Masters of American Drawings and Watercolors, Foundations of the Collection, 1904-1922

Gallery text from the exhibition



Foundations of the Collection, 1904-1922
On view in this gallery are drawings and watercolors created by some of the most important American artists of the late 19th and early 20th centuries -- James McNeill Whistler, Winslow Homer, Childe Hassam, to name just a few. The exhibition showcases the museum's early collection of works on paper acquired by John W. Beatty, this institution's first director and a discriminating collector. A printmaker, painter, and writer, Beatty believed that drawings provided intimate access to an artist's thought processes, and he was the driving force behind this early collection.
The works of art in this exhibition reflect the prevailing taste in Pittsburgh during the first two decades of the 20th century, preferences and attitudes that were often reserved in comparison to the more avant-garde trends in the art world at the time. Viewers will note a commitment to illustration, landscape, and pastoral scenes, and an interest in preparatory drawings for murals and decorative schemes, as well as head, figure, and drapery studies. In terms of styles and movements, the collection includes significant examples of naturalism, aestheticism, academic art, and Barbizon-style landscapes.
The early collection has significant resonance with the history of the Carnegie International exhibitions, often including a similar cast of artists. The Carnegie International is an ongoing series of contemporary art exhibitions that dates back to 1896 and has been a significant source of acquisitions for the collection. Many of the artists represented in the current exhibition had personal ties to Carnegie Institute (Carnegie Museums today) or to Beatty. The first section of the exhibition is devoted to the work of Childe Hassam and Winslow Homer. Hassam was active in early Internationals and a friend to Beatty. A significant group of his drawings came into the collection in this early period. The first drawing to enter the collection, however, was by Winslow Homer. His Figures on the Coast (1883) was purchased in 1904, and his 1896 Carnegie International award-winner The Wreck, was the first painting purchased by the museum. Beatty did not act alone in the development of the collection, but worked closely with prominent advisors, such as Sadakichi Hartmann and more remotely with benefactors like Andrew Carnegie.
General support for the museum's exhibition program is provided by The Heinz Endowments, the Pennsylvania Council on the Arts, and Allegheny Regional Asset District.

Arbiters of Taste
Carnegie Museum of Art's first collection of American drawings and watercolors was shaped through the specific preferences and directives of three key figures: John W. Beatty, Sadakichi Hartmann, and Andrew Carnegie.
John W. Beatty (1851-1924)
Director of Fine Arts, Carnegie Institute, 1896-1922
In 1890, John W. Beatty organized an exhibition of European art coinciding with the opening of the Carnegie Library in Allegheny City (Pittsburgh's North Side today). Five years later when the Carnegie Institute was founded in Oakland, Beatty again was enlisted to organize a celebratory loan exhibition for the opening. Impressed by the results of this endeavor, in 1896 Andrew Carnegie appointed Beatty the first director of Carnegie Institute's art gallery, subsequently named the department of fine arts and later Carnegie Museum of Art. In 1896 Beatty organized the first Carnegie International exhibition.
A printmaker and painter trained at the Royal Academy in Munich, Beatty was a native of Pittsburgh. As director of the Carnegie Institute, he had contact with some of the most prominent artists of the day, and he was well informed about major movements in the American and international art world. Naturalism and Aestheticism are dominant trends that run through much of the museum's early collection. Beatty's taste, demonstrated in his own art production, gravitated toward landscapes reflecting Barbizon and regional Western Pennsylvania aesthetics, agrarian subjects, marines, figure studies, and illustration. These categories are heavily represented in the first drawings acquired for the collection. Also, many of the drawings on view are studies for paintings or decorative schemes. Beatty believed drawings reveal an artist's thought process. In a checklist of the collection published in 1912 (on view nearby), Beatty wrote an introduction to the drawings section that reveals his passion for the medium.
Original drawings have always a unique interest, in that they bring us closer to the creative artist, and give us a more intimate understanding of the art of the painter, than perhaps any other medium of expression.
[separate, Beatty label to accompany the checklist published, 1912]
This 1912 pamphlet is a checklist of Carnegie Institute's collection at the time. It is divided into three major sections with a brief introduction to each: Paintings, Drawings, and Japanese Prints. The booklet also contains floor plans of the galleries and lists of committees and trustees.
[separate, Beatty label to accompany book, The Relation of Art to Nature]
John W. Beatty, The Relation of Art to Nature, New York: William Edwin Rudge, 1922
John Beatty's views on the role of art and artists in society and culture remained idealistic and lofty throughout his tenure as director. He recorded his complex theoretical views in a treatise titled The Relation of Art to Nature. In his book, Beatty analyzes statements by artists as varied as Leonardo da Vinci, Albrecht Dürer, Jean François Millet, Gilbert Stuart, James McNeill Whistler, and Winslow Homer; and he discusses aesthetic theory by such philosophers as Plato, Aristotle, Immanuel Kant, and Georg Friedrich Hegel. According to Beatty, art's most important roles are to express "truth" and "character."
The masterpieces of art... possess a common factor without regard to subject or period.... This factor I believe to be the quality of truth.
These great works owe their existence to the fact that they faithfully represent some great outstanding type, or because they truthfully
reveal the characteristic and essential beauty of nature.
He goes on to assert, "The highest purpose of the artist is to faithfully represent character." These views informed Beatty's decisions in building the American drawings and watercolors collection as much as they informed his plans for the museum's collection as a whole and for the early International exhibitions.
Sadakichi Hartmann (1867-1944)
Consultant, art critic, and art historian
Sadakichi Hartmann had a cosmopolitan upbringing. His mother was Japanese, and his father was a German merchant. As a child Hartmann lived in Nagasaki, later moving to numerous towns and schools in Germany and the United States. By 1893 he was a recognized writer and had founded his own art journal, The Art Critic. He was a frequent contributor to Alfred Stieglitz's famous periodical Camera Work. And he was the author of several art history books published around 1900, including A History of American Art (on view nearby). Hartmann moved in colorful and prestigious artistic and literary circles. Ezra Pound once wrote, "If one had not been oneself, it would have been worthwhile being Sadakichi."
On May 5, 1906, John Beatty first contracted with Hartmann, authorizing him to act as a consultant and scout in the art world, specifically focused on the task of building Carnegie Institute's American drawings and watercolors collection. A great influx of drawings to the collection followed. Beatty would produce lists of artists whose work interested him, and Hartmann searched for the best examples on the market. Hartmann was authorized to approach living artists and their families, as well as to work with galleries and dealers, and to make selections on behalf of the museum. Beatty, however, had final approval over all purchases. The drawings archives kept by publishers of periodicals, such as Scribner's Sons, Colliers, and The Century, were an excellent source of work. The collaboration between Hartmann and Beatty was very close, and it seems clear that Hartmann was recommending artists to Beatty.
Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919)
Founder of the Carnegie Institute and Benefactor
Andrew Carnegie's role in the formation of the early collections was less hands-on than John Beatty's or Sadakichi Hartmann's. Yet his overriding vision for the mission of the Institute formed the backdrop for decisions that influenced the early collection, including the early American drawings collection. The idea for the Institute was launched in 1890 when Carnegie pledged a million dollars toward the construction of a building that would evolve through several building expansion projects into the museum today. The early Carnegie Institute housed a library, music hall, assembly halls, an art gallery, and a section for the study of natural history. Carnegie committed substantial funds in following years to finance the maintenance and growth of the Institute. His vision was to establish a center for culture and education enabling all Pittsburghers to enjoy access to art, music, literature, and educational resources.
