with revenue and profit aspects
- Google Books
- Google Inc. collaborates with institutional libraries to digitize large
quantities of books via the Google
Books Library Project. The Google initiative to digitize the contents
on the New York Public Library, plus the California, Harvard, Michigan,
Oxford and Stanford university libraries, will result in a spectacular
improvement in the ability of scholars, students and teachers to find relevant
texts for further study.
- Public domain books are available on an open access basis. Copyrighted
material is treated in one of three ways. Google negotiates with cooperating
publishers through its Google
Books Partner Program for "Limited Preview" of selected entire
pages, via search within the books by readers. For scanned books without
copyright permissions, "snippets" from pages are available. For
remaining books basic information is provided without ability to search
within the book. The snippets inform readers about the relevance of the
book to their subject of inquiry.
- In June 2008 Google said about the service:
- "For books that enter Book Search through the Library Project,
what you see depends on the book's copyright status. We respect copyright
law and the tremendous creative effort authors put into their work. If
the book is in the public domain and therefore out of copyright, you can
page through the entire book and even download it and read it offline.
But if the book is under copyright, and the publisher or author is not
part of the Partner Program, we only show basic information about the book,
similar to a card catalog, and, in some cases, a few snippets -- sentences
of your search terms in context..."
- While few books on American art history are out of copyright, those
in the Books Library Project will be of benefit to students and scholars
alike. A Google Book Search conducted
March 24, 2008 located 82,000 pages from books with the words "American
art" and 7,760 pages from books with the phase "American art."
Many offer either "Limited Preview" or "snippet" features.
- A Google
Book Search, on the publisher's name (e.g., inpublisher:"Hudson
Hills") and limiting the search to Limited Preview and full view books,
will indicate whether the publisher is participating in the Google Books
Partner Program offering Snippit View, Limited
Preview or Full Views.
- Books with Snippit View, Limited Preview or Full
Views features are fully digitized. Google Books provides a keyword search
box in the pages describing individual books. Keyword search results show
pages in the books containing the keywords. For Limited Preview books,
not all keyword search results may be shown. For Full View books, full
contents of the books may be read online. Images, however, are suppressed
in some examples identified by TFAO.
- A January
4, 2009 article in the New York Times titled "Google Hopes
to Open a Trove of Little-Seen Books" said that "A settlement
in October with authors and publishers who had brought two copyright lawsuits
against Google will make it possible for users to read a far greater collection
of books, including many still under copyright protection." The settlement
allows for "...sales to consumers of digital access to copyrighted
books. Google will take 37 percent of this revenue, leaving 63 percent
for publishers and authors." The article reported that Google had
scanned seven million books to date, with about five million in copyright
but out of print.
- Google Books and Art Museums
- TFAO conducted in March 2008 through January 2009 a sample survey of
museums' activity in providing free online access of their exhibition catalogues
via Google Books. The survey, using Google Books as a research source,
also identified books published by the museums that relate to TFAO's mission.
For information about the survey please click
here. TFAO found that relatively few museums have yet entered into
arrangements with Google Books for online retrieval of book contents.
- TFAO learned during the survey that the Hudson
River Museum is in the process of having its books listed in Google
Books, with some books scanned to date. A Google Book Search conducted
June 19, 2008 located three books recently been published by the Museum
online via Google Books with Full View. A Full View book may be read online
without charge in its entirety. Images of art objects were deleted in the
online Full View pages. The three catalogues are: Red
Grooms: In the Studio, By Bartholomew Bland. Published 2008. The
Hudson River Museum. Art / General. 32 pages. ISBN:0943651360; I
WANT Candy: The Sweet Stuff in American Art, By Bartholomew F.
Bland. Contributor Michael Botwinick. Published 2007. The Hudson River
Museum. Art / General. 50 pages. ISBN:0943651344; Got
Cow? Cattle in American Art, 1920-2000:, By Bartholomew F. Bland,
Hudson River Museum. Published 2006. The Hudson River Museum. Art / General.
50 pages. ISBN:0943651328. Published in conjunction with an exhibition
held at the Hudson River Museum, Yonkers, N.Y., June 24-Sept. 10, 2006.
TFAO understands that the Hudson River Museum plans to continue working
with Google Books to publish online certain new catalogues plus selected
catalogues published on paper in prior years.
- A March 24, 2008 publisher search in Google Books for Chazen
Museum of Art yielded 190 titles with almost all of the books featuring
"Limited Preview." Chazen Museum of Art is affiliated with the
University of Wisconsin.
- Commercial Publishers
- Commercial publishers such as Abbeville
Press, Harry N. Abrams and
Hudson Hills Press publish many
art books. In March 2008 TFAO found in the Abbeville Press web site 26
books with partially digitized contents excerpts including prefaces, prologues,
introductions, chapters, table of contents and other excerpts. Here is
an Abbeville book with the Introduction available online:
- Southwestern Indian Jewelry, By Dexter Cirillo.
Photographs by Stephen Northup, Michael Monteaux. Contributor Steven Northup,
Michael Monteaux. Published 1992 by Abbeville Press. Abbeville says: "Spectacular
photographs of the breathtaking beautiful objects and sensitive portraits
of the artists combine with an insightful, informative text to capture
the spirit of this work and the vital cultures from which it springs. This
ground-breaking volume opens by surveying the vividly colored necklaces,
earrings, and pins made in shell and stone from prehistoric times to the
present, particularly in the Santo Domingo and Zuni pueblos. The focus
then shifts to the much-admired and avidly collected work in silver --
often set with turquoise and other stones -- by Navajo, Hopi, and Zuni
artists. The book culminates in an exploration of striking contemporary
work in which many artists have adapted traditional approaches to create
original designs. A collector's guide offers invaluable advice as well
as an illustrated glossary of materials, techniques, objects, and designs.
