Heroic America: James Daugherty's Mural Drawings from the 1930s

by Rebecca E. Lawton




1 Daugherty's birthdate is given variously as 1887 or 1889. Daugherty was often vague about the date when providing biographical information. The correct year is 1887, first cited by Gail Levin in "James Daugherty: Early Modernist and Simultaneist," Whitney Review 1976-77 (New York: Whitney Museum of American Art, Annual Report, 1977), p. 24.

2 Two sets of autobiographical notes exist (both unpaginated), a twenty-six page typescript, ca. 1964, in the James Daugherty Papers, Special Collections, University of Oregon, and an eleven-page manuscript, ca. 1930, in the James Daugherty Papers, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution (hereafter AAA). The typescript is, in part, a draft for Daugherty's Introduction to Walt Whitman's America (New York: The World Publishing Company, 1964), a book of Whitman's poetry and writings, selected and illustrated by the artist. The book is dedicated to Katherine S. Dreier (1877 -1952), the founder of the Societé Anonyme. The typescript also includes a section titled "Twenty-Third and N Street. A Memoir/Washington D. C. (*1898)." 1 am grateful to Duffy Knaus in the Department of Special Collections, University of Oregon, for providing me with the typescript.

3 Daugherty's autobiographical notes are not precise, and are especially vague about his childhood. The artist's son, Charles M. Daugherty, recalls that his grandmother's family owned extensive acres of farmland in southwestern Ohio, near the town of Wilmington. His grandfather's Indiana farm venture was not a success and consequently the family moved temporarily to Wilmington, until his grandfather took a job with the U.S. Department of Agriculture in the mid-1890s. Charles M. Daugherty, interview by author, 18 December 1997.

4 Daugherty family correspondence is in the James Daugherty Archive, Weston, Connecticut, (hereafter JDA). I am grateful to Charles Daugherty for allowing me access to the JDA, which contains such materials as his father's diary, sketchbooks, and private family correspondence.

5 Autobiographical notes, Daugherty Papers, University of Oregon.

6 Unpublished eulogy, JDA.

7 Autobiographical notes, Daugherty Papers, University of Oregon.

8 Diary entry, 21 February 1903, JDA. Information on the Corcoran Gallery's Free School of Art can be found in Catalogue of The Corcoran Gallery of Art (Washington: Gibson Bros., 1901). The catalogue also contains an extensive list of the plaster-cast collection.

9 The most detailed account of Daugherty's instruction at the Corcoran's art school is given in autobiographical notes, Daugherty Papers, University of Oregon.

10 Ibid.

11 JDA.

12 Diary. 1 January to 27 April 1903, JDA. According to the artist's son, his father's religious faith was a significant and determining factor throughout his life. Daugherty was a serious student of the Bible. His wife had become a Christian Scientist in 1913 and thus he became interested in it as a result. Charles M. Daugherty, interview by author, 18 December 1997. Although never a central theme in his art, Daugherty's religious conviction produced many paintings of Biblical themes, such as Wall Decoration, ca. 1918-20 (Collection of the Societé Anonyme, Yale University), and other noteworthy early works, Flight into Egypt, ca. 1920 (whereabouts unknown) and Moses, ca. 1922 (Collection Robert 1. B. Tobin, San Antonio, Tex.). In 1929, he illustrated The Kingdom and the Power and the Glory: Stories of Faith and Marvel, a book of selections from the King James version of the Old Testament for A. A. Knopf. In 1941, he illustrated In the Beginning: Being the First Chapter of Genesis from the King James Version for Oxford University Press. In 1946, Daugherty began executing a series of illustrations on biblical themes for a proposed ten-volume set of books; the project is unpublished.