The art gallery, subsequently the Fine Arts Department and then Carnegie Museum of Art, was not founded with Carnegie's personal collection of art. Instead, he promoted a collection strategy focusing on the acquisition of contemporary art. He hoped the art gallery would purchase two paintings each year, beginning with the year 1896, and that these pairs would be displayed in chronological order. Carnegie's goal was to showcase the progress in American art within the international art world. Juried Carnegie International exhibitions were initiated in 1896 to further this collecting strategy. Carnegie's dedication to contemporary art is striking. His famous directive in a letter from 1907 to the board of trustees stated,
The Art Department should... confine itself to the acquisition of such pictures as are thought likely to become Old Masters with time. The Gallery is for the masses of the people primarily, not for the educated few.



William Glackens
William Glackens is an important figure in the early history of Carnegie Institute, and the early collection of American drawings contains three impressive examples of his skill as an illustrator and his interest in combining media within his drawings. These drawings also are examples of Glackens' eccentric paper preferences for his work, namely grocery paper and wallpaper.
A native of Philadelphia, Glackens began his career as an illustrator for the Philadelphia Record and the Press, where he met fellow artists John Sloan, George Luks, and Everett Shinn. The four young men joined with four other artists to form the Ashcan school, otherwise known as The Eight. The group had its first exhibition in 1908 and was most noted for focusing attention on urban realism. The bustling urban street scenes depicted in Glackens' In Town It's Different and in Vitourac Had Never Before Been the Scene of Such a Splendid Fete are typical Ashcan subjects.
Sadakichi Hartmann was particularly proud of the acquisition of the imposing, highly detailed, and finished In Town It's Different, which appeared as the frontispiece for Scribner's August 1899 publication and was meant to illustrate a poem titled "An Urban Harbinger" by E. S. Martin. The grittiness of the pub scene and bleak style in The Huddled with Heads Bent Low also strongly evoke the tone of Ashcan school work.
Glackens was a frequent exhibitor at the early Carnegie Internationals, displaying 26 works between 1905 and 1938. He was an award winner in 1905, 1929, and 1936.

Frederick Childe Hassam
A leader among American Impressionists, Frederick Childe Hassam began his career as an illustrator. From 1887 to 1889, he was in Paris studying at the Académie Julien, a period of time that coincided with the heyday of Impressionist exhibitions in Paris. During his stay, Hassam solidified his famed Impressionistic style.
In 1907 the museum acquired 30 drawings, watercolors, and pastels, a selection of which are on view here. Many are on boldly colored or black paper; some of the papers-Hassam's "scraps"-are re-used backs of pamphlets, invitations, and stationery. Some scraps were chosen for the impact of their color on the mood of a drawing or for the wittiness conveyed by the paper's original use.
Hassam experimented with different combinations of media, which was a departure from the conventional English method of pure watercolor advocated by important yet conservative period art groups, such as the American Watercolor Society. He also experimented with graphic strategies for producing images. The economy of line, the distinctive use of outlining and modeling, and the relationship between the unusual papers and the imagery all work to create compelling works of art often based on suggestion and evocation rather than exhaustive description or extensive detail. Some of these drawings reflect Hassam's travels, some provide insight into his preparations for paintings, and some are autonomous works of art. They reflect a broad chronological range in Hassam's career; the earliest dates to c. 1883, and the most recent examples were done around 1906. Over many years Hassam exhibited 90 paintings at different Carnegie International exhibitions, and in 1910 he was granted a solo exhibition.


Winslow Homer
An iconic figure in the history of American art, Winslow Homer, like many artists in this exhibition, began as an illustrator and maintained an interest in drawing throughout his career. He was one of the most famous artists working for Harper's Weekly and other popular periodicals of the late 19th century. He gained particular fame for his illustrations of events and battles of the Civil War. As a mature artist, Homer turned increasingly to the sea for his subject matter, and many of his best-known works depict coastal communities in England and New England. He was famous during his lifetime and is remembered today as a virtuoso watercolorist. Characteristically he employed pure watercolor techniques and pushed the medium to emotionally evocative and expressive heights.
Homer was very friendly with John Beatty and was an important figure in the early history of the Carnegie Internationals. His painting The Wreck was the first painting purchased by the Institute. Between 1896 and 1908, Homer exhibited 36 works of art in different Internationals, and he served as a juror in 1897 and 1901.


J. Alden Weir
James Alden Weir was one of the leaders in the school of American Impressionism. He first studied at the National Academy of Design, and went on to Paris in the mid-1870s, where he continued to work in the traditional academic manner, exhibiting several works at the Paris Salon. During this period Weir was exposed to the Impressionist exhibitions in Paris, but he was highly critical of the avant-garde style. Ironically as his career progressed, he became increasingly associated with the American Impressionists and the practice of plein-air painting. His work displays the broken or loose brushwork and bright, light-inspired color palette, characteristic of the style.
In 1877 he returned to the United States and became associated with groups like the American Watercolor Society. By 1882 he was elected president of the Society of American Artists, and that same year he acquired his famous farm in Branchville, Connecticut. The farm became a hub of activity for the American Impressionists.
Weir was well represented in the early Carnegie Internationals, contributing 66 works to the exhibition between 1896 and 1921. He was a frequent award winner and occasionally served as an exhibition juror.


Labels for art objects in the exhibition

(some labels are accompanied by images)


Edwin Austin Abbey
American, 1852-1911
The Tinker's Song, 1880
pen and ink on cardboard
Purchase, 14.4
Edwin Austin Abbey executed this drawing for a book on the poetry of the 17th-century English poet Robert Herrick published by Harper & Brothers in 1882. Abbey was a stickler for extreme accuracy and minute detail in his drawings and paintings. Upon receiving this commission, he set off on a trip to England to research an appropriate setting for this work, namely an authentic17th-century inn and historically accurate furniture and props.
Abbey soon made England his permanent residence. In 1898 he became a Royal Academician, and in 1902 upon Edward VII's coronation, Abbey was named a court artist. That same year, Carnegie Institute acquired Abbey's imposing painting The Penance of Eleanor, Duchess of Gloucester (on view in Scaife Gallery 5).
Twelve years later, in 1914, this illustrative pen-and-ink drawing came into the collection upon the enthusiastic recommendation of the art dealer and critic Sadakichi Hartmann. Abbey was not only a successful painter, but also maintained a long career as a draughtsman producing illustrations for Harper's Weekly.
John White Alexander
American, 1856-1915
Frank Stockton, 1886
charcoal on paper
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 06.3.1
This handsome charcoal profile portrait depicts the author Frank Stockton, who was best known for his children's poems and stories; perhaps the most popular of these was "The Lady, or The Tiger?" published in The Century in 1882. This drawing appeared along with a biographical essay on Stockton in July of 1886.
John White Alexander, had numerous ties to Pittsburgh and Carnegie Institute. A native of Allegheny City, he was a lifelong friend of John Beatty, the first director of the art gallery. Alexander had a prestigious career, eventually becoming president of the National Academy of Design from 1909 until his death. Between 1891 and 1901, he lived and worked in Paris and counted such established artists and writers as James McNeill Whistler, Edwin Austin Abbey, August Rodin, Oscar Wilde, Henry James, and Stéphane Mallarmé among his friends and associates. Alexander was on the advisory committee to the second Carnegie International exhibition in 1897, and in 1905 he began work on the The Apotheosis of Pittsburgh murals, a project that occupied him until his death in 1915. The murals are on view in the Grand Staircase of the museum; and his painting A Woman in Rose, c. 1901, is on view in Scaife Gallery 5.
