Many of Brigman's photographs picture the female nude intertwined with nature, the figure bursting forth from the wild landscape in poses reminiscent of the rhythmic movements of modern dance. Visualizing the body as a vehicle for expressing the inner self, Brigman viewed her images as suggesting the modern woman's struggle for personal and artistic freedom. For Stieglitz, Brigman's nudes offered a view into nature's mystery only a woman could offer, demonstrating that a woman's art could uncover the hidden truths of feminine sexuality.
 
 
Katharine Nash Rhoades
 
When they met in 1911, Katharine Nash Rhoades -- a young artist captivated by modernist art and philosophy -- appeared to be Stieglitz's ideal woman. Rhoades prided herself on her purity of vision, often referring to herself as childlike and full of wonder, supporting Steiglitz's belief that the woman's true self was partly a child self. As their friendship progressed over the next five years, Stieglitz attempted to cast Rhoades as the figure of the "woman child" whose hidden creative potential was realized though her sexuality -- a role Stieglitz ultimately cast on O'Keeffe as the "Great Child."
 
 
Pamela Colman Smith
 
The first one-woman exhibition at Stieglitz's 291gallery featured the watercolors and drawings of Pamela Colman Smith. Smith specialized in children's literature, illustration, and theatre. She adopted the nickname "Pixie," consciously playing on her image as an artist whose life was totally immersed in the fantasy life of children. Fashioning her persona as an authentic mystical, childlike voice, she appeared in the Little Galleries -- her head wrapped in bright scarves and feathers complementing a colorful costume that resembled gypsy attire-reciting West Indian nursery tales and chanting ballads by W. B. Yeats.
 
 
Georgia Engelhard
 
For Stieglitz, children's art represented the model of "pure" artistic vision. He mounted four exhibitions of children's art at 291, the last one devoted to the work of his ten-year-old niece, Georgia Engelhard. During summers spent with the Stieglitz family at Lake George in the 1920s, O'Keeffe adopted "Georgia two" or "Georgia minor," as the younger Georgia was called, as a painting partner. Later, Engelhard embraced the abstract, rhythmic manner and the themes O'Keeffe explored in her paintings from the mid- to late-1920s, as seen in Engelhard's Jack in the Pulpit (on view here) which prefigures O'Keeffe's well-known series of the same flower.
 
 
Georgia O'Keeffe
 
Stieglitz's excitement upon first seeing O'Keeffe's drawings, which he interpreted as personally expressive and wholly feminine, ignited a professional and personal relationship that would last nearly thirty years. Soon after Stieglitz became her mentor in 1916, O'Keeffe began exploring the child's way of making pictures. Both O'Keeffe and Stieglitz regarded this method of drawing as preserving the child's intuitive way of seeing and picturing the world. Exploring the essence of her chosen subjects through a subtle balance of intense color and linear precision, O'Keeffe went on to adapt a reductive abstract vocabulary to a variety of motifs.
 
 
 
Alfred Stieglitz
 
Alfred Stieglitz advocated the advancement of photography as an art form. He practiced and promoted a pictorial approach to photography, composing photographic images to achieve effects similar to those of painted images. Pictorialism, as the style came to be called, was an international movement that included several highly accomplished American photographers, such as Stieglitz, Edward Steichen, and Gertrude Käsebier.
 
In 1917 Stieglitz began an extended photographic portrait of his muse and future wife, O'Keeffe. Through these photographs (many of which are on view here) Stieglitz crafted O'Keeffe's persona as the woman-modernist who, above all, possessed the pure, intuitive vision of the child.
 
 
 
Georgia O'Keeffe: The Woman Modernist
 
After O'Keeffe's arrival in New York in 1918, Stieglitz's investment in her iconic stature made certain that the women of his circle were eclipsed by her presence. As a lone woman among men, O'Keeffe had the greatest power to represent Stieglitz's modernist ideology. O'Keeffe embraced the concept of the modernist artist as a childlike visionary but dismissed interpretations of her work that focused on her sexuality, stating, "I am often amazed at the spoken and written word telling me what I have painted."
 
Filling her canvases with monumental floral and plant forms, dynamic abstractions, and simple yet powerful landscape views, O'Keeffe was one of the most experimental artists to emerge from Stieglitz's circle. Following Stieglitz's death in 1946, O'Keeffe relocated to New Mexico, where she lived and worked for nearly forty years, painting the desert landscape and creating some of her most famous images.
 
