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Into the Storm: Expressions in the American Landscape, 1800­1940

July 2 - October 10, 2004

Into the Storm: Expressions in the American Landscape, 1800-1940 consists of approximately 70 paintings, drawings and prints, including a special selection of works by William Trost Richards, and examines artists' fascination with the storm. It was at this time that Thomas Cole, Jasper Cropsey, Albert Bierstadt, George Bellows and many others began using this motif as a symbolic and stylistic tool. Cole referred to the sky as "the soul of all scenery," and these artists' interpretations of clouds, wind, rain, and lightning, were full of national, spiritual and personal meaning.

Storms offered almost limitless possibilities for expressiveness, filling landscapes with romantic and emotive qualities. The ever-changing nature of storms made them difficult to depict with accuracy, and the paintings' contrast of tightly rendered landscapes with dramatic, gestural skies, offered the artists an opportunity to showcase their range.

Symbolically, for the artists working in the early 19th-century, storms could signify renewal, destructiveness or the divine. Throughout the 19th century, storms often served as a symbol of nature's destructive force against man. In Arthur Quartley's After the Tempest, Morning, 1879 and in The Resounding Sea, 1880 by Thomas Moran, for example, we are shown man's vulnerability in the face of nature, and the little control that he often has over his own destiny. In these works, and others of this period, storms act as an avenging, violent force, destroying the land and crop that were critical to the survival and prosperity of the nation.

In contrast, John Frederick Kensett's Approaching Storm, 1855 portrays weather as giving and restorative. A figure is pictured with livestock (a symbol of prosperity), in a bountiful landscape. The rain, seen in the painting's top right corner, promises continuity of the cycle of nature. Similarly, the storm is shown as a source of renewal, a life-giving force, in James David Smillie's engraving, The Voyage of Life- Childhood, 1855, after Thomas Cole. In this religious allegory, a child begins his journey down river - a symbol of life. Illuminated by a heavenly light, he emerges from a womb-like cavern which Cole described as "emblematic of our earthly origin, and the mysterious past." The skies above him whirl with the same symbolic chaos of the cavern, but also contain nurturing, bathing rays of light which reflect the child's innocence at this stage in his journey.

By the early twentieth century, represented in the exhibition by George Bellows, Ernest Blumenschein and others, storms were primarily used as a poetic symbol. Painters used the imagery with awareness of the visual tradition of their predecessors or as tool to "set the mood" of a painting or print. The storm was used less specifically in the rendering of a particular landscape and more as an expressive stroke, leading up to the abstraction of the mid- twentieth century.

Into the Storm: Expressions in the American Landscape, 1800-1940, explores the stylistic approaches and symbolism of storms as they evolved over the course of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Curated by Mark D. Mitchell, Assistant Curator of Nineteenth-Century Art, this exhibition's rich selection of paintings, drawings and prints, will provide viewers with insight into one of American art's most captivating themes.

Into the Storm: Expressions in the American Landscape, 1800-1940, opens July 2 and runs through October 10, 2004.

 

Wall text from the exhibition:

 

LITERARY SYMBOLISM

During the early and mid-nineteenth century, American artists such as Thomas Doughty, Thomas Cole, and Asher B. Durand favored two types of landscapes: allegorical and realistic. The line between idealization and realism, however, was often blurred. Storms were among the devices that artists often used to give moral or emotional meaning to the landscape.

The specific roles that the storm plays within these landscapes are often clear. In the allegorical mode, the storm may represent death, evil, or damnation, but could as readily symbolize hope, fertility, or regeneration. The storm's many potential meanings may account for its popularity during the period. For realist works of a particular location, allegorical meanings of the storm often carried over and suggested the landscape's role as sublime wilderness or earthly paradise in the United States.

The association of landscape elements such as the storm with symbolic meanings reflected the close relationship of art and literature in America during the period. Artists, writers, and other intellectuals met regularly in social clubs and associations. Members of these organizations often tried their hands at each other's art forms, encouraging the introduction of such literary metaphors into visual art.

 

THE ART OF SCIENCE

The scientific study of weather was relatively new in the nineteenth century, largely the domain of amateurs well into the 1830s. Throughout mid-century, however, debate about the causes and nature of storms, in particular, attracted intense interest in both Europe and America, culminating in a longstanding scientific feud between competing theoreticians that became known as the "storm controversy." The first national weather bureau, however, was not created until 1870.

