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Graphic Masters: Highlights from the Smithsonian American Art Museum
Graphic Masters: Highlights from the Smithsonian American Art Museum celebrates the extraordinary variety and accomplishment of American artists' works on paper. These seventy-five exceptional watercolors, pastels, and drawings from the 1860s through the 1990s reveal the central importance of works on paper for American artists, both as studies for creations in other media and as finished works of art. Artists included in this exhibition range form nineteenth-century masters such as Winslow Homer, John La Farge, and Thomas Moran to modern virtuosos of color such as William H. Johnson and Stuart Davis to contemporary artists Wayne Thiebaud, Jennifer Bartlett, and April Gornik. This exhibition will be on view at the Palmer Museum of Art at The Pennsylvania State University from January 20 through March 14, 2004.
Graphic Masters: Highlights from the Smithsonian American Art Museum is one of five exhibitions featuring the museum's collections that are touring the nation through 2005. The tour is supported in part by the Smithsonian Special Exhibitions Fund.
"We are delighted to share the finest examples works on paper in the Smithsonian American Art Museum's collection with communities across the United States," said Elizabeth Broun, the Maragret and Terry Sent Director of the Smithsonian American Art Museum. Jan Muhlert, director of the Palmer Museum of Art added: "This exhibition provides our visitors a unique opportunity to view a special smorgasbord of American art."
A variety of materials and techniques are featured in the exhibition. Graphic Masters includes bold designs for stage settings, book illustrations, studies for paintings, and spontaneous creations that reveal the artist's thought process and working methods. The medium of drawing often reveals greater experimentation than an artist's more formal work, since it is considered a freer and more intimate form of expression. Pastels allowed artists to draw directly in color, blurring traditional distinctions between drawing and painting. Watercolor has been a favorite medium for capturing the light and color of nature. Even as works on appear became larger and more finished, competing in scale with easel paintings, they retain a sense of the artist's hand, the immediacy of a thought made visible.
Thomas Wilmer Dewing's meticulous portrait Walt Whitman (1875) gives a sense of the famous poet's likeness and his character. Dewing began this drawing with faint pencil lines, and proceeded to model the features with delicate, cross-hatched chalk lines, which he then smoothed and smudged so that the individual lines seem to disappear. Highlights of white chalk throughout the face enliven the image. When this drawing was exhibited in Boston in 1875, critics singled it out for its excellent technique. (right: Thomas Wilmer Dewing (American, 1851-1938). Walt Whitman, 1875, chalk, 24 1/2 x 18 inches, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Purchase through the Robert Tyler Davis Memorial Fund)
Thomas Moran, well known for his sweeping landscapes of the American West, accompanied a survey party to Yellowstone in 1872. The survey group traveled on horseback, and Moran often only had time to capture his impressions of a site in a black-and-white sketch. When they returned to camp, he would add a small amount of color to his sketches. The large and detailed watercolor Shin-Au-Av-Tu-Weap (God Land), Cañon of the Colorado. Utah Territory (about 1873) was completed in Moran's studio using photographs and his sketches of the scene. (right: Thomas Moran (American, b. England, 1837-1926), Shin-Au-Av-Tu-Weap (God Land), Cañon of the Colorado. Utah Territory, c. 1873, watercolor and graphite on paper, 4 3/4 x 14 1/2 inches, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Dr. William Henry Holmes)
Despite its modest size, John La Farge's Water Lily in Sunlight (about 1883) takes advantage of the fluidity of the watercolor medium to suggest, rather than describe, the subtleties of nature. The artful asymmetry of the composition recalls Japanese design, as does the bird's-eye perspective on the subject.
In the watercolor Bear Hunting, Prospect Rock (1892), Winslow Homer presents man as an essential part of nature, neither overwhelmed by its grandeur, nor fully in control of the wilderness. Homer began painting Adirondack subjects in 1870 and returned to them intermittently over four decades. The figures in this work are modeled on guides from the North Woods Club where Homer spent much of his time. Prospect Rock, located less than a quarter of a mile away from the clubhouse and reached by a graded trail, was one of Homer's favorite spots to paint.
Marguerite Zorach developed