 
[Tombstones & Extended Labels]
 
1
Anne Brigman
American, 1869-1950
 
Soul of the Blasted Pine, 1907 (negative, 1906)
Platinum print
 
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Alfred Stieglitz Collection, 1933 (33.43.111)
 
In the wake of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, Brigman sought relief for her shattered nerves by hiking in the Sierra Mountains. Sleeping under the open sky, she awakened once after a thunderstorm and, with the light still eerily illuminating the landscape, began to visualize the female figure as part of the trees and rock formations. By focusing on her own body expressively posed in the rugged landscape, Brigman projected her inner life into her pictures.
 
 
2
Anne Brigman
American, 1869-1950
 
The Dying Cedar, 1908 (negative, 1906)
Toned gelatin silver print
 
Wilson Centre for Photography, London
 
 
3
Anne Brigman
American, 1869-1950
 
Minor, the Pain of All the World, ca. 1906-1910
Bromoil print
 
Wilson Centre for Photography, London
 
 
4
Anne Brigman
American, 1869-1950
 
The Cleft in the Rock, 1905
Gelatin silver print
 
Wilson Centre for Photography, London
 
 
5
Anne Brigman
American, 1869-1950
 
Dawn, 1909
Gelatin silver print
 
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Alfred Stieglitz Collection, 1933 (33.43.100)
 
 
6
Anne Brigman
American, 1869-1950
 
Self-Portrait in the Studio, ca. 1910
Platinum print
 
Jan Kesner Gallery, Los Angeles
 
 
7
Anne Brigman
American, 1869-1950
 
The Bubble, 1910
Gelatin silver print
 
Wilson Centre for Photography, London
 
 
8
Anne Brigman
American, 1869-1950
 
Self-Portrait in Doorway, ca. 1910
Platinum print
 
Jan Kesner Gallery, Los Angeles
 
 
9
Anne Brigman
American, 1869-1950
 
Self-Portrait with Guitar, ca. 1910
Platinum print
 
Jan Kesner Gallery, Los Angeles
 
 
10
Anne Brigman
American, 1869-1950
 
Via Dolorosa, 1911
Gelatin silver print
 
Wilson Centre for Photography, London
 
 
11
Anne Brigman
American, 1869-1950
 
Finis, 1912
Photogravure mounted on silk paper
 
The Snite Museum of Art, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana
Funds provided by the Samuel J. Schatz Purchase Fund
 
 
12
Anne Brigman
American, 1869-1950
 
The Breeze, 1918 (negative, ca. 1910)
Gelatin silver print
 
The Art Institute of Chicago
Julien Levy Collection, gift of Jean Levy and the Estate of Julien Levy (1988.157.11)
 
Following an extended stay in New York in 1910, when she immersed herself in Stieglitz's circle, Brigman went through a period of crisis. In 1911 she separated from her husband of seventeen years and suffered a breakdown. Thereafter, she began to interpret her photographs as images relating to her autobiography -- her personal metamorphosis. By choreographing her own body in harmony with the rhythmic movements of the landscape-or, in this case, the wind-Brigman dramatizes the euphoria she experienced making these photographs at the site.
 
 
13
Anne Brigman
American, 1869-1950
 
Sphinx, 1927
Gelatin silver print
 
International Museum of Photography at George Eastman House, Rochester, New York
Gift of Willard M. Nott (81.1013.0016)
 
 
14
Georgia Engelhard
American, 1906-1986
 
Black Horses, 1916
Watercolor on paper
 
Owings-Dewey Fine Art, Santa Fe, New Mexico
 
 
15
Georgia Engelhard
American, 1906-1986
 
The Doll's Bungalow, Lake George, 1916
Watercolor on paper
 
Owings-Dewey Fine Art, Santa Fe, New Mexico
 
 
16
Georgia Engelhard
American, 1906-1986
 
Jack in the Pulpit, ca. 1927
Oil on canvas
 
Gerald Peters Gallery, New York
 
 
17
Gertrude Käsebier
American, 1852-1934
 
The Manger, 1901 (negative, 1899)
Platinum print
 
Museum of Modern Art, New York
Gift of Mrs. Hermine M. Turner
 
Käsebier's reputation was solidified in 1900 when Stieglitz published this photograph along with Blessed Art Thou Among Women (on view nearby) in his influential photography magazine Camera Notes. In both images, the body of the maternal figure is hidden by luminous draping, giving it an ethereal quality. Similarly, the women in both photographs turn their faces away from the viewer in representation of the universal mother.
 