Although the science of weather was itself young, the devastating effects of storms on communities, crops, and shipping attracted considerable attention. Interest in the subject among artists, in particular, was also widespread during the mid-nineteenth century. Artists, like their scientist peers, made extensive and detailed studies of the effects of weather on the landscape, participating in the search for a clearer understanding of the complex forces at work in nature.

 

THE MIND'S EYE

During the later nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, psychology became a topic of scientific and popular interest that was reflected in art. Artistic renderings of storms from the period often resonate with contemporary psychological investigations. Detailed specificity was steadily replaced by suggestiveness and broad handling, displacing the clear symbolic meanings of the earlier nineteenth century with evocations of the subconscious.

The dramatic power of the storm made it an excellent vehicle for the representation of psychological mood. As artists increasingly valued direct personal expression, they reversed the direction of art, from depicting the natural world's impression on the artist, to the artist's impression on the natural world. The storm itself became a virtual metaphor for artistic creation.

Seeking more intuitive stylistic approaches, artists often distilled the storm to its most abstract components: force, mass, and brooding conflict. Some, like Ernest Blumenschein, also turned to symbolic vocabularies of form and color that derived from Native American and African cultures in particular to invest their landscapes with mystery and exoticism.

 

ASPECTS OF THE STORM

Storms have many faces that render each unique. The following works have been selected for their emphasis upon one or more particular elements that constitute the storm, including wind, precipitation, clouds, lightning, and powerful waves. Collectively, they portray the varied manifestations of the storm in both nature and the art of the period.

 

WILLIAM TROST RICHARDS, 1833­1905

Honorary Member 1862; NA 1871

A storm reportedly changed William Trost Richards' life. In December 1867, the artist was returning to the United States from an extended trip to Europe when his ship was nearly destroyed by a powerful winter gale. Three days after the steamer was forced out to sea to ride out the storm, it limped into New York harbor severely damaged and out of coal. Awed by his experience, Richards thereafter made coastal storms one of his primary subjects until his death nearly four decades later.

Richards established his artistic reputation during the 1850s as a follower of the principles expounded by the influential British critic John Ruskin to record meticulously every detail in nature. Trained as a designer of ornamental metalwork, Richards was accustomed to such detailed work and careful draftsmanship. Over the course of his career, his interest in luminosity and spontaneity as championed by the impressionists during the 1870s and 1880s and the psychological romanticism that prevailed at the turn of the century influenced his depictions of the storm. Though an imitator of neither style, Richards incorporated aspects of each, as the works in this installation will show.

The National Academy Museum has a rich and deep collection of Richards' works in large part because of a generous bequest from the artist's daughter, Anna Richards Brewster (Mrs. William T. Brewster), in 1952.

 

Image labels from the exhibition:

 

The Voyage of Life
 
Thomas Cole's popular series, The Voyage of Life (1839­40), was made available and affordable by the publication of a set of engravings by James David Smillie. Two of the prints are shown here as representatives of the contrasting symbolism of the storm as creative and destructive within a single series.
 
 
James David Smillie (1833­1909)
ANA 1865; NA 1876
After Thomas Cole, 1801­1848
Founder NA 1826
 
The Voyage of Life-Childhood, 1855
Engraving on wove paper
 
Childhood, the first scene in Cole's series, shows an infant with his guardian angel emerging from a cavern, beginning the child's journey down the allegorical river of time. The storm swirling overhead represents the creative chaos from which life is born. Visually, the storm is associated with the cavern below, which the artist described as "emblematic of our earthly origin, and the mysterious past."
 
James David Smillie (1833­1909)
ANA 1865; NA 1876
After Thomas Cole, 1801­1848
Founder NA 1826
 
The Voyage of Life-Manhood, 1855
Engraving on wove paper
 
The storm in Manhood symbolically portrays the dangers and temptations that life presents. The mature voyager has left his guardian angel behind, but now rediscovers his faith in the presence of mortal peril. In his accompanying text for the series, Cole identified the demons circling in the clouds overhead as "Suicide, Intemperance and Murder."
 
 
Thomas Doughty (1793­1856)
Honorary 1827
 
Landscape
Oil on canvas
Gift of James D. Smillie, 1909
 
Thomas Doughty's reverence for nature was idealized, distilled from personal experience. His Landscape is a poetic invocation of beauty and harmony, with the storm as a reminder of man's small scale in the presence of nature.
 