E. M. Ashe
American, 1870-1943
Woman Arranging Hair, c. 1900
charcoal and pastel on gray paper
Purchase, 10.6.1
This early work by E. M. Ashe is an atmospheric, heavily textured drawing depicting a woman at her toilette in a relatively humble bedroom. The artist took great care in describing details, distinguishing different textures, and observing the play of light and shadow, which imparts a moodiness to the work.
In 1920, ten years after this drawing was acquired for the collection, Ashe was hired by Carnegie Institute of Technology (now Carnegie Mellon University) as professor of illustration. By 1934 he was head of the department of painting and sculpture, and he spent 20 years on the faculty. Earlier in his career, he worked as an instructor at the New York School of Art and at the Art Students' League. Illustration remained his main interest as a draughtsman.
George Randolph Barse
American, 1861-1938
Moths, c. 1899
graphite heightened with white on brown paper
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 06.24
This prepatory drawing was made for the ceiling decoration of the entrance hall of a New York City residence on 55th Street.
Cecilia Beaux
American, 1863-1942
Sketch of Ida Tarbell, 1917-1918
crayon on paper
Purchase, 18.25.1
This portrait depicts a famous female journalist from the early 20th century, drawn by one of the most prominent female artists of the era. The two women maintained an acquaintance for a number of years, and in the 1920s they both kept apartments on 19th Street between Irving Place and Third Avenue, a New York City neighborhood regarded as an enclave for artists and writers. As a portraitist, Cecilia Beaux was happy to add a prestigious person like Tarbell to her list of sitters.
Ida Tarbell (1857-1944), was born in Erie County, Pennsylvania, graduated from Allegheny College in 1880, and studied at the Sorbonne in Paris from 1891 until 1894. She was a trailblazing writer and investigative journalist, who exposed the corrupt business practices of John D. Rockefeller and Standard Oil.
Cecilia Beaux was born in Philadelphia, trained at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, and later studied in France. In 1895 she became the first female instructor at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, where she conducted portrait classes for 20 years. Accordingly, Beaux was internationally recognized for her work in portraiture. In 1907 she wrote about her high regard for the genre of portraiture, explaining that the key to a successful portrait was combining "Imaginative Insight and Design [with a] fusion of Sense and Spirit."
Beaux had strong ties to Carnegie Institute and was active in the early Internationals. This sketch was associated with her contribution to the American Artist's War Emergency Fund portfolio of prints compiled by the National Arts Club.
Albert F. Bellows
American, 1830-1883
Landscape, c. 1870
charcoal on paper
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 06.23
Ralph Albert Blakelock
American, 1847-1919
Untitled, c. 1870
graphite, pen and ink, and wash on paper
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 06.18.1
Acquired for the collection in 1906, this small, darkly atmospheric drawing is among Ralph Blakelock's most accomplished efforts on paper. An artist who struggled financially and for recognition in the art world, Blakelock was confined to a psychiatric facility toward the end of his life. Ironically this is the same period during which his reputation within the art world increased along with demand for his work.
A self-taught artist, Blakelock was born in New York. Between 1869 and 1872, he sought western landscapes and Native American subjects during his travels in the American West and Southwest. This period is considered by many to be the pinnacle of his artistic output. Moody, moonlit landscapes and Native American themes remained his hallmark subjects throughout his career.
Edwin Howland Blashfield
American, 1848-1936
Study Fragment from Decoration in Court of Appeals, New York, 1899
graphite on paper
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 07.5
In the early 1900s, Edwin H. Blashfield was one of the most respected muralists in the United States; his allegorical, monumental, and heroic style earned him many prestigious commissions. This drawing is a study for a figure in a nearly 10-foot-square mural titled The Power of the Law for the courtroom of the New York City Appellate Court. This is a head-study for the full-length reclining figure in the upper-left corner of the finished work. The figure reaches to crown the central figure of Justice. The twelve figures in the mural appear in various garments-some in classical togas, some with powdered wigs and black robes, and one wearing lavish, clerical attire. They hold a variety of swords, scrolls, and books and are adorned with ribbons bearing mottos relating to the law.
Blashfield studied art in Paris, where he was inspired by the city's grand, historic murals, such as those found in the Panthéon. He earned national recognition during the Chicago World's Columbian Exposition in 1893 after receiving the commission to paint the dome of the large manufacturer's building. In addition to murals for courthouses, Blashfield's designs decorate state capitols (including Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin), churches (including St Matthew the Apostle in Washington, DC), hotels (the ballroom of the Waldorf-Astoria in New York City) and grand private residences (including the New York mansion of William H. Vanderbilt). Perhaps his greatest commission was the mural Evolution of Civilization, 1895­6, for the rotunda of the Great Reading Room of the Library of Congress.
Robert F. Blum
American, 1857-1903
Jefferson Reading the Declaration of Independence, 1880
graphite, brush and ink, and gouache on buff paper
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 06.3.3
The ambiguous combination of figures and setting in this drawing has produced an enigmatic subject. Yet, the technically complex and vigorous handling of pigment is visually arresting. The writer and critic Sadakichi Hartmann praised Robert Blum in the first volume of his 1901 book, A History of American Art. Hartmann described the effect of the vivid highlighting and graceful, almost dainty detail seen in this drawing. "His work is always brilliant, animated, and refined, his pictures fairly sparkle with crisp and delicate effects."
Robert F. Blum
American, 1857-1903
Japanese Girl with Habatshi, late 19th century
graphite and pastel on fine-grained sandpaper
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 06.9.1
Japanese subjects are a hallmark of Robert Blum's work as a draughtsman. The artist lived in Japan between 1890 and 1892, and his treatment of Japanese subjects reflects his fascination with the country and its culture. This delicate, glowing pastel on sandpaper is an extremely impressionistic, ethereal glimpse of a Japanese woman. The work seems related to art critic Sadakichi Hartmann's observation: "If one desires to know Japan as it looks to Western eyes, one will find that Blum [has done] the most poetical [work]."
Robert F. Blum
American, 1857-1903
A "Wakaishi"-A Japanese Bachelor Who Manages Public Festivities, 1891
pen and ink and ink wash, heightened with white, on paper mounted on cardboard
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 06.19.2
Robert Blum was a native of Cincinnati, Ohio, where he received some early training in a realist style, and went on to study at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia. He achieved early renown as an illustrator, but by the turn of the century, he had shifted his energies to mural painting. Blum's drawing style reveals his admiration for the Spanish illustrator Mariano Fortuny. The delicate, painterly use of brushwork and the shimmering approach to highlighting are qualities the two artists share.
Blum lived in Japan between 1890 and 1892, working on commissions for Scribner's Magazine. He was enamored of Japanese culture and wrote enthusiastically about his experiences in Japan. This drawing, characterized by the use of lush brushwork and washes was published as an illustration to John H. Wigmore's essay, "Starting a Parliament in Japan," published by Scribner's Magazine in July 1891.
Ernest L. Blumenschein
American, 1874-1960
An Indian Chief, 1917­1918
graphite, pen and ink, and ink wash on paper
Purchase, 18.25.2
Ernest Blumenschein was a friend and colleague to Eanger Irving Couse (whose work is on view nearby); and like Couse, he earned national recognition and was interested in the landscape of the American West and Southwest as well as Native American subjects. This drawing was acquired in 1918 along with 15 other drawings by various artists made in preparation for a print portfolio for the American Artist's War Emergency Fund compiled by the National Arts Club during World War I. The project was intended to raise funds to support victims of the war. Blumenschein was a frequent exhibitor at Carnegie Internationals, showing 26 different works between 1907 and 1946.