 
 
18
Gertrude Käsebier
American, 1852-1934
 
Emmeline Stieglitz and Katherine Stieglitz, ca. 1899
Platinum print
 
Princeton University Art Gallery
Clarence H. White Collection, assembled and organized by Prof. Clarence H. White, Jr., and given in memory of Lewis F. White, Dr. Maynard P. White, Sr., and Prof. Clarence H. White, Jr., the sons of Clarence H. White, Sr., and Jane Felix White
 
 
19
Gertrude Käsebier
American, 1852-1934
 
The Red Man, 1900
Gelatin silver print
 
Museum of Modern Art, New York
Gift of Mrs. Hermine M. Turner
 
After befriending a group of Sioux Indians from Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show, Käsebier photographed them in a series of noncommissioned portraits. The prints were made famous when they were published in Everybody's Magazine in January 1901. Most of these portraits exhibit the Sioux in their full regalia of beaded clothing, headdresses, and jewelry. Within this series, The Red Man is unique. Käsebier stripped this individual of all artifacts, focusing only on his face, which is encircled by a blanket and lit so that it shines out from the surrounding darkness.
 
 
20
Gertrude Käsebier
American, 1852-1934
 
Blessed Art Thou Among Women, ca. 1900 (negative, 1899)
Platinum print on Japanese tissue
 
Museum of Modern Art, New York
Gift of Mrs. Hermine M. Turner
 
 
21
Gertrude Käsebier
American, 1852-1934
 
The Bat, 1902
Platinum print
 
International Museum of Photography at George Eastman House, Rochester, New York
 
 
22
Gertrude Käsebier
American, 1852-1934
 
Family Portrait (Clarence H. White and Family), 1902
Gum platinum print
 
Museum of Modern Art, New York
Gift of Mrs. Hermine M. Turner
 
 
23
Gertrude Käsebier
American, 1852-1934
 
The Sketch (Beatrice Baxter), 1903
Platinum print
 
International Museum of Photography at George Eastman House, Rochester, New York
 
In this photograph, Käsebier portrays her model, Beatrice Baxter Ruyl, as a natural woman-her hair tumbling down over her shoulders, her figure uncorseted, in a loose, Grecian-style gown-representing the feminine artistic voice. Käsebier shows the woman artist gazing out at nature for her inspiration, transcribing her pure, authentic voice directly onto the page before her.
 
 
24
Gertrude Käsebier
American, 1852-1934
 
Portrait-Miss N (Evelyn Nesbitt), 1903
Platinum print
 
National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario
Purchased 1973
 
 
25
Gertrude Käsebier
American, 1852-1934
 
The Picture-Book, 1903
Platinum print
 
Princeton University Art Gallery
Gift of Hermine M. Turner
 
 
26
Gertrude Käsebier
American, 1852-1934
 
The Heritage of Motherhood, ca. 1916
Gum bichromate print
 
International Museum of Photography at George Eastman House, Rochester, New York
 
 
27
Gertrude Käsebier
American, 1852-1934
 
The Magic Crystal, ca. 1904
Platinum print
 
The Royal Photographic Society Collection at the National Media Museum, Bradford, United Kingdom
 
 
29
Gertrude Käsebier
American, 1852-1934
 
Portrait of Auguste Rodin, 1905
Photographic gum print
 
Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
 
 
30
Gertrude Käsebier
American, 1852-1934
 
Rose O'Neill, ca. 1907
Platinum print
 
University Museums, University of Delaware
Gift of Mason E. Turner, Jr., 1979
 
 
33
Georgia O'Keeffe
American, 1887-1986
 
No. 32-Special, 1915
Pastel on black construction paper
 
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, D.C.
Gift of The Georgia O'Keeffe Foundation (1995.3.2)
 