13 Italics mine. Newspaper clipping, 23 October 1904, Pennsylvania Academy Scrapbooks, AAA, roll P53, frame 971.

14 Newspaper clipping, 12 July 1900, Pennsylvania Academy Scrapbooks, AAA, roll P54, frame 5.

15 For an excellent source of information on the role of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, as well as those of its instructors such as Anshutz, Breckenridge, and McCarter in promoting modernism, see Sylvia Yount, "Rocking the Cradle of Liberty: Philadelphia's Adventures in Modernism," in To Be Modern: American Encounters with Cézanne and Company (Philadelphia: Museum of American Art of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, 1996), pp. 9-25. See also Randall C. Griffin, Thomas Anshutz Artist and Teacher (Huntington, New York: Heckscher Museum, 1994), passim; and Carolyn Diskant, "Modernism at The Pennsylvania Academy," In This Academy: The Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, 1805 - 1976 (Philadelphia: The Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, 1976), pp. 205-28. Abraham Davidson's chapter on the Philadelphia School in Early American Modernist Painting. 1910- I 935 (New York: Da Capo Press, 1981), pp. 229-44 is helpful, as is the most recent information on the Academy's modern artists in William H. Gerdts, "The American Fauves 1906-1918," in The Color of Modernism (New York: Hollis Taggert Galleries, 1997), pp. 23-31.

16 Newspaper clipping, 23 October 1904, Pennsylvania Academy Scrapbooks, AAA, roll P53, frame 7. It is provocative to consider how much emphasis to place upon Breckenridge's role in Daugherty's later facile reception to avant-garde art color theory. Since examples of Daugherty's student paintings have not survived, Breckenridge's direct influence upon Daugherty's early use of color is difficult to determine. Breckenridge, no doubt, introduced Daugherty to his mode of viewing the landscape as a harmonious arrangement of glowing colors. But Breckenridge did not encounter the rich, unconventional combination of colors employed by Matisse and the Fauves until a trip to Paris in 1909, and his transition to pure abstract painting based upon the primacy of color came in 1917, many years after Daugherty had studied with him.

17 The description of the Darby School's teaching method appears in a newspaper clipping, 12 July 1900, Pennsylvania Academy Scrapbooks, AAA, roll P54, frame 5.

18 Hugh H. Breckenridege to Charles M. Daugherty, 28 September 1903, JDA.

19 Edward and Elaine Kemp, "James Henry Daugherty," Imprint: Oregon 2 (Fall 1975), p. 8.

20 By the turn of the century, Pyle had become a dominant force in the field of illustration, wielding enormous influence with publishers. He dissolved his private school in 1905. See Rowland Elzea, "Introduction," A Small School of Art: The Students of Howard Pyle (Wilmington: Delaware Art Museum, 1980), pp. 3-5. Charles Daugherty recalls that his father greatly admired Pyle's illustrations and spoke of having once visited the Pyle School of Art in Wilmington, Delaware with a friend. Daugherty also occasionally expressed regret for not having had the opportunity to study with Pyle. Charles M. Daugherty, interview by author, 18 December 1997.

21 These sketches of 1904 are in a sketchbook with brown marbleized cover (5" x 8"; each sheet 5" x 7 3/4"), JDA.

22 Dates vary for the year McCarter began teaching at the Academy. Doreen Bolger gives 1900 as the date in "The Education of the American Artist," In This Academy: The Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts 1805-1976 (Philadelphia: Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, 1976). p. 73, while several other sources cite the year 1902.

23 McCarter as quoted in Abraham Davidson, Early American Modernist Painting, 1910-1935 (New York: Da Capo Press, 1981), p. 240.

24 Daugherty's description of McCarter's teaching can be found in The Classical Composition Book, 1905 (10" x 8"), JDA.

25 As quoted in Introduction to Walt Whitman's America: Selections and Drawings by James Daugherty (New York: The World Publishing Company, 1964), p. 12.

26 Autobiographical notes, Daugherty Papers, AAA. Regrettably, Daugherty's name is absent from the student register. See Pennsylvania Academy Student Register 1904-05, AAA, roll P66, frames 217-455 and 557-798.

27 James Daugherty Artist Record, 1972, Artists' files, Montclair Art Museum, Montclair, New Jersey. I am indebted to John Solum for bringing this document to my attention.

28 Pennsylvania Academy Scrapbooks, AAA, roll P 53, frame 875.

29 Charles M. Daugherty, interview by author, 18 December 1997.

30 Ruth E. Fine has pointed out that the artist John Marin, who had studied at the Pennsylvania Academy just prior to Daugherty, most likely encountered Whistler's etchings there, since one benefit of a student ticket was access to the Academy's collection. Thus, it seems probable that Daugherty also may have taken advantage of this opportunity to study Whistler's prints. See Ruth E. Fine, John Marin (New York: Abbeville Press, 1990), p. 32.