 
Thomas Cole (1801­1848)
Founder NA 1826
 
Seascape with a Waterspout, 1836
Oil on wood panel
Collection of Henry and Sharon Martin
 
Thomas Cole wrote that the sky is "the soul of all scenery, in it are the fountains of light, and shade, and color. Whatever expression the sky takes, the features of the landscape are affected in unison, whether it be the serenity of the summer's blue, or the dark tumult of the storm."
 
Cole himself was a critical figure in the emerging tradition of American landscape painting during the early nineteenth century. This work, one of a set of four panels commissioned by patron Luman Reed that depict the elements of nature, is believed to represent the element of water. The painting also serves as a reminder of the storm's lethal power, both in the surging water in relation to a tiny ship in the distance and in the shattered mast in the foreground.
 
 
Asher Brown Durand (1796­1886)
Founder NA 1826; President NA 1845­61
 
Landscape, 1850
Oil on canvas
Bequest of James A. Suydam, 1865
 
Asher B. Durand was among the most influential American artists of the mid-nineteenth century, leading to his election as president of the National Academy for sixteen consecutive years (1846­61). He wrote that sunshine is "the joyous expression of Nature," adding "the best time to observe the ordinary effect of sunshine on the landscape, is to watch the gradual clearing up of a cloudy day, when its presence is first announced by occasional patches of light." The artists who converse in the foreground are not working, perhaps because they are waiting for the remnants of stormy gray cumulus clouds in the distance to pass.
 
 
Aaron Draper Shattuck (1832­1928)
ANA 1858; NA 1861
 
The Ford, 1856
Oil on canvas
Bequest of James A. Suydam, 1865
 
This peaceful rendering of a coming rain offers one of the most harmonious scenes in the exhibition. Shattuck's idyllic landscape provides a reassuring vision of the natural world, balancing sun and clouds, sky and earth.
 
 
John Frederick Kensett (1816­1872)
ANA 1848; NA 1849
 
Approaching Storm
Oil on canvas
Gift of Samuel P. Avery, 1875
 
One of the leaders of the Hudson River School, John Frederick Kensett painted very few storm scenes, generally preferring bright, light-filled scenes of atmosphere to the high drama of storm scenes. In Approaching Storm, he navigated between the two, offering a peaceful scene of a herdsman tending his cattle, undisturbed by the rain and encroaching shadows.
 
 
Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823­1900)
ANA 1844; NA 1851
 
Coast Scene, 1855
Oil on canvas
Bequest of James A. Suydam, 1865
 
The expressive intensity of Cropsey's Coast Scene, in its composition, palette, and handling, honors the romantic tradition in American landscape painting as articulated by Thomas Cole earlier in the century. In the same year that he painted this work, Cropsey also published his essay "Up Among the Clouds," in which he wrote that, "in its grandest moods," the storm cloud is "more impressive than all the other cloud regions-awakening the deepest emotions of gloom, dread, and fear; or sending thrilling sensations of joy and gladness through our being." The looming clouds, sharp rocks, and prevailing darkness of Coast Scene favor the former meaning, even as a ray of white light cascading down through the storm front sustains a lingering note of hope.
 
 
 
George Boughton (1833­1905)
Honorary 1858; NA 1871
 
Winter Scene, 1860
Oil on canvas
Bequest of James A. Suydam, 1865
 
George Boughton first achieved recognition as a rising young artist for a winter landscape that he submitted to the National Academy's annual exhibition in 1858. That distinction led to a series of landscape commissions, probably including this painting belonging to the painter and collector James A. Suydam. These works convey the hardships of winter and anticipate Boughton's later historical compositions in which he romanticized the lives and struggles of the Puritans in early New England. In Winter Scene, the overcast conditions contribute substantially to the feeling of gloom.
 
 
Albert Bierstadt (1830­1902)
Honorary 1858; NA 1860
 
On the Sweetwater near the Devil's Gate, 1859­60
Oil on millboard
NA diploma presentation, 1860
 
The awesome power and grandeur of the storm is apparent here in the ominous shadows and a towering cumulonimbus cloud in the distance. Bierstadt began the painting in the same year that he visited the West for the first time, traveling in the company of Frederick W. Lander's official geographic survey expedition. The artist's attention to meteorological, geological, and topographical detail in the painting reflects the documentary nature of their journey.
 