Eanger Irving Couse
American, 1866-1936
Indian Hunter, 1917­1918
crayon on paper
Purchase, 18.25.5
Born in Saginaw, Michigan, Eanger Couse began working on Native American subjects early in his career, particularly focusing on members of the local Chippewa tribe. He went on to study at the Art Institute of Chicago, the National Academy of Design in New York, and L'Académie Julien in Paris.
The graphic economy of this drawing might seem surprising for an artist with a strong academic style. The traditional techniques for modeling, shading, and perspective give way here to a reliance on outlining, reserving areas of blank paper, and using relatively uniform passages of hatching. The composition and figural pose relate to numerous paintings by the artist that focus on crouching figures viewed in stark profile.
Couse was a good friend of Ernest Blumenshein (whose work is on view nearby); both artists were interested in Native American subjects. Couse first visited Taos in 1902 upon Blumenshein's recommendation, and by 1906 he had settled there. He became known for evocative, highly finished, and often dramatically lit paintings of Native Americans and the western landscape. He exhibited 20 paintings at different Carnegie Internationals between 1901 and 1925. As with many drawings on view here, this work was made into a print for the American Artist's War Emergency Fund portfolio.
Frederick Stuart Church
American, 1842-1923
Beneath the Sea, c. 1900
charcoal on paper mounted on board
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 06.12.2
Before launching his art career, Frederick Stuart Church was a soldier in the Civil War, serving under General Sherman. Later he trained at the Chicago Academy of Design, the National Academy of Design, and the Art Students' League in New York. Church first found success as an illustrator for Harper's Weekly, and by the mid-1870s, he was a respected painter, draughtsman, watercolorist, etcher, and illustrator. He focused largely on fantastic and imaginary beings such as the mermaids shown here.
Church's work relates to the Art Nouveau movement in America that came to fruition in the 1890's. His drawing style often relies on graceful, elegant flowing lines typical of the Art Nouveau style. His signature subjects also reflect trends popular among Art Nouveau artists. Church belonged to numerous artist groups aligned with three dominant interests in his career: the American Watercolor Society, the New York Etching Club, and the Society of Illustrators. He became a member of the National Academy in 1885 and was an influential artist in the etching medium, helping to spearhead its revival in the 1880s.
Kenyon Cox
American, 1856-1919
Drapery Study for Figure of Letters, Minnesota State Capitol, 1904
graphite on laid tracing paper mounted on board
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 06.6.3
Kenyon Cox
American, 1856-1919
Nude Study for Figure of Letters, Minnesota State Capitol, 1904
graphite on laid tracing paper mounted on board
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 06.6.6
Kenyon Cox
American, 1856-1919
Drapery Study for Figure of Contemplation, Minnesota State Capitol, 1904
graphite on laid tracing paper mounted on board
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 06.6.8
Kenyon Cox
American, 1856-1919
Nude Study for Figure of Contemplation, Minnesota State Capitol, 1904
graphite on laid tracing paper mounded on board
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 06.6.4
Kenyon Cox
American, 1856-1919
Scale Drawing for the Contemplative Spirit of the East, Minnesota State Capitol, 1904
graphite, sepia, and ink on canvas
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 06.6.7
Kenyon Cox was among the most recognized muralists of his generation. He was frequently commissioned to work on the same projects as Edwin Blashfield, whose mural study is on view nearly. Cox began his career as a muralist at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. This imposing scale drawing on canvas with its accompanying graphite studies were part of one of his most significant mural projects, the stairway to the Supreme Court in the Minnesota State Capitol in St. Paul.
Cox's subject is "The Contemplative Spirit of the East." He depicts "Thought" as a massive, winged, and regally robed figure whose pose and expression are intended to convey contemplation. She is flanked by "Law" and "Letters"; they hold a bridle and a book respectively. By extending and replicating the dull yellow stone of the surrounding wall in his design, Cox effectively integrated the mural into the surrounding architecture.
Cox's handling of his subject matter reflects his scholarly, deeply conservative approach to art. He was the author of the 1911 treatise, The Classic Point of View and an unabashed advocate for traditional and academic art.
Cox was one of 15 artists commissioned to produce murals or other decoration throughout the building. Among the group of 15 were: Edwin Blashfield, Frederick Dielman, John La Farge, and Howard Pyle, all represented elsewhere in this exhibition.
Arthur B. Davies
American, 1862-1928
Drawing No. 6, c. 1914
chalk on two sheets of grey laid paper, pasted together and mounted on two
sheets of red and gold-flecked Japanese paper, pasted together
Purchase, 18.19
This enigmatic drawing suggests a number of interpretations and identifications. It may be a depiction of Isadora Duncan, a Modern dancer who captivated Arthur Davies. He made hundreds of sketches of Duncan, and this may be one of several nocturnal views Davies made, or it may relate to his painting Isadora Duncan Dancers, 1914.
A more recent interpretation suggests that the drawing depicts Davies' longtime model and companion Wreath McIntyre, who began working for Davies in 1914 when she was just 16 years old. She would frequently drape herself in colorful silk scarves, when asked to pose nude. McIntrye was Davies' main female model until about 1928. Davies often covered the walls of his studio with black paper, and his choice of the dark background paper, which contrasts markedly with the paleness of the model's skin, captures her likely appearance in that environment.
Davies made his mark on the modern art world as an organizer of the notorious and historically important 1913 Armory Show in New York, which showcased avant-garde modern art. He also was a member of The Eight in the Ashcan school, a group of artists known for their paintings of urban realist subjects. A frequent participant in the Carnegie International between 1896 and 1927, he exhibited a total of 17 different works of art and won awards in 1913 and 1923.
Thomas Wilmer Dewing
American, 1851-1938
Head of a Girl, before 1906
silverpoint on paper
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 06.7
Thomas Dewing, along with James McNeill Whistler, is one of the most famous artists representing 19th-century Aestheticism in this exhibition. Dewing was celebrated for his repeated treatment of female subjects in idealized, ethereal contexts. The otherworldly appearance of the woman in this portrait is characteristic of Dewing's style. The ghostly effect comes largely from silverpoint medium.
Silverpoint is a delicate technique involving a silver stylus pressed on specially prepared paper. The mark is almost invisible when the stylus first contacts the paper, but the line darkens over time. Silverpoint, which dates back to the 15th century, enjoyed a revival among artists of the Aesthetic movement.
In A History of American Art (on view nearby), Sadakichi Hartmann discusses Dewing's peculiar treatment of female subjects and evokes Dewing's aesthetic sensibility in his choice of language.
The pictures of Dewing are devoted to a certain type of human being: to represent beautiful ladies, mostly mature women of thirty, is their sole aim. The ladies all seem to possess large fortunes and no inclination for any professional workthey sit and stand, or dream or play the flute or read legends, sometimes two together, sometimes threeall without individuality.They lead, indeed, a life of reflection; they seem to be melancholy without reasons, merely because suffering is poeticaland loll about on divans in their large, solitary parlors, in expectation, perhaps of a sentimental knight in glittering armor.