31 Autobiographical notes, Daugherty Papers, University of Oregon.

32 Sketchbook, 1905-06 (8 1/2" x 6 1/2"), JDA.

33 Reversible Sketchbook, 1905-06 (4 1/2" x 8 1/2"), JDA.

34 Sketchbook, 1905-07 (10" x 14 1/2 "), JDA.

35 Autobiographical notes, Daugherty Papers, AAA.

36 For information about Brangwyn's work for Bing, see Gabriel Weisburg, Art Nouveau Bing: Paris Style 1900 (New York: Harry Abrams, Inc., 1986), p. 58.

37 It is important to note that both Brangwyn and Sert received the Rockefeller Center commissions after Picasso and Matisse had declined them, much to Rivera's consternation. For Rivera's reaction, see Portrait of America by Diego Rivera (New York: Covici, Friede, Inc., 1 934) , pp. 2 1- 23 .

38 The Classical Composition Book, 1905-07 (10" x 8"), JDA.

39 Ibid.

40 Ibid.

41 Ibid.

42 Sketchbook, 1905-07 (7" x 5"), JDA.

43 In 1905-06,Trumbull and Daugherty, both Brangwyn students, began a close friendship and devotion to each other and sustained it at least until 1932, when Trumbull tried to arrange a Rockefeller Center commission for him.

44 "Autobiographical Notes," An Exhibition of some work of James Daugherty, 1954. James Daugherty Papers, AAA, folder marked "Printed Matter." The catalogue does not give dates or a location for the exhibition.

45 As quoted by William C. Agee in "James H. Daugherty" (New York: Robert Schoelkopf Gallery, 1971), n. p. Levin repeats Daugherty's assessment of his study with Brangwyn in "James Daugherty: Early Modernist and Simultaneist," (1976), p. 25. Shortly after Daugherty returned to America, Brangwyn's style of decorative painting began to lose much of its esteem. For example, the art critic, Thomas Craven, attacked Brangwyn and the art of decorative painting in "An Illustrator," The Dial 68 (January 1920), pp. 121-25. Daugherty's later remark that Brangwyn had shielded him from modernism may reflect remorse for not having experienced it first hand-as had so many of his fellow American artists. It may also indicate how totally outmoded and frivolous the art of decorative/ illustrative painting had become after the advent of Abstract Expressionism.

46 As quoted in Daugherty to Freeman 23 March 1935, unsigned typescript, JDA. It is not certain that Daugherty actually sent Freeman the letter.

47 Artist Record, 1972, curatorial files, Montclair Art Museum, Montclair, New Jersey.

48 Introduction to Walt Whitman's America: Selections and Drawings by James Daugherty (New York: The World Publishing Company, 1964).

49 Sketchbook, ca. 1920 (8" x 10"), JDA.

50 Daugherty's specific involvement with modernism ca. 1914-25 is discussed in several excellent sources: on futurism, see Gail Levin, James Daugherty: Early Modernist and Simultaneist, pp.124-27, and also her Synchromism and American Color Abstraction 1910-1925 (New York: Braziller, 1978), in which Levin discusses Daugherty's experimentation with orphism and synchromism. See also William C. Agee, "James H. Daugherty" (New York: Salander O'Reilly Galleries, 1988), n. p. For Daugherty's association with the Societié Anonyme, see Robert Herbert, Eleanor S. Apter and Elise K. Kenney, The Societié Anonyme and the Dreier Bequest at Yale University, A Catalogue Raisonné (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984), pp. 175-78. For his experimentation with fauvism, see William H. Gerdts's essay, "The American Fauves 1907 -1918" in The Color of Modernism: The American Fauves (New York: Hollis Taggart Galleries, 1977), passim.

51 Undated postcard from Hunt Diederich to Daugherty, ca. 1907-08. JDA.

52 See letter from Daugherty to his father 28 February 1909 for insight into Daugherty's frame of mind and thoughts about art and making a living as an illustrator. JDA.