 
34
Georgia O'Keeffe
American, 1887-1986
 
Untitled (Abstraction), 1916
Charcoal on paper
 
Greenville County Museum of Art, Greenville, South Carolina
Museum purchase with funds donated by The Museum Association, Inc.; Mr. and Mrs. Thomas
Howard Suitt, Jr.; Rich's; and Mr. and Mrs. C. H. Abbe (by exchange)
 
 
35
Georgia O'Keeffe
American, 1887-1986
 
No. 12 Special, 1916
Charcoal on paper
 
Museum of Modern Art, New York
Gift of The Georgia O'Keeffe Foundation, 1995
 
In late 1915 O'Keeffe sent a group of experimental drawings, like this one, to her friend Anita Pollitzer in New York. Pollitzer immediately turned the charcoal abstractions over to Stieglitz, who exhibited them without O'Keeffe's knowledge at his 291 gallery. O'Keeffe and Stieglitz met shortly thereafter, when O'Keeffe traveled to New York to demand that Stieglitz remove her drawings from public view. The shrewd art dealer denied her request; one year later, he gave O'Keeffe her first solo show at the gallery.
 
 
36
Georgia O'Keeffe
American, 1887-1986
 
Canyon with Crows, 1917
Watercolor and graphite on paper
 
Georgia O'Keeffe Museum, Santa Fe, New Mexico
Promised gift of The Burnett Foundation
 
 
37
Georgia O'Keeffe
American, 1887-1986
 
Starlight Night, 1917
Watercolor and graphite on paper
 
Georgia O'Keeffe Museum, Santa Fe, New Mexico
Promised gift of The Burnett Foundation
 
 
38
Georgia O'Keeffe
American, 1887-1986
 
Yellow House, 1917
Watercolor on paper
 
Gerald Peters Gallery, Santa Fe, New Mexico
 
In 1917, while living in Texas, O'Keeffe taught art to six- and seven-year-olds. During this time she began to explore the language of children's art in her own work. In this brightly colored painting, O'Keeffe approaches the most common motif in children's art: the house. Using simple shapes and a symmetrical composition, she playfully apes the child's way of making images.
 
 
39
Georgia O'Keeffe
American, 1887-1986
 
House with Tree-Green, 1918
Watercolor and graphite on paper
 
Georgia O'Keeffe Museum, Santa Fe, New Mexico
Gift of The Georgia O'Keeffe Foundation
 
 
40
Georgia O'Keeffe
American, 1887-1986
 
Canna Lily, 1918-1920
Watercolor on paper
 
Columbus Museum of Art, Ohio
Museum purchase, Derby Fund (77.23)
 
 
41
Georgia O'Keeffe
American, 1887-1986
 
Series I-From the Plains, 1919
Oil on canvas
 
Georgia O'Keeffe Museum, Santa Fe, New Mexico
Promised gift of The Burnett Foundation
 
This painting demonstrates a compositional scheme in which O'Keeffe adopts a childlike vision. She uses the child's simplified gestures of wavy and zig-zagging lines and a dark palette to suggest a thunderstorm. She continued to employ such motifs to express the drama of nature throughout the 1920s and later, when she returned to representational imagery.
 
 
42
Georgia O'Keeffe
American, 1887-1986
 
Red Canna, 1919
Oil on board
 
High Museum of Art, Atlanta
Purchase with funds from the Fine Arts Collectors and the 20th Century Art Acquisition Fund and gift of the Pollitzer Family in honor of Anita Pollitzer, to whom the artist originally gave this work, 1996.18
 
Soon after O'Keeffe and Stieglitz became romantically involved in 1918 (they married in 1924), she began to spend summers at the Stieglitz family home on Lake George in the Adirondacks. On her first visit, O'Keeffe was struck by the profusion of canna lilies that bloomed in late summer. The flower's sensuous curves and vibrant color inspired a series of paintings that included this work. O'Keeffe's imagery was fundamentally rooted in nature, and flowers remained a favorite subject throughout her career.
 