A nationwide directory of sources concludes the book." (right: front
cover, Southwestern Indian Jewelry. Photo courtesy Google Books)
Note: the Introduction to this book may be read at the Abbeville
Press web site.
- Click here for a list of Abbeville
- A May 1, 2008 Google Book Search
check for Hudson Hill Press on the publisher's name (e.g., inpublisher:"Hudson
Hills") and limiting the search to Limited Preview and full view books
indicated 557 titles, many of which relate to American representational
- University Presses
- TFAO has conducted inquiries with university presses noted for publication
of art exhibition catalogues. Web searches indicate that several presses
have entered into arrangements with Amazon and/or Google or are close to
decisions on digitization participation. Examples of university presses
that have published American art books include those from these institutions:
- Columbia University (Google
- Fordham University Press
- Harvard University (Google
- Oxford University (Google partner)
- Penn State (Google partner)
- Princeton University (Google
- University of Arizona
- University of California (Google
- University of Georgia (Google
- University of Illinois
- University of New Mexico
- University of North Carolina
- University of South Carolina
- University of Pennsylvania
- University of Texas (Google
- University of Washington
- Yale University (Google
- When contacted in 2004, one large university press in the Western US
had submitted about 1/2 of its titles with Amazon and Google. At that time
the press has restricted digitization to text only and is studying rights
and reproduction issues relating to images. A representative of the press
explained that when books are sold online the authors still receive a share
of proceeds in the form of royalties, forming an incentive for collaboration
with the press. Copyright holders of images in books usually do not have
royalty arrangements and therefore have less alignment of interests with
publishers for digitization.
- TFAO believes that university presses have a high propensity to cooperate
with search engines and online books sales organizations in placing their
books online for free retrieval of text in some manner.
- Amazon.com produces page images, conducts OCR scanning, and makes available
to registered users both text search and page image display for a large
segment of the books it sells ("millions of pages"), on the premise
that the results will enhance book sales. In a Wired.com article
written by Gary Wolf titled "The
Great Library of Amazonia" dated October 23, 2003, the Amazon.com
project is discussed in detail. The article states further that "[Lawrence]
Lessig, in partnership with Stanford University librarian Michael Keller,
will soon announce a free program to digitize any out-of-print book whose
copyright holder wants to make it available to the public."
- TFAO surveyed a sample of 67 books containing page images from Amazon.com's
inventory in February, 2004 and found that 24 books (36%) contained excerpts
and 13 books (19%) contained the "search inside" feature. Please
click here for a partial list of Amazon
searchable American art titles.
- The University of Virginia Press established the Electronic Imprint
in 2001 and its series of publications known as Rotunda.
The electronic publications website for the Press said that "Rotunda
was created for the publication of original digital scholarship along with
newly digitized critical and documentary editions in the humanities and
social sciences. The collection combines the originality, intellectual
rigor, and scholarly value of traditional peer-reviewed university press
publishing with thoughtful technological innovation designed for scholars
and students." Electronic Imprint said that digital scholarship
"content can never be captured in its entirety by a printed book,
no matter how long or heavily illustrated." A PDF file would not be
digital scholarship because its content is exactly convertible to a printed
book. On the other hand, digital scholarship would include texts with hyperlinks
to quotation sources, audio and video files. As of October 2004 Electronic
Imprint had not yet announced plans for publication of American art content.
- As of October, 2012 TFAO could not yet find American art content on
- Artist and dealer websites
- Caio Fonseca
- Caio Fonseca's website section on books
contains as of 2013 essays from catalogues including Inventions:
Recent Paintings by Caio Fonseca, an exhibition held at the Corcoran
Gallery of Art.
- Edan Milton Hughes
- Edan Hughes published many biographical sketches online. Hughes is
the foremost author of dictionaries on early California artists.
- A Research Bonanza
- The online content from sources such as covered above will be a boon
to students and life long learners when conducting research.
- During 2008 TFAO contacted leading American museums to learn of their
plans to either directly digitize scholarly material owned in their exhibition
catalogues or have commercial services such as Amazon and Google digitize
for them. TFAO will track the progress of selected major presses in digitizing
their titles. A prior survey was conducted in 2004.
- Michael Lesk, a professor at Rutgers University, provides related insight
into consumer purchasing behavior. He says: "The National Academy
Press has, for a few years, been putting all their new books on the Web
for free access, and providing the complete text of each book. To the surprise
of many, the result has been an increase in their print sales. Similarly
the Brookings Institute has put 100 of its books online free, and the paper
sales of those books have doubled. This result is perhaps similar to the
experience of record companies, which found years ago that having their
records played free on the radio increased disk sales."
Digitizing initiatives not intended
- For information on digitizing initiatives not intended for profit please
- The eBook future
- Related Non-Profit Organizations
- Methods and Costs
Return to Digital Libraries
Individual pages in this study will be amended as TFAO
adds content, corrects errors and reorganizes sections for improved readability.
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to sources of information outside of our web site are provided only as referrals
for your further consideration. Please use due diligence in judging the
quality of information contained in these and all other Web sites and in
employing referenced consultants or vendors. Information from linked sources
may be inaccurate or out of date. Traditional Fine Arta Organization, Inc
neither recommends or endorses these referenced organizations. Although
Traditional Fine Art Organization, Inc. includes links to other web sites,
it takes no responsibility for the content or information contained on those
other sites, nor exerts any editorial or other control over those other
sites. For more information on evaluating web pages see Traditional Fine
Arts Organization, Inc.'s General Resources
section in Online Resources for Collectors and Students of Art History.
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