53 Unsigned and undated letter, ca. 1910-11. JDA.

54 The quote appears in autobiographical notes, AAA.

55 Charles Daugherty interview with author, 18 December 1997.

56 Charles Daugherty recalls that his father probably met Pach and Kuhn in 1911, interview with author, 18 December, 1997. Through both Pach and Kuhn, Daugherty became acquainted with the famous Stieglitz and Arensburg Circles, but never became a bona fide member of either group. Also in 1911, Daugherty met Katherine S. Dreier, one of the principal patrons of avant-garde art in America through his friend, Edward Trumbull. Trumbull wrote Daugherty on 28 July [1911] from England, asking him to meet them [Trumbull and his finance, Katherine Dreier] at Pier 57 in New York , as they were returning to America to prepare for the wedding. Daugherty must have been puzzled, if not nonplussed, by the letter since he knew Trumbull had a wife and two children in London. Dreier married Trumbull in August 1911, but quickly had the marriage annulled upon learning of Trumbull's duplicity. Her family kept news of it quiet to prevent a scandal, as did Trumbull's deserted wife in England. See letter, Trumbull to Daugherty, 28 July [1911] JDA. Also in JDA is handwritten copy of letter from Haldus Macfall to Mr. Faxon 1 September 1911 asking Faxon to assist in getting Trumbull to provide support for Mrs. Trumbull.

57 Sonia Daugherty emigrated to Chicago at the age often. She had worked with Jane Addams, Hull House, in Chicago before moving to New York City. She authored children's books, a number of them illustrated by her husband. As a playwright, she published Esther, a biblical story, which won the Drama League's Longmans Green prize in 1930.

58 As quoted in John Rewald, Cézanne and America, Dealers, Collectors, Artists and Critics 1891-1921 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989), p. 184.

59 See Levin, James Daugherty: Early Modernist and Simultaneist, p. 25. Levin also provides some of the titles of Daugherty's illustrations for the Herald, such as Futurist Picture of the Opening Game, 12 April 1914, color reproduction, Collection of the Whitney Museum of American Art.

60 See Alfred H. Barr, Jr., Matisse, His Art and His Public (New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1951), pp. 179-80, for Pach's role in promoting the work of Matisse. See also, Pach's auto biography, Queer Thing, Painting (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1938).

61 As quoted from James Daugherty, unpublished memoir of Arthur Burdett Frost, Jr., Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Henry Reed. For the complete text, see James Daugherty Archive Newsletter 3 (December 1997), pp. 3 and 4. Also quoted in Levin, James Daugherty: Early Modernist and Simultaneist, p. 26; and Gerdts, The American Fauves: 1907-18, pp. 40-41.

62 Daugherty inscribed the pastel erroneously in French as LeJoie deVivre.

63 Daugherty may have noticed Cézanne's Four Bathers (V 384), at the Armory Show. Rewald has remarked that the painting is closely related to the bather composition owned by Matisse (V. 381), who used to analyze it for his students. Cézanne and America, p. 194.

64 I thank Deborah Riccardi at the Barnes Foundation for confirming the history of the painting's title.

65 Several of his designs both for camouflage and color experimentation on ships are in JDA.

66 The New Yorker, The Complete Book of Covers from The New Yorker 1925-1989 (New York: Afred A. Knopf, 1989), p. 6.

67 I am grateful to Ruth Flannery of the Playhouse Square Center, Cleveland, Ohio for providing me with this information. After its renovation in the early '70s, the Loew's State Theater was renamed Playhouse Square. Daugherty's murals were restored and remain in situ. Of particular interest, aside from its decorative scheme, is its designation as the first theater in Cleveland to have a public telephone booth.

68 Quoted in Maggie Valentine, The show starts on the sidewalk: an architectural history (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994), p. 23.

69 Newspaper clipping, Cleveland Plain Dealer, 5 February 1921. JDA.

70 Newspaper clipping JDA. Davis, "Color in these murals and Punch!" Cleveland Press 7, January 1921, p.14.

71 Nathaniel Pousette-Dart mentions that Thomas Lamb, the theater's architect selected Daugherty for the commission in "Pattern and Color in New Murals," Arts & Decoration (October 1921), p. 394.

72 The hotel was demolished in 1979. Charles Daugherty attributes this drawing to the President Hotel commission.

73 Newspaper clipping, Darien Historical Society, Darien, Conn. Katrine Hvidt Bie, "Daugherty's work shows true artist," Brooklyn Daily Times, ca. 1928.

74 See Alan Balfour, Rockefeller Center: Architecture as Theater (New York: McGraw Hill Book Co., 1978), p. 139.

75 Trumbull to Daugherty, 17 June 1932. JDA.

76 Charles M. Daugherty attributes the drawings as studies for Rockefeller Center based upon size, style, and subject. In 1932, Charles was a student at the Yale School of Fine Arts.