 
43
Georgia O'Keeffe
American, 1887-1986
 
Series I, No. 7, 1919
Oil on canvas
 
Milwaukee Art Museum
Gift of the Jane and Lloyd Pettit Foundation and The Georgia O'Keeffe Foundation, 1997 (M1997.193)
 
 
45
Georgia O'Keeffe
American, 1887-1986
 
Abstraction Seaweed and Water-Maine, 1920
Pastel on paper
 
Georgia O'Keeffe Museum, Santa Fe, New Mexico
Gift of The Georgia O'Keeffe Foundation
 
 
46
Georgia O'Keeffe
American, 1887-1986
 
Lake George with Crows, 1921
Oil on canvas
 
National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa
Gift of The Georgia O'Keeffe Foundation, 1995
 
 
 
47
Georgia O'Keeffe
American, 1887-1986
 
Purple Leaves, 1922
Oil on canvas board
 
The Dayton Art Institute, Ohio
Bequest of Virginia Rike Haswell, 1977.60
 
 
48
Georgia O'Keeffe
American, 1887-1986
 
Skunk Cabbage, 1922
Oil on canvas
 
Georgia O'Keeffe Museum, Santa Fe, New Mexico
Promised gift of The Burnett Foundation
 
 
49
Georgia O'Keeffe
American, 1887-1986
 
Pond in the Woods, 1922
Pastel on paper
 
Georgia O'Keeffe Museum, Santa Fe, New Mexico
Promised gift of The Burnett Foundation
 
 
51
Georgia O'Keeffe
American, 1887-1986
 
Untitled (Flower), 1923
Oil on canvas
 
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia
The Vivian O. and Meyer P. Potamkin Collection, bequest of Vivian O. Potamkin
 
 
52
Georgia O'Keeffe
American, 1887-1986
 
Grey Line with Lavender and Yellow, 1923­1924
Oil on canvas
 
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Alfred Stieglitz Collection, bequest of Georgia O'Keeffe, 1986 (1987.377.1)
 
 
53
Georgia O'Keeffe
American, 1887-1986
 
Seaweed No. II, 1920
Watercolor on paper
 
Private Collection
 
 
54
Georgia O'Keeffe
American, 1887-1986
 
Autumn Trees-The Maple, 1924
Oil on canvas
 
Georgia O'Keeffe Museum, Santa Fe, New Mexico
Gift of The Burnett Foundation and Gerald and Kathleen Peters
 
 
55
Georgia O'Keeffe
American, 1887-1986
 
Red, Yellow and Black Streak, 1924
Oil on canvas
 
Musée national d'art moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris
Gift of The Georgia O'Keeffe Foundation, 1955
 
Although O'Keeffe's abstractions and abstracted landscapes of the 1920s originated from her experience in nature, their surprising and innovative quality results from her visual dynamism and extreme simplification. In this painting, O'Keeffe approaches form as movement -- active, alive, and undulating. Framing the expansion of sky, water, and earth in parallel rolling lines, O'Keeffe renders the landscape as a panorama of sheer energies.
 
 
56
Georgia O'Keeffe
American, 1887-1986
 
Birch and Pine Trees-Pink, 1925
Oil on canvas
 
Colby College Museum of Art, Waterville, Maine
Promised gift of Peter and Paula Lunder
 
 
58
Georgia O'Keeffe
American, 1887-1986
 
Pink Tulip, 1926
Oil on canvas
 
The Baltimore Museum of Art
Bequest of Mabel Garrison Siemonn, in memory of her husband, George Siemonn (BMA.1964.11.13)
 
O'Keeffe expressed the mysteries she found in both the minuscule and the cosmic through the same process of magnification. Her treatment of the miniature in nature -- exploding the proportions of a form and focusing in on its parts -- allowed O'Keeffe to isolate and capture the abstract beauty of the microcosmic world of plants and flowers.
 
 
59
Georgia O'Keeffe
American, 1887-1986
 
The Black Iris, 1926
Oil on canvas
 
Georgia O'Keeffe Museum, Santa Fe, New Mexico
Promised gift of The Burnett Foundation
 
In the Iris compositions from 1926­1927, O'Keeffe veiled the flower's center with translucent petals that ripple at their edges, partly revealing the flower's core, partly concealing it in darkness. It was precisely this type of construction, built around the act of veiling, which prompted Stieglitz and a number of New York art critics to relate O'Keeffe's images to feminine sexuality. While O'Keeffe did not welcome the sexualized framework imposed upon her art, she continued to explore floral anatomy into the 1930s.
 