 
Charles Temple Dix (1838­1873)
ANA Elect 1861
 
Marblehead Rocks, 1868
Oil on canvas
Gift of William Frederick Havemeyer, 1911
 
Charles Dix's painting offers a marvelously specific combination of landscape and credible climatic effects, complete with gathering cumulus clouds and massing storm surge. Balancing the active clouds and waves with the rigid rocks, Dix's attentive realism does not detract from the power of his subject.
 
 
Arthur Quartley (1839­1886)
ANA 1879; NA 1886
 
After the Tempest, Morning, 1879
Oil on canvas
Gift of Mrs. Stephen H. Brown, 1942
 
Arthur Quartley's composition addresses the dynamic element of time in storm depictions. In contrast to the expectancy of the oncoming storm, as seen in Albert Bierstadt's work on view in this gallery, Quartley's painting portrays the senses of relief and hope that come in its wake.
 
 
Thomas Moran (1837­1936)
ANA 1881; NA 1884
 
Three Mile Harbor, Long Island, 1884
Oil on panel
NA diploma presentation, 1884
 
Thomas Moran had a particular flair for the dramatic, but he balanced it with attention to specific detail. Known for his sweeping panoramas of the American West, during the 1880s he turned to smaller, more intimate compositions such as this one. Here he accurately represents the billowing cumulous clouds and beachfront terrain in East Hampton, but nevertheless conveys an evocative sense of mood.
 
 
Robert Swain Gifford (1840­1905)
ANA 1867; NA 1878
 
Landscape, 1878
Oil on canvas
NA diploma presentation, 1878
 
Swain Gifford, as the artist was known, garnered recognition for his paintings and prints of stormy coastal regions. The relatively small scale and broad treatment here reflect the artist's longstanding admiration for the intimacy and freshness of the French Barbizon artists whose works he had seen while traveling abroad during the 1870s. As one contemporary wrote, "Mr. Gifford will paint a barren moor under a leaden sky so that it shall almost palpitate with emotion."
 
 
 
Edith Loring Peirce Getchell
(1855­1940)
 
Solitude, ca. 1884
Etching on wove paper
Gift of Samuel Colman, 1903
 
Edith Getchell participated in the American Etching Revival of the later nineteenth century that drew new and serious attention to the medium. In the wake of impressionism, etching was particularly valued for its characteristically soft lines that facilitated atmospheric effects. Getchell's Solitude is more expressionist than impressionist, however, offering a contrast of approaches in her depictions of sky and earth. The oppressive, overcast sky above is rendered almost purely by toning, as opposed to the sharp, deep lines the constitute the grasses below.
 
 
Albert Pinkham Ryder (1847­1917)
ANA 1902; NA 1906
 
Marine, ca. 1890
Oil on wood panel
NA diploma presentation, 1907
 
This work accentuates expressiveness at the very edge of abstraction. Albert Pinkham Ryder, one of the late nineteenth century's great romantics, has here reduced the overcast sky and dark sea to two masses of agitated, surging color. Without even the customary boat motif as an intermediary, the painting exposes the viewer directly to the storm's restlessness. Ryder employed different types of brushstroke, nuanced color within the two larger areas, and varied texture to suggest depth and turmoil within this seemingly straightforward composition.
 
 
 
Frank Knox Morton Rehn
(1848­1914)
ANA 1899; NA 1908
 
A Passing Shower, 1886
Charcoal on laid paper
Gift of Charles Kurtz, 1991
 
A contemporary of fellow marine painter and romantic Albert Pinkham Ryder, who worked in a similar style, Frank Rehn shared Ryder's belief in the expressive potential of the open sea. Like the boat in Thomas Cole's Voyage of Life (in the entrance of the exhibition), Rehn's lone vessel struggles through the high seas, evoking the adversity of life.
 
Henry Hobart Nichols (1869­1962)
ANA 1912; NA 1920; President NA
1939­49
 
Snowbound
Oil on canvas
NA diploma presentation by exchange, 1942
 
Hobart Nichols' expressive depiction of a group of buildings closed in by a winter storm epitomizes a feeling of isolation. The artist wrote of a similar scene, "Who could have hoped to survive the storms and rigor of bleak winter in such a location?" In Nichols' scene, the storm is an aggressor, filling the sky with darkness and offering no reprieve.
 