77 JDA.

78 Charles M. Daugherty remembers his father's interest in Rivera's work and his being influenced by it. He recalls that they both met Rivera in New York. Interview with author 18 August 1997.

79 I thank John Solum for providing me with this information based upon his research through Connecticut directories.

80 Charles M. Daugherty interview with author 18 August 1997.

81 Barbara Probst Solomon, "Westport Wildlife" The New Yorker (9 September 1996), p. 80

82 Dorothy and John Tarrant, "The Solid Achievers" A Community of Artists,Westport and Weston 1900-1985 (Westport: Weston Arts Council, Inc. 1985.). See also Westport Artists of the Past (Westport: Westport Bicentennial Arts Committee, 1976).

83 As quoted in Solomon, "Westport Wildlife," p. 81.

84 Information on both associations is found in the John Steuart Curry Papers, AAA, roll 2748 and in the clipping file at the Darien Historical Society. Darien, Connecticut.

85 J. S., "Silvermine Artists," The Art News (28 November 1933), p. 15.

86 Daugherty to Edward Bruce, 26 December 1938. JDA.

87 For excellent information on the New Deal's art projects see especially William F. McDonald, Federal Relief Administration and the Arts: The Origins and Administrative History of the Arts Projects of the Works Progress Administration (Columbus, Oh.: Ohio State University Press, 1969); three books by Francis V. O'Connor, Federal Support for the Visual Arts: The New Deal and Now (Greenwich, Conn., New York Graphic Society, Ltd., 1969); The New Deal Art Projects: An Anthology of Memoirs (Washington, D.C..: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1972); and Art for the Millions (Greenwich, Conn.: New York Graphic Society Ltd., 1973); Richard McKinzie, The New Deal for Artists (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982); Karal Ann Marling, Wall to Wall America: A Cultural History of Post-Office Murals in the Great Depression (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1982); Marlene Park and Gerald E. Markowitz, Democratic Vistas: Post Offices and Public Art in the New Deal (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1984), as well as their excellent study of New York State WPA art, New Deal for Art (Hamilton: Gallery Association of New York State, 1977). Edward Bruce and Forbes Watson's, Art in Federal Buildings: An Illustrated Record of the Treasury Department's New Programs in Painting and Sculpture (Washington, D.C.., 1936), is extremely helpful but despite including information on Fairfield Court, it does not mention Daugherty's involvement in the project. At the time of publication Daugherty was designing murals for Fairfield Court's Social Room, yet his engagement with Fairfield Court was still uncertain.

88 Bruce promoted the agency pragmatically as a means to employ artists who had professional credentials but, like many Americans, experienced income decline because of the Depression. His ambitions for the program were loftier and far more grandiose and thus he made the program's focus upon the quality of artwork commissioned the primary consideration, and the need for employment the second. PWAP's appearance as a relief aid measure was therefore nominal. For Bruce's philosophy of the PWAP, see Edward Bruce, "Implications of The Public Works of Art Project," The American Magazine of Art (March 1934).

89 Peyton Boswell, The Art News 32 (16 December 1933), p. 10.

90 Press Release, 28 December 1933. Records of Public Buildings Service RG 121, entry 109, PWAP 1933-34.AAA, roll DC 8, frame 569.

91 For the late response by city and towns, see "Art Projects Now Waiting CWA Artists," Hartford Daily Courant, 17 January 1934. Records of the Public Buildings Service RG 121, entry 108, PWAP. AAA DC 8, frame 879. See also newspaper clipping, Westport Connecticut Herald 2 February 1934,Whitney Museum of American Art Records, 1914-1945 AAA, roll NWh6, frame 745; and newspaper clipping, "This PWAP Muddle," Records of the Public Building Service, RG 121 PWAP, AAA, DC9, frame 81. Forbes Watson, the technical director for the PWAP, traveled from Washington to Norwalk in early February to resolve the problem of jurisdiction by announcing publicly that Fairfield County's artists would become part of the Metropolitan New York region.

92 Sizer to Austin, 17 February 1934. New Haven Colony Historical Society, MS 145, Box 2, folder A.

93 Virginia Drew to Charles Swartz, 9 February 1934. Records of the PWAP Region 2 Office, 1933-1934, AAA, roll DC115, frame 266.

