Edward Hopper: An Artist in Pursuit of Desire

by Matt Backer

 



 

NOTES

1. Brian O'Doherty, American Masters: The Voice and the Myth (New York: Random House, 1982), 14.

2. Ellen Handler Spitz, Image and Insight: Essays in Psychoanalysis and the Arts (New York: Columbia University Press, 1991), 14.

3. Spitz, 14.

4. Henceforth, I assume that the reader adopts Hopper's persona. "We" will refer to the reader and myself in the guise of an early twentieth century, middle class, adult, white male, or a similar identity.

5. Manuela Holterhoff, "Art: The Solitude and Silence of Edward Hopper," The Wall Street Journal (October 17, 1980).

6. Slavoj Zizek, Looking Awry: An Introduction to Jacques Lacan through Popular Culture (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1991), 6.

7. Zizek, 6.

8. Victor Burgin, Between (Oxford: Basil Blackwell Limited, 1986), 182-184.

9. Quoted in Spitz, 17.

10. Ivo Kranzfelder, Edward Hopper: Vision of Reality (Hohenzollernring: Benedikt Taschen, 1995), 139. Gail Levin, Hopper's Places (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998).

11. "Cet organ phalloïde. Le regard est l'érection de l'oeil." Jean Clair, La Pointe à l'oeil (Paris: Cahier du Musée National d'Art Moderne, 1983), no. 11, n.p.

12. Zizek, 109.

13. Others are House by the Railroad, 1925, Hotel Room, 1931, Solitude, 1944, Cape Cod in October, 1946, Approaching a City, 1946, High Noon, 1949, and Office in a Small City, 1953.

14. Edward Hopper, "Charles Burchfield: American," The Arts 14.1 (1928), 8-9.

15. Weiland Schmied, Edward Hopper: Portraits of America (Munich, New York: Prestel, 1995), 20.

16. O'Doherty, 41.

17. Zizek, 128.

18. Zizek, 134.

19. Mark Strand, Hopper (Hopewell, NJ: The Ecco Press, 1994), 55.

20. John Hollander, "Hopper and the Figure of Room," Art Journal 41 (1981), 159. Hollander used the term, invented by Walter Pater, to describe the shapes of light, the opposite of shadows that appear in Hopper's paintings.

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