 
George Wesley Bellows
(1882­1925)
ANA 1909; NA 1913
 
Three Rollers, 1911
Oil on canvas
NA diploma presentation, 1913
 
George Bellow's Three Rollers explores the limits of realism in pursuit of expressive power. Best known for his vibrant portrayals of urban life, particularly boxing and street scenes, the artist here distills the energy of his urban scenes in natural, tempestuous terms. The painting depicts the coastline of Maine's Monhegan Island in surging, broad strokes that convey the mass and motion of his subjects: storm, land, and sea. The rollers of Bellows' title seem to describe the island's headlands more than the surf to which the term is normally applied.
 
 
 
Ernest Blumenschein (1874­1960)
ANA 1910; NA 1927
 
The Lake
Oil on canvas
NA diploma presentation, 1927
 
This vivid depiction of the New Mexican landscape displays the artist's interests in modernist aesthetics and the symbolism of Pueblo visual culture. The looming storm front over the mountains is reduced to stylized ovals of clouds, radiating lightness upward and weighing heavily downward on the valleys below. The artist's rich palette of the foreground addresses agricultural bounty in contrast to the powerful force at work in the distance. Direct in its symbolism, Blumenschein's work adheres perhaps more closely to an earlier, more literary form of symbolism than to the purely evocative scenes of his contemporaries.
 
 
 
Jay Hall Connaway (1893­1970)
ANA 1933; NA 1943
 
A Maine Storm, ca. 1940
Oil on masonite
NA diploma presentation, 1946
 
This powerful depiction of a storm along the coast of Maine demonstrates the lingering influence into the mid-twentieth century of similar scenes by Winslow Homer and George Bellows, whose Three Rollers is also on view in this gallery. Connaway's gestural technique, simplified forms, and spare palette portray powerful massings of clouds, waves, and rocks. His art of the period reflects the personal hardships that confronted many artists during the Depression; when asked in what medium he worked, the artist replied, "Sweat!" In his marine paintings of storms, Connaway strove to capture the "everchanging hues of the sky and the sea as it moves, rolls, thunders, bangs, foams and sprays against craggy rocks."
 
 
 
Elihu Vedder (1836­1923)
ANA 1863; NA 1865
 
From 30 Drawings of Nile Journey No. 19, 1890
Crayon, charcoal, and white chalk on wove paper
Gift of the American Academy of Arts and Letters, 1955
 
Vedder was an enthusiastic admirer of Egypt's cultural history and unique landscape. While visiting the country in 1890, he took a boat trip along the Nile during which he created this drawing, one in a series of thirty collectively entitled "Up the Nile." The group included depictions of such sights as the Sphinx, a ruined mosque, a cemetery, and several tombs. The nuanced, yet colorful overcast sky and deep shadows of this work, however, suggest the Egyptian landscape's mystery phrased in meteorological terms alone.
 
 
Otto H. Bacher (1856­1909)
ANA 1906
 
Rainy Night, 1880
Etching on chine collé
 
This richly evocative scene of the heart of Venice portrays the artist's interest in the atmospheric effects of the storm and his admiration for the art of James McNeill Whistler, with whom he was closely associated at the time. Bacher's toned plate-leaving some ink on the surface of the copper, rather than only in the recesses-and deeply etched lines reinforce a sense of the combined obscurity of night and rain. The rows of short strokes in the sky suggest sheets of falling rain and the tight, radiating lines surrounding the shorefront lights convey piercing radiance.
 
 
 
Grant Tyson Reynard (1887­1968)
ANA 1940; NA 1963
 
Wind and Rain, 1931
Lithograph on wove paper
NA diploma presentation
 
This composition isolates several aspects of the storm, but wind is perhaps its most interesting dynamic. Wind is a particularly elusive subject, visible only by its effects. Here, it blows the rain at a diagonal, spins the windmill to a blur with its force, and bends the trees and crops to its will. Reinforced by the heavy rains and the jagged lightning strike at the right, Reynard's storm is dangerous, jeopardizing the farmer's crop as well as the farm itself.
 
 
Thomas Moran (1837­1936)
ANA 1881; NA 1884
 
The Rainbow, 1880
Etching on wove paper
 
A black-and-white rainbow is itself a challenge to create in a believable manner, but Thomas Moran used it here as a means to unify his composition. The control that the arched form exerts on the otherwise chaotic sky calms the scene and reinforces the sense of peace that accompanies the storm's passage.
 