94 Daugherty to Force, 14 December 1933. Records of the PWAP, AAA, roll DC 112, frame 794.

95 Daugherty to Goodrich, 6 January 1934. Records of the PWAP, AAA, roll DC 112, frame 796. Goodrich's replies to Daugherty, if any were indeed written, have yet to be located.

96 See Daugherty's application to the PWAP Records of the PWAP, roll DCl12, frames 800-01.

97 Force to Sizer. Records of the PWAP, AAA, roll 112, frame 799.

98 The Oxford Dictionary of Nursery Rhymes. Edited by Iona and Peter Opie (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1952),pp. 203-04.

99 See Charmion von Weigand, "Mural Painting in America," The Yale Review 23 (June 1934), p. 795. See also Richard Schickel, The Disney Version (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1968), pp.152-57.

100 I want to thank Vance A. Koehler of the Moravian Pottery and Tile Works for identifying the Holmes School tiles.

101 Darien Review, 2 Aug. 1934, Clipping file, Darien Historical Society.

102 Daugherty to Force, 4 March 1934. Records of the PWAP,AAA, roll DC 112, frames, 802-03.

103 Memo from Force, 2 March 1934. James Daugherty Papers, University of Oregon.

104 Murals: New England Tradition, American Rhythm, Forever Panting and Forever Young (a section of which was called Sports Frenzy), and Knowledge the Solution of the Problem; and two smaller murals, Comedy and Tragedy and High School Graduates. The four major murals are also known as Historical New England, Music of America, School Activities, and The World Outside. Elizabeth Alden Curtis provides these titles in "James Daugherty paints a mural for Stamford, Connecticut," four-page typscript, JDA. The typescript was later used as a booklet to explain the mural. Curtis seems to have given the murals the overall title, Democracy in Education.

105 For an excellent study of the Progressive Movement see Richard Pells, Radical Visions and American Dreams: Culture and Thought in the Depression Years (New York: Harper & Row), passim.

106 Daugherty's illustrations appeared in Survey Graphic as early as 1934. The two feature articles on his work appeared in the May 1935 issue, which included photographs of the murals in situ and in the December 1937 issue, which reproduced a group of portrait sketches for Stamford under the title "Youth."

107 As quoted in C. L. Dennis, History of W P.A. in Stamford Conn., p. 24. Typescript copy in the Connecticut State Library Archives, RG 33, Box 217.

108 Definitive information concerning Daugherty's employment as a muralist from the close of PWAP in May 1934 until he officially joined TRAP in November 1935, is difficult to locate since records may be missing or misplaced as a result of FERA's structure as a local, regional, and state bureaucratic organization. In some cases, knowledge of an artist's work during this period may be stored in municipal records rather than in the state's repositories or the National Archives, and thus largely uncatalogued. The matter is further complicated by inaccuracies in FERA reports and the frequent use of statistics to track employment levels and expenditures. For information on Daugherty's transfer to TRAP see WPA Connecticut Federal Art Project General Report for 20 November to 31 December 1935. Unpaginated typescript. Connecticut State Library Archives, RG 33, Box 309.

109 "Tercentenary Pageant May 29, 1935," The Greenwich Press (23 May 1935), p. 1.

110 Daugherty's name appears in Complete List of Painters Represented in the Exhibition. It is not yet known which work(s) done under the aegis of the Section were included in the exhibition. See The Corcoran Gallery of Art, Painters and Sculptors Represented in the First Annual Exhibition of Mural Designs and Sculpture Models by Appointed and Competing Artists Submitted for Federal Building Projects (27 October-21 November 1935).

111 Susan Danley, "Andrew Joseph Russell's 'The Great West Illustrated:" in The Railroad in Art (Boston: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1988), p. 98.

112 Kenneth W Maddox, "Asher B. Durand's Progress: The Advance of Civilization and the Vanishing American" in The Railroad in Art (Boston: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1988), pp. 64-65.

113 Rowan to Daugherty, 10 February 1938, James Daugherty Papers, University of Oregon.

114 J. S., "American Artists," Art News (25 November 1933), p. 15. In November, Daugherty exhibited his work in a show called Fifty Paintings by American Artists at the Montross Gallery. The Art News' review marked Daugherty as "among the most interesting of the newcomers."

115 Virginia Drew to Paul Cooley, Records of the Public Buildings Service, Record Group 212, inventory entry 119, AAA, roll DC21, frame 636.