Frederick Dielman
American, 1847-1935
A Visit from the Bumboat, Near Troy, 1879
graphite heightened with white on tan paper
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 06.3.8
Frederick Dielman worked as an illustrator, printmaker, painter, muralist, mosaic artist, and stained glass designer. This drawing is an example of the illustrations he did for Scribner's Magazine. Published in March of 1880, the drawing accompanied a long essay titled "The Tile Club Afloat." The author describes a three-week canal boat tour of New York waterways by members of the prestigious Tile Club. Membership in the club was limited to fewer than 15 and included Edwin Austin Abbey, William Merritt Chase, and Winslow Homer. In the essay, which is filled with inside jokes and references, the artists are referred to by their club nicknames, such as The Owl, Horsehair and Catgut. Dielman was given the name Terrapin when he joined in 1878.
Born in Germany, Diehlman moved to the United States as a child and studied at Calvert College in Maryland. He began his eclectic career as a cartographer for the U.S. Corps of Engineers, but later returned to Europe to study art at the Royal Academy in Munich. By 1883 he was an academician at the National Academy of Design in New York City.
Some of his most prestigious commissions as a designer and decorator included his murals for the Minnesota State Capitol in St. Paul and large mosaics titled Law and History in the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C.
Arthur Burdett Frost
American, 1851-1928
Enoch's Garden, undated
graphite, brush and ink, white gouache on cardboard
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 06.19.4
Charles Dana Gibson
American, 1867-1944
As the Old Men Looked, Young Dan Bogan Came Stumbling into the Shop, 1889
pen and ink on card
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 06.19.5
Charles Dana Gibson is most famous as the illustrator who invented the Gibson girl, an iconic image of impossibly idealized femininity. This drawing, however, depicts a much different type of subject matter. It was published as an illustration for Sarah Orne Jewett's "The Luck of the Bogans" in Scribner's Magazine in January 1889. Jewett was a very popular writer, skilled at vividly conveying a rugged sense of detailed realism in describing rural communities in northern New England.
The drawing focuses on the tragic story of an Irish immigrant named Mike Bogan, who moves to the United States for the benefit of his small son, Dan. The father has great hopes for his son's future. In the end, the father dies disillusioned, and Dan becomes a drunkard, murdered in a bar fight that takes place in his own father's tavern. This illustration depicts the tension-filled moment just prior to the violent climax of the story.
Robert Swain Gifford
American, 1840-1905
Old Trees, 1883
charcoal on laid paper
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 06.16.2
This brooding scene depicting the Buzzard's Bay area in Massachusetts shares the direct and unidealized approach to landscape painting popularized by the Barbizon School of French artists. A native New Englander, Gifford is known for landscapes of that region, and this charcoal drawing is a characteristic representation of his mature work.
Early in his training and career he traveled widely through both Europe and Africa, and like many artists of this period, he worked for a time as an illustrator. By the 1870s he was a well-known figure in the New York art world. Gifford exhibited two paintings at the second Carnegie International exhibition in 1897.
William James Glackens
American, 1870-1938
In Town It's Different, 1898
graphite, charcoal, ink wash, and gouache on wallpaper
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 06.18.3
This highly finished drawing was published in August 1899 in Scribner's Magazine to accompany E. S. Martin's "An Urban Harbinger."
William James Glackens
American, 1870-1938
They Huddled with Heads Bent Low, 1902
graphite, charcoal, ink wash, and gouache on grocery paper
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 06.19.6
Scribner's Magazine published this drawing in January 1902 as an illustration for Arthur Ruhl's "The Cattle-Man Who Didn't."
William James Glackens
American, 1870-1938
Vitourac Had Never Before Seen the Scene of Such a Splendid Fete, 1901
graphite and brush and ink on grocery paper mounted on cardboard
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 06.19.7
This drawing was published as an illustration for Eleanor Stuart's story "The Stranger within Their Gates," in Scribner's Magazine, December 1901.
Childe Hassam
American, 1859-1935
Connecticut Trout Stream, c. 1903
pastel and gouache on black paper
reverse side: printed pamphlet for the Boston Art Club, Sixty-Seventh Exhibition, 1903
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 07.14.1
Childe Hassam
American, 1859-1935
East Gloucester Street, Summer Morning, undated
crayon, watercolor, and gouache on laid paper
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 07.14.14
Childe Hassam
American, 1859-1935
The Boat Landing, c. 1906
graphite, pastel, and gouache on brown paper
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 07.14.15
Childe Hassam
American, 1859-1935
The Cliffs at "The Breakers," Newport, 1901
pastel on black paper
reverse side: printed pamphlet "Banking & Trust Accounts"
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 07.14.16
Childe Hassam
American, 1859-1935
Little Bridge, undated
crayon on lime green paper
reverse side: printed brochure "Opera Glasses and Kindred Articles"
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 07.14.22
Childe Hassam
American, 1859-1935
Autumn Landscape, Arrangement, c.1902
pastel on blue paper
reverse side: printed program cover for Carnegie Institute Founder's Day 1902
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 07.14.23
Childe Hassam
American, 1859-1935
Hogarth House, Cheswick, 1889
watercolor on paper
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 07.14.24
Childe Hassam
American, 1859-1935
Gateway, Alhambra, c. 1883
pastel on paper
reverse side: fragment of Carnegie Institute's printed guide for visitors, Rules of Conduct
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 07.14.28
Childe Hassam
American, 1859-1935
14th July, Paris, Old Quarter, undated
graphite and gouache on light blue-green paper
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 07.14.29
Childe Hassam
American, 1859-1935
White Church, Newport, 1901
pastel on onionskin paper
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 07.14.18
Childe Hassam
American, 1859-1935
The Duet, c. 1899
sanguine and chalk on brown paper
Gift of John W. Beatty, Jr., 64.10.3 artist and Beatty
This drawing is inscribed in the lower right corner, "To John Beatty From Childe Hassam," revealing the familiarity between the two men. The work was not among the 30 drawings and watercolors acquired directly through negotiations with the artist in 1907. Instead, it was a gift to the museum from John Beatty's son, John W. Beatty, Jr., in 1964.
William Henry Hilliard
American, 1836-1905
Untitled (Farm Scene), undated
graphite, pen and ink, and ink wash on cardboard
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 06.21.2
Winslow Homer
American, 1836-1910
Figures on the Coast, 1883
charcoal on paper
Carnegie Special Fund, 04.5.1
Homer drew this humble, loosely handled charcoal image of cranberry harvesters the same year that he moved to Prout's Neck, Maine. Through the course of his career, Homer became increasingly identified with the Prout's Neck area.
This was the first American drawing to enter Carnegie Museum of Art's collection; the first painting acquired by the museum was also by Homer. The Wreck dated 1896 (on view in Scaife Gallery 6), was the winner of the Chronological Medal at the first Carnegie International that same year
Winslow Homer
American, 1836-1910
Fisher Girls, 1882
graphite on paper
Carnegie Special Fund, 04.5.2
Although Fisher Girls predates Winslow Homer's Figures on the Coast, it was the second American drawing to enter the collection. This important work was made during Homer's lengthy visit at a fishing village on the northeastern coast of England in 1881. During his yearlong stay, Homer concentrated on mastering classic English watercolor methods. The background landscape is Cullercoats Bay and the adjacent town, including the building that housed Homer's own studio, which is the second to last structure toward the right of the distant cliff.
The figures and composition are closely related to Homer's oil painting from this same period titled Hark! The Lark, 1882. Indeed, variations of figural groupings reappear in many of Homer's paintings, watercolors, and drawings. This finely worked graphite drawing reveals the artist's careful attention to detail and texture. Subtle differences in pressure and in the softness of the graphite applied to the paper produce the nuanced variations in texture, perspective, and atmospheric effects that Homer achieves in this work.