 
Thomas Moran (1837­1936)
ANA 1881; NA 1884
 
The Resounding Sea, 1880
Etching on wove paper
Gift of the Estate of Charles Frederick William Mielatz, 1920
 
This vibrant rendering of a crashing wave suggests the pounding surf of a storm by virtue of its explosive power. With only the barest suggestion of sky, this print is a wonder of detail amid chaos. Each of the artist's lines contributes to the energetic intricacy of the wave.
The Coming Rain, Narragansett Bay, ca. 1890
Transparent watercolor over graphite on wove paper
Bequest of Mrs. William T. Brewster, 1952
 
Conanicut Shore with Breaking Wave
Oil on composition board
Bequest of Mrs. William T. Brewster, 1952
 
Horsehead, Conanicut Island
Oil on wood panel
Bequest of Mrs. William T. Brewster, 1952
 
Landscape with Pine (I Was a Towering Pine), ca. 1854
Graphite on wove paper
Bequest of Mrs. William T. Brewster, 1952
 
Marine with Yachts, ca. 1870
Transparent and opaque watercolor on wove paper
Bequest of Mrs. William T. Brewster, 1952
 
Mountainous Seashore, 1897
Transparent and opaque watercolor over graphite on wove paper
Bequest of Mrs. William T. Brewster, 1952
 
New England Rocks, ca. 1880
Transparent and opaque watercolor with scraping on laid paper
Bequest of Mrs. William T. Brewster, 1952
 
Rocks and Sea
Pen and brown ink and brown ink wash on wove paper
Bequest of Mrs. William T. Brewster, 1952
Sea and Sky
Oil on canvas
Bequest of Mrs. William T. Brewster, 1952
 
Seascape
Graphite on wove paper
Bequest of Mrs. William T. Brewster, 1952
 
Seascape with Bird
Brown ink wash over graphite on wove paper
Bequest of Mrs. William T. Brewster, 1952
 
Seascape with Rocks, ca. 1900
Graphite on tan wove paper
Bequest of Mrs. William T. Brewster, 1952
Seascape with Spray
Graphite on wove paper
Bequest of Mrs. William T. Brewster, 1952
 
Sketchbook, ca. 1879
Bequest of Mrs. William T. Brewster, 1952
 
Sketchbook, 1875­85
Bequest of Mrs. William T. Brewster, 1952
 
Sketchbook, ca. 1880
Bequest of Mrs. William T. Brewster, 1952
 
Sketchbook, ca. 1892
Bequest of Mrs. William T. Brewster, 1952
Surf Breaking on Coastal Rocks, 1887
Transparent watercolor over graphite on wove paper
Bequest of Mrs. William T. Brewster, 1952
 
Tura Ignota, West Coast of Scotland
Oil on artist's board
Bequest of Mrs. William T. Brewster, 1952
 
Top row, left to right:
 
Mentone
Oil on wood panel
Bequest of Mrs. William T. Brewster, 1952
 
Seascape
Oil on wood panel
Bequest of Mrs. William T. Brewster, 1952
 
Bude Haven
Oil on wood panel
Bequest of Mrs. William T. Brewster, 1952
 
 
Bottom row, left to right:
 
Near Newquay, Wales
Oil on wood panel
Bequest of Mrs. William T. Brewster, 1952
 
Bude Haven
Oil on wood panel
Bequest of Mrs. William T. Brewster, 1952
 
Near Newquay
Oil on wood panel
Bequest of Mrs. William T. Brewster, 1952
 
Top row, left to right:
 
Off Mentone
Oil on wood panel
Bequest of Mrs. William T. Brewster, 1952
 
Mentone
Oil on wood panel
Bequest of Mrs. William T. Brewster, 1952
 
Bude Haven
Oil on wood panel
Bequest of Mrs. William T. Brewster, 1952
 
 
Bottom row, left to right:
 
Foundations of Nero's Palace
Oil on wood panel
Bequest of Mrs. William T. Brewster, 1952
 
Bay of Naples
Oil on wood panel
Bequest of Mrs. William T. Brewster, 1952
 
Bude Haven
Oil on wood panel
Bequest of Mrs. William T. Brewster, 1952
 
Conanicut Island
Oil on wood panel
Bequest of Mrs. William T. Brewster, 1952
 
At Canaan, Connecticut, 1901
Oil on paper board
Bequest of Mrs. William T. Brewster, 1952
 
Shoreline with Bird, 1897
Transparent and opaque watercolor on wove paper
Bequest of Mrs. William T. Brewster, 1952


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