116 James Daugherty Papers, AAA. The four panels are now in the collection of the Discovery Museum, Bridgeport, Conn.

117 Life 3 (25 October 1937),p.48.

118 The Section's April 1935 Bulletin explained the recently introduced concept of the "invited competition." In an effort to reduce the number of applicants to the competitions, and the concomitant strain upon juries and artists alike, Section officials devised a new system for awarding contracts. In these competitions, only a certain number of preselected artists would be invited by letter to submit drawings. Although only one artist won the competition, the second- and third-place artists would be assigned other commissions.)

119 Form letter from Sizer to artists, 2 1 March 1 935. New Haven Colony Historical Society MS145, Box 1 FE

120 La Farge correspondence, form-letter duplicate. ibid.

121 Daugherty's other sketches for the New London Post Office competition are in the collection of the Lyman Allyn Museum, New London, Connecticut.

122 Records of the Public Buildings Service, Record Group 121, Inventory 119. Dows to Daugherty, 6 September 1935. AAA Roll D2 1 , frame 313.

123 Dows to Daugherty, 9 March 1936. Daugherty Papers, University of Oregon.

124 Dows to Daughery, 23 April 1936. James Daugherty Papers, University of Oregon.

125 Daugherty to Dows, 30 May 1936. Records of the Public Buildings Service, Record Group 121, inventory 119, AAA, roll DC21, frame 235.

126 Ibid.

127 Dows to Daugherty ,29 June 1936. James Daugherty Papers, University of Oregon.

128 n. a. , "A Shy Artist Paints Bold Murals, "Life 3 (25 October 1937), p. 48.

129 Williams to Daugherty, 23 May 1938. James Daugherty Papers, University of Oregon.

130 Daugherty to Cecil H. Jones, 8 November 1937. AAA Roll D21 frame 17-19

131 Rowan to Daugherty, 7 January 1939. JDA.

132 Daugherty to Rowan, 9 February 1939. Folder, Virden, Illinois Post Office National Archives, Washington, D.C.. Record Group 121, Entry 133, Box 25.

133 Rowan to Daugherty, 16 December 1939. National Archives, ibid.

134 As quoted in Daugherty to Rowan, 8 December 1939. National Archives, ibid.

135 Life 3 (25 October 1937), p. 48.

136 Benton scholarship is extensive. I have relied primarily upon Henry Adams, Thomas Hart Benton, An American Original (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1989); Karal Ann Marling, Tom Benton and His Drawings, A Biographical Essay and a Collection of His Sketches, Studies and Mural Cartoons (Columbia, Mo.: University of Missouri Press, 1985); and Erika Doss, Benton, Pollock, and The Politics of Modernism: From Regionalism to Abstract Expressionism (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1991). While living in Westport, Curry assisted Daugherty with the commission for the Thomas Cook Pavilion at the Philadelphia Sesquicentennial Exposition in 1926. Daugherty urged Curry to go to France to learn how to draw. See M. Sue Kendall, Rethinking Regionalism, John Steuart Curry and the Kansas Mural Controversy (Washington, D.C..: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1986) , p. 22.

137 See M. Sue Kendall, Rethinking Regionalism, John Steuart Curry and the Kansas Mural Controversy, chapter 1.

138 William C. Agee first discussed the issue of Benton and Daugherty in "James Henry Daugherty" (New York: Salander-O'Reilly Galleries, 4-29 October 1988).Agee notes, "it was ten years before Benton reached anything remotely approaching the scale, ambition and success achieved by Daugherty in the 1920 Cleveland murals."

139 It is most unlikely that Daugherty would have exhibited in the Forum Exhibition since Alfred Stieglitz, Willard Huntington Wright and his brother, the painter Stanton MacDonald-Wright, had organized it as a showcase for their style of synchromism. Daugherty recalled that Frost's alliance with the Delaunays excluded him from the Russell-Wright group and thus Daugherty as well. See Levin, Synchromism and American Color Abstraction 1910-1925 (New York: Braziller, 1978),p.38.

140 For evidence that Daugherty and Benton knew each other by 1925, see, Herbert et al., The Societé Anonyme, A Catalogue Raisonné, p. 178. Daugherty's son, Charles, recalls that his family visited Benton on Martha's Vineyard one summer in the mid-20s. Charles M. Daugherty, interview by author, 18 December 1997.


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