 
60
Georgia O'Keeffe
American, 1887-1986
 
White Flowers, 1926
Oil on canvas
 
University of New Mexico Art Museum, Albuquerque
Gift of the Estate of Georgia O'Keeffe (87.21.2)
 
 
61
Georgia O'Keeffe
American, 1887-1986
 
Red Cannas, 1927
Oil on canvas
 
Amon Carter Museum, Fort Worth, Texas (1986.11)
 
 
62
Georgia O'Keeffe
American, 1887-1986
 
Morning Glory with Black, 1926
Oil on canvas
 
The Cleveland Museum of Art, Ohio
Bequest of Leonard C. Hanna, Jr. (1958.42)
 
 
64
Georgia O'Keeffe
American, 1887-1986
 
Grey Blue & Black-Pink Circle, 1929
Oil on canvas
 
Dallas Museum of Art
Gift of The Georgia O'Keeffe Foundation
 
 
65
Georgia O'Keeffe
American, 1887-1986
 
Oak Leaves, Pink and Grey, 1929
Oil on canvas
 
Frederick R. Weisman Art Museum, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
Museum purchase
 
 
66
Georgia O'Keeffe
American, 1887-1986
 
Jack-in-the-Pulpit No. 3, 1930
Oil on canvas
 
National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
Alfred Stieglitz Collection, bequest of Georgia O'Keeffe (1987.58.2)
 
 
67
Georgia O'Keeffe
American, 1887-1986
 
The White Flower, 1932
Oil on canvas
 
San Diego Museum of Art
Gift of Mrs. Inez Grant Parker in memory of Earle W. Grant
 
 
69
Katharine Nash Rhoades
American, 1895-1965
 
Dream Landscape, ca. 1914­1921
Oil on canvas
 
Private Collection
 
 
70
Katharine Nash Rhoades
American, 1895-1965
 
Drawing from "291," No. 2, April, 1915
Journal
 
National Gallery of Art Library, Washington, D.C.
Gift of Thomas G. Klarner
 
 
71
Katharine Nash Rhoades
American, 1895-1965
 
Portrait of Carol Nye Rhoades (Robinson), 1915
Oil on canvas
 
Private Collection
 
In this portrait of her nine-year-old niece, Rhoades suggests the strong personal connection she felt toward the child -- a feeling she often wrote about in her letters to Stieglitz, strengthening his view of her as his model for the woman modernist.
 
 
72
Katharine Nash Rhoades
American, 1895-1965
 
Gladiolas, ca. 1920s
Oil on canvas
 
Private Collection
 
 
73
Pamela Colman Smith
American, 1877-1925
 
The Green Sheaf, No. 4, 1903
Journal
 
Private Collection
 
 
74
Pamela Colman Smith
American, 1877-1925
 
The Green Sheaf, No. 6, 1903
Journal
 
Private Collection
 
 
75
Pamela Colman Smith
American, 1877-1925
 
The Wave, 1903
Watercolor on paper
 
Whitney Museum of American Art, New York
Gift of Mrs. Sidney N. Heller, 60.42
 
 
76
Pamela Colman Smith
American, 1877-1925
 
Chim-Chim, 1905
Book
 
Private Collection
 
 
77
Pamela Colman Smith
American, 1877-1925
 
Catch Me (Schumann's Opus 10, no. 4), ca. 1905
Watercolor on paper
 
Private Collection
 
 
78
Pamela Colman Smith
American, 1877-1925
 
Untitled, 1906
Watercolor and graphite on paper
 
Weatherspoon Art Museum, University of North Carolina, Greensboro
Gift of Dorothy Schubart, 1967
 
 
79
Pamela Colman Smith
American, 1877-1925
 
Suggested by Beethoven, 1907
Watercolor on cardboard
 
Private Collection
 
 
81
Pamela Colman Smith
American, 1877-1925
 
Waite-Smith Tarot Deck, 1909­1910
Color lithographs
 
Private Collection
 
The Symbolist poet William Butler Yeats introduced Smith to the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, a London-based group that practiced occult rituals and encouraged spiritual refinement of the self. Smith's most lasting contribution to this occult world was this deck of Tarot cards that she began illustrating in 1906 and completed for publication in 1909. Many of the watercolors she exhibited at Stieglitz's 291 gallery, including Overture "Egmont" Beethoven, on view in this gallery, evoke the cards' occult symbolism.
 