Winslow Homer
American, 1836-1910
Pumpkins among the Corn, 1878
pen and ink on scratchboard
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 06.3.12
Winslow Homer produced this drawing as an illustration for an essay titled "Glimpses of New England Farm Life," published by Scribner's Monthly in August of 1878. The image was successful enough to reappear as an illustration in Eugene J. Hall's book Lyrics of Home-Land, published in 1882.
This is one of the only known scratchboard works Homer produced. Here Homer augmented the basic scratchboard technique with ink wash to deepen the shadows. The high-contrast effects of his drawing techniques were well suited to reproduction as an illustration. Homer's drawings were typically transcribed as wood engravings for the purpose of publication. Pumpkins among the Corn relates thematically and compositionally to at least two other watercolors: Corn Husking, 1874, and For to Be a Farmer's Boy, 1887.
Winslow Homer
American, 1836-1910
The Baggage Guard, 1887
crayon and pen and ink on paper mounted on board
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 06.3.10
Winslow Homer is widely recognized for his work in the 1860s illustrating battles and events of the Civil War. In the late 1880s, he revisited his sketchbooks from the war years and reworked many drawings, creating new works of larger scale and with significant variations. The Century Magazine published a series of these later works concurrently with several articles written by veterans of the war.
The Baggage Guard appeared in February 1888 accompanying an article titled "Ranson's Division at Fredricksburg." The scene depicts soldiers defending a caravan of wagons and horses hauling supplies and rations for Union troops. Next to Homer's signature he very clearly inscribed the date '65, which is the date of his initial drawing not the date of this later version.
Winslow Homer
American, 1836-1910
A Wreck Near Gloucester, 1880
watercolor and graphite on paper
Purchase, 17.3.2
This striking depiction of a shipwreck in muted tones illustrates two of Winslow Homer's best-known traits: his extraordinary skill as a watercolorist and his interest in depicting coastal landscapes and their related human activities. Homer's technique is notable for his restrained range of pigments, often limited to muted natural tones of browns, grays and dark blues, and his willingness to allow the graphite underdrawing to show through the watercolor pigments. The sophisticated, foggy atmospheric effects he achieved were produced by complicated and arduous layering of different toned washes. The watercolor's scale and level of finish indicate that it was an ambitious project for Homer, one likely done in the studio working from sketches made outdoors.
This work is an early example of Homer grappling with the theme of the power and impact of the sea on coastal landscapes, human lives, and manmade structures. The theme of shipwrecks, in particular, became a hallmark of his career, but this may be one of his first attempts at depicting a ship in the moments following a wreck. A Wreck Near Gloucester was acquired by the museum around the time that John Beatty organized a joint exhibition of watercolors by Homer and John Singer Sargent in 1917. Beatty was particularly interested in Homer's work in watercolor and another exhibition focusing exclusively on Homer's watercolors was presented in 1923, shortly after Beatty's retirement.
Winslow Homer
American, 1836-1910
Watching from the Cliffs, 1892
watercolor on paper
Purchase, 17.19
This glowing watercolor depicting figures on High Cliff in Prout's Neck, Maine, was completed 12 years after the imposing A Wreck Near Gloucester, 1880 (on view nearby). High Cliff was a site Homer depicted repeatedly, under many weather and lighting conditions. This outcropping of bare rocky cliff was a popular lookout point. Homer's figures appear dwarfed by their natural surroundings and seem somewhat detached from one another. The raw stratified depiction of the environment with the rocks below juxtaposed with the cloudy sky above produces a startlingly abstract and even flattened composition. This harsh environment provided Homer with an excellent opportunity to experiment with the flickering play of light, shadow, and color.
Beatty acquired both Watching from the Cliffs and A Wreck Near Gloucester around the time of a special 1917 exhibition that celebrated the skills of Homer and John Singer Sargent as watercolorists.
Earl Horter
American, 1881-1940
Broadway and 186th Street, before 1920
crayon and wash on paper
Purchase, 20.20
Earl Horter was a popular and self-taught Philadelphia artist who was a successful printmaker as well as a painter and draughtsman. This delicate drawing may have been produced in preparation for an etching. The contemplative view of a specific location in New York City is characteristic of his subject matter.
A devoted advocate of Modernism, Horter was particularly interested in the work of James Abbott McNeil Whistler, Paul Cézanne, and Georges Seurat, as well as other avant-garde 20th-century movements of his era, such as Cubism.
William Morris Hunt
American, 1824-1879
Nude Sketches (on Recto and Verso), mid 19th century
charcoal and chalk on green-gray paper
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 06.15.2
William Morris Hunt was one of the most popular artists in New England in the 1860s and 1870s. He was a sought-after teacher, painter, sculptor, and occasional muralist. A native of Vermont who grew up in Connecticut, Hunt graduated from Harvard and went on to study sculpture in Rome. He attended the School of Fine Arts in Düsseldorf and ultimately went to Paris, where he worked with the well-known history painter Thomas Couture. By the early 1850s he had found his way to the Barbizon school outside of Paris and had begun to focus on landscapes and peasant subjects. He was a great admirer of the French painter Jean-François Millet. Hunt's artistic sensibility blended the somewhat divergent official academic style of Couture with the less conventional realism and naturalism of Millet.
Upon his return to the United States, Hunt established his reputation in Boston and in Newport, Rhode Island. He surrounded himself with prominent and rising artists as well as writers, including two of his close friends William and Henry James. Hunt became an outspoken champion of modern French art both in artistic practice and as a collector.
This imposing figure study was executed in charcoal, which was Hunt's favorite drawing medium, and he strongly encouraged its use among his many students. One of his best-known students was John La Farge, whose work is on view nearby.
John Frederick Kensett
American, 1816-1872
Illustration for "Hetabel," c. 1853
graphite on paper
Gift from Andrew Carnegie, 16.30.1
John Frederick Kensett
American, 1816-1872
Illustration for "Babylonish Ditty," c. 1853
graphite on paper
Gift of Andrew Carnegie, 16.30.2
John Frederick Kensett is best known as a landscape painter and a member of the second generation of artists associated with the Hudson River School. He started his career as a commercial engraver, and his work as an illustrator was infrequent. These diminutive drawings were made as illustrations for two long poems, each on the theme of lost romantic love. The illustrations appeared at the beginning of the poem, near the title. They were included in Frederick Swartwout Cozzen's Prismatics, an anthology of poems and stories published in 1853 under the pseudonym Richard Haywarde.
John La Farge
American, 1835-1910
Angels, 1890
graphite on card
Purchase, 22.10.1
This graphite drawing is a design for a stained glass window titled Angels and the Book, made as a memorial window for Henry Hotchkiss (1801-1871) and given to Center Church in New Haven, Connecticut, by Hotchkiss' children. The window was subsequently moved into a private collection.
John La Farge
American, 1835-1910
Madonna, c. 1886­1887
graphite on paper
Purchase, 13.9.1
John La Farge
American, 1835-1910
First Sketch for Three-Paneled Window, One Done in Color, 1896
graphite, colored pencil, and gouache on paper
Purchase, 22.10.6
This drawing is a design for a stained glass window memorializing Fanny Garretson Russell in the Onteora Club Church located in Tannersville, New York. The figures in La Farge's three archways were inspired by an altar depicted in an Italian Renaissance painting by the 15th-century artist Fra Angelico.