 
82
Pamela Colman Smith
American, 1877-1925
 
A Strange Sanctuary, 1911
Watercolor on paper
 
Private Collection
 
Smith claimed that her images originated in the "subconscious energies" of her mind. Her lyrical, dream-like imagery, supposedly dictated by her mystical inner voice, supported Stieglitz's belief that modernist art represented an authentic expression of the inner self. The dominant themes in Smith's work -- music liberating subconscious imagery, the feminine as nature, and the modernist as child -- would reappear years later in Stieglitz's presentation of O'Keeffe's work.
 
 
83
Pamela Colman Smith
American, 1877-1925
 
Overture "Egmont" Beethoven, 1907
Watercolor, brush and ink, and pencil on paper sheet
 
Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, D.C.
Museum purchase
 
 
84
Pamela Colman Smith
American, 1877-1925
 
Beethoven Sonata, n.d.
Pencil on paper
 
Tullie House Museum and Art Gallery, Carlisle, United Kingdom
 
 
87
Alfred Stieglitz
American, 1864-1946
 
Katharine Nash Rhoades, 1915
Platinum and palladium print
 
Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Gift of the Estate of Charles Lang Freer
 
 
88
Alfred Stieglitz
American, 1864-1946
 
Katharine Nash Rhoades, 1915
Waxed platinum print
 
National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Gift of Elizabeth Rhoades Reynolds (NPG.85.81)
 
 
89
Alfred Stieglitz
American, 1864-1946
 
Georgia O'Keeffe, 1918
Platinum palladium print
 
The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, 93.XM.25.53
 
 
90
Alfred Stieglitz
American, 1864-1946
 
Georgia O'Keeffe-Hands, 1917
Platinum palladium print
 
The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, 91.XM.63.3
 
 
91
Alfred Stieglitz
American, 1864-1946
 
Georgia O'Keeffe, 1918
Palladium print
 
The Art Institute of Chicago
The Alfred Stieglitz Collection, 1949.745A
 
O'Keeffe was foremost among the modernist painters Stieglitz championed; she was also his muse and the subject of some of his most captivating images. In this portrait, Stieglitz presents an eroticized view of O'Keeffe dressed in a white kimono with her hair down in the informal style of a young girl, thus depicting O'Keeffe as both an innocent child and a desirable woman.
 
 
92
Alfred Stieglitz
American, 1864-1946
 
Georgia O'Keeffe, 1918
Palladium print
 
The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, 87.XM.94.2
 
 
93
Alfred Stieglitz
American, 1864-1946
 
Georgia O'Keeffe-Hands, late 1920s­1930s (negative, ca. 1919)
Gelatin silver print
 
The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, 93.XM.25.43
 
 
94
Alfred Stieglitz
American, 1864-1946
 
Georgia O'Keeffe, 1918
Gelatin silver print
 
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Gift of Georgia O'Keeffe through the generosity of The Georgia O'Keeffe Foundation and Jennifer and Joseph Duke, 1997 (1997.61.31)
 
 
95
Alfred Stieglitz
American, 1864-1946
 
Georgia O'Keeffe, 1918
Gelatin silver print
 
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Gift of Georgia O'Keeffe through the generosity of The Georgia O'Keeffe Foundation and Jennifer and Joseph Duke, 1997 (1997.61.8)
 
In composing this portrait, Stieglitz directed O'Keeffe to dance in relation to one of her abstract drawings -- her arms stretched above her head to connect the lines of her fingers to the elongated spiraling form on the paper. By positioning her hands against her drawing, Stieglitz presents O'Keeffe's images as extensions of her body.
 
 
96
Alfred Stieglitz
American, 1864-1946
 
Georgia O'Keeffe-Hands, 1918
Palladium print
 
The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, 93.XM.25.42
 
 
97
Alfred Stieglitz
American, 1864-1946
 
Georgia Engelhard, 1920
Palladium print
 
The Art Institute of Chicago
Alfred Stieglitz Collection, 1949.716
 
 
98
Alfred Stieglitz
American, 1864-1946
 
Georgia O'Keeffe, 1922
Palladium print
 
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Gift of Georgia O'Keeffe through the generosity of The Georgia O'Keeffe Foundation and Jennifer and Joseph Duke, 1997 (1997.61.66)

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