John La Farge
American, 1835-1910
Sitting Siva Dance, c. 1894
graphite and gouache on card
Purchase, 17.8
John La Farge was born into a wealthy and cultured New York family in 1835. He had a cosmopolitan upbringing and was exposed to numerous European, Asian, and Polynesian cultures during his many travels. His multifaceted career encompassed painting, illustration, stained-glass design, mural design, and other decorative projects. On August 23, 1890, La Farge embarked on a trip with historian Henry Adams, which relates directly to the subject of this rich and colorful gouache. La Farge and Adams visited numerous islands in the South Seas, including Hawaii and Samoa. Travelogues and other written accounts reveal that this drawing depicts a dance performed by men in the village of Iva on the island of Savaii on October 27, 1890.
La Farge was a familiar figure during the early years of Carnegie Institute. He served on three juries for different Carnegie Internationals, exhibited 14 works of art at Internationals between 1896 and 1909, and was granted a solo exhibition of 128 paintings, drawings, watercolors, and decorative panels in 1901. A large number of the works included in the 1901 exhibition depicted Samoan, Japanese, Tahitian, and Hawaiian subjects.
Thomas Moran
American, 1837-1926
North Peak, c. 1873
graphite, pen and ink, brush and ink, and gouache on paper
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 06.3.14
Thomas Moran is most famous as a painter of the western landscape. As with many other artists in this exhibition, Moran had a productive career as an illustrator, working specifically with Scribner's Magazine, which later became The Century.
Moran's first experience with the landscape of the American West was through a commission from Scribner's in 1870, which sent him to sketch views of Yellowstone. This lush, black-and-white, ink-washed view was acquired from the archives of The Century. Although it does not appear to have been used directly to illustrate an article or essay in the magazine, the drawing bears a close and striking resemblance to other illustrations by Moran that accompany the essay "The Cañons of the Colorado" by Major J.W. Powell and published in Scribner's Magazine in February of 1875. This drawing includes images of tiny human figures, a device Moran used to convey a sense of the scale and grandeur of the imposing landscape.
Moran was born in England but as a child moved to Philadelphia with his family as a child. He was trained as an artist by his brother and privately by James Hamilton, a popular Philadelphia artist known for marines and landscapes in the style of the British painter J. M. W. Turner. Moran, too, was enamored of Turner's art and traveled to England in 1861 to study the British painter's work.
Violet Oakley
American, 1874-1961
Venetian Girl, 1918
crayon on paper
American Artists' War Emergency Fund, 18.25.11
Venetian Girl demonstrates the strong use of outline, economy of design, and interest in making the white space of the paper an essential component of the composition that were hallmarks of Violet Oakley's style. This drawing depicts Oakley's long-time companion Edith Emerson dressed in the costume of a 16th-century page and relates to Oakley's painting The Banquet, 1918. In the painting, Emerson is shown serving at a banquet, where one of the guests is a self-portrait of Oakley. The drawing also relates to a series of photographs taken of Emerson in a similar costume.
Oakley's drawing was turned into a print included in the American Artist's War Emergency Fund portfolio compiled by the National Arts Club during WWI. Prints made after drawings by other artists, such as Cecilia Beaux, Ivan G. Olinsky, Maxfield Parrish, and J. Alden Weir, were included in the portfolio. The original drawings by these artists are on view elsewhere in this exhibition.
Oakley came from a family of artists. She had extensive art training at the Art Students' League in New York, studied abroad in England and France, and finally at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia. Toward the end of her training, she studied with children's illustrator Howard Pyle. Along with Pyle and her close friend Jessie Wilcox Smith, Oakley illustrated Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's epic poem Evangeline: A Tale of Acadie, published in 1897. One of Oakley's greatest claims to fame was a commission to produce murals for the Pennsylvania State Capitol in Harrisburg. Her murals are grand allegorical and historical subjects and incorporate references to her intense pacifist beliefs.
Ivan G. Olinsky
American, 1878-1962
Head of a Girl, 1918
charcoal on paper
American Artists' War Emergency Fund, 18.25.16
This charcoal drawing is a head-study for a figure in Ivan Olinsky's painting Springtime, 1918. As is the case with many drawings on view in this exhibition, this study inspired a print that was included in the American Artist's War Emergency Fund portfolio. Olinsky exhibited seven paintings at different Carnegie International exhibitions between 1911 and 1925. He won an award in 1922 for a painting titled My Daughters.
Maxfield Parrish
American, 1870-1966
Girl by a Fountain, 1918
crayon on paper
American Artists' War Emergency Fund, 18.25.12
Maxfield Parrish is one of the most familiar names associated with the field of illustration, working for all the major publications of his generation as well as illustrating books and posters. Parrish professed to be much inspired by the great European Art Nouveau poster artists like Alphonse Mucha and by the late 19th-century British Pre-Raphaelite movement in general. The subject of this drawing-an idealized, solitary female figure lost in reverie-is one of Parrish's hallmarks. The composition is a variation on one of Parrish's most famous and widely reproduced prints titled The Garden of Allah, which was first published in 1918 by Crane's Chocolates for use on a gift box.
A native of Philadelphia, Parrish was the son of the painter and printmaker Stephen Parrish. A graduate of Haverford College, he intended to become an architect. By 1892 he switched his focus to illustration and began training at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts under Thomas Anshutz and later Howard Pyle. Girl by a Fountain was one of sixteen drawings that Beatty acquired for the collection associated with the American Artist's War Emergency Fund portfolio.
Joseph Pennell
American, 1860-1926
Drawing No. 2 for Washington Irving's "Alhambra," c. 1896
graphite on paper
Purchase, 17.5.7
Joseph Pennell was a well-known anti-academic art critic and co-author of a widely read 1908 biography of his close colleague James McNeill Whistler. He was raised in a strict Quaker family and trained as an artist at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia. This delicate drawing was produced during his long residence in London from 1884 to 1917. It is one of several sketches in the museum's collection produced to illustrate an 1896 reissued publication of Washington Irving's travel book The Alhambra.
Howard Pyle
American, 1853-1911
There They Sat, Just As Little Children in the Town Might Sit Upon Their Father's
Door-Step, 1888
pen and ink on cardboard
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 06.19.11
Howard Pyle was among the most recognized illustrators of the late 19th century, mainly for his contributions to children's literature and periodicals. His work was frequently reproduced in such journals as St. Nicholas and Harper's Young People. Pyle was also an author and often produced drawings to accompany his own writing. While folktales were his main interest, this illustration was made for his historical novel for children titled Otto of the Silver Hand, published by Scribner's in 1888. Every aspect of this book was carefully designed, and the details of his imagery, such as clothing, setting, and props, were always carefully researched for plausibility and historical accuracy.
Toward the end of his career, Pyle taught at Drexel Institute in Philadelphia from 1894 until 1900 and later at Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania, as well as Wilmington, Delaware. Many of his students, including Maxfield Parrish, Violet Oakley, and Jessie Wilcox Smith went on to become successful illustrators and artists.
Charles Stanley Reinhart
American, 1844-1896
The English Family Who Never Pay for Extra Luggage, 1896
graphite, pen and ink on card
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 06.19.14
This pen-and-ink drawing was published as an illustration in Scribner's Magazine in March 1897 to accompany Lewis Morris Iddings' essay "The Art of Travel."
William Rimmer
American, 1816-1879
Sadak in Search of the Waters of Oblivion, 1860
graphite on cardboard
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 07.10
The decorative border seen here is printed on the cardboard William Rimmer used to produce this delicate graphite drawing. The subject is from a story titled "Kalasrade," the ninth story from James Ridley's The Tales of Genii, published in 1762.
Rudolph Ruzicka
American, 1883-1978
Coal Barges at Allen Point, NY, 1912
graphite and gouache on cardboard
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 17.28.1
Walter Shirlaw
American, 1838-1910
Free Sea Bathing, City, Point, undated
charcoal on card
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 06.19.19
Walter Shirlaw was a contemporary of the second generation of Hudson River School artists, and he is most recognized for the subject seen here: nudes, particularly nudes in natural settings. Shirlaw was born in Scotland, moved to the United States, and later trained as an artist in Munich. He was a strong advocate of liberalized attitudes toward the nude in art, and his fame in the American art world stems from his significant work as a teacher at The Art Students' League in New York. He exhibited at Carnegie International exhibitions in 1896 and in 1907.
F. Hopkinson Smith
American, 1838-1915
A Deserted House, undated
graphite, charcoal, and white gouache on light gray-blue laid paper
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 06.3.18
Jessie Wilcox Smith
American, 1838-1935
She and Eleanor Would Sit, 1903
charcoal on cardboard
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 06.19.21
Jesse Wilcox Smith had a long and successful career as an illustrator. Like her close friend Violet Oakley, Smith studied with illustrator Howard Pyle. The three artists contributed to an 1897 edition of poems by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow titled Evangeline: A Tale of Acadie.
Smith contributed prolifically to periodicals including Good Housekeeping, The Ladies' Home Journal, and The Woman's Home Companion. Her drawings are often narrative and sentimental. This drawing was turned into an illustration published in Scribner's Magazine in 1903 to accompany a story titled "The Blue Dress" by Josephine Daskan.
Frederic Dorr Steele
American, 1873-1944
The Cry Baby, 1905
graphite, pen and ink, and ink wash on paper
Purchase, 10.6.5
Albert E. Sterner
American, 1863-1946
Untitled (Girl at Piano), 1900
chalk on buff paper
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 07.12.2
John Henry Twachtman
American, 1853-1902
Low Tide-A Stranded Vessel, 1880
graphite with traces of pastel on brown laid paper
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 06.25.1
John Henry Twachtman made this sketch while in Venice, and stylistically it reflects his deep interest in the work of James McNeill Whistler. This atmospheric drawing may depict the Giudecca Canal, because it is one of the few Venetian canals capable of holding a ship as large as the one shown here. The dark brown paper the artist used for this drawing is worth noting. Probably a very old sheet of paper, it bears a partial watermark as well as visible spots within the paper pulp. Twachtman was known for his fascination with special and aged papers, and this example may have been cut from an old book. His choice shows his awareness of Whistler's practices as well as those of the French Impressionists, such as Camille Pissarro, who favored old or special papers in their prints and drawings.
Twachtman was from Cincinnati, where he had studied at the McMicken School of Design with Frank Duveneck. In 1875 he went with Duveneck to Munich and there continued his training at the Royal Academy. He moved on to Venice, worked with William Merritt Chase between 1878 and 1883, and then traveled to Paris.
John Henry Twachtman
American, 1853-1902
Sketch: A Canal, undated
graphite on tan paper
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 06.25.2
Like Frederick Childe Hassam and Julian Alden Weir, whose works are also on view here, John Henry Twachtman is one of the best-known American Impressionists. He was interested in realism and the effects of plein-air, or painting outdoors directly before the subject. This delicate sketch is most likely an example of a relatively spontaneous sketch done on-site.
Twachtman was a very active participant in the Carnegie Internationals, displaying 20 works of art between 1896 and posthumously up until 1911, and serving as a juror in 1898. He lived and worked in Connecticut.
Alfred S. Wall
American, 1825-1896
Landscape, undated, probably late 19th century
graphite, wash, and gouache on paper, mounted on cardboard
Gift of John Frazer, 07.16.1
Alfred S. Wall was a prominent Pittsburgh-area artist, who was born in Mount Pleasant and lived in Allegheny City. He served on the first board of The Art Society of Pittsburgh, which was became a branch of the American Federation of Arts; and he was a frequent exhibitor with the Pittsburgh Art Association and the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia. Wall is known for his landscape paintings, examples of which can be seen nearby in the museum's permanent collection. He was appointed to the original board of trustees for Carnegie Institute by Andrew Carnegie, but served only briefly before his death. One of his paintings was displayed posthumously at the second Carnegie International in 1897.
Julian Alden Weir
American, 1852-1919
Nude, a Girl Kneeling, undated
graphite on paper, signed with charcoal
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 06.22
Julian Alden Weir
American, 1852-1919
At the Piano, 1917-1918
crayon on paper
American Artists' War Emergency Fund, 18.25.14
This was one of sixteen drawings Beatty acquired for the collection associated with the American Artist's War Emergency Fund portfolio.
James Abbott McNeill Whistler,
American, 1834-1903
Mrs. Leyland Seated, c. 1871
pastel and chalk on brown paper
Andrew Carnegie Fund, 06.12.6
This delicate pastel is one of at least thirteen drawings associated with Whistler's painting Symphony in Flesh Colour and Pink: Portrait of Mrs. Frances Leyland, 1871-1874. The painting depicts Leyland wearing a pale pink tea gown covered in rosettes. The dress was of Whistler's own design and perfectly coordinates with the surrounding décor depicted in the painting. The work is an excellent example of Whistler's important role in the 19th-century Aesthetic Movement. The extraordinary harmony between the colors and design, evident in the modern, uncorseted gown and the surrounding interior, was quintessential to Aesthetic interests and goals.
Leyland was a good friend of the artist; her husband Frederick and she were some of Whistler's most devoted clients. In numerous drawings for the dress shown in the final painting, Whistler experimented with the appearance of the rosette decorative details on the gown. In this remarkable composition, the dress is posed in an alert, seated position without the wearer. The effect of the ghostly, dissolving image is enhanced by the incomplete outline of the drawing and by the absence of a chair and background detail. This drawing provides a view of the front of the seated dress in contrast to the final painting where Leyland is posed standing with her back to the viewer.
Whistler served on the advisory board for six Carnegie Internationals. Between 1896 and 1907 (posthumously), he had thirteen works of art exhibited in the annual exhibition.
Clarence H. White
American, 1871-1925
John W. Beatty, 1911
platinum print
Second Century Acquisition Fund, 2005.50.1.3
[case label]
Manuscript guestbook kept by John W. Beatty and the Beatty Family, 1903-1938
leather-bound volume containing drawings, autographs, and inserts of letters,
drawings, photographs, and printed material
Joseph E. and Sally M. Imbriglia Fund, 2006.42
This guestbook was used at the Beatty household on Richland Avenue in Pittsburgh from 1903­1938. Among the signatures are those of many artists, including ones who participated in Carnegie Internationals as exhibitors, jurors, and advisors. The book also contains the signatures of scholars and art critics. In addition to autographs and personal inscriptions, some guests embellished their entries with spontaneous drawings and caricatures. Pieces of ephemera, such as letters, greeting cards, and loose drawings, were inserted among the pages, along with Beatty's 1920 certificate from the French government declaring him a chevalier de l'ordre national de le Légion d'Honneur.
[case label]
This first edition of Sadakichi Hartmann's A History of American Art was published in 1901 by L. C. Page & Company of Boston. The two-volume set appeared five years before Hartmann officially agreed to work with Beatty on assembling an American drawings and watercolors collection for Carnegie Institute.


Back to page one of article


Visit the Table of Contents for Resource Library for thousands of articles and essays on American art.

Copyright 2007 Traditional Fine Arts Organization, Inc., an Arizona nonprofit corporation. All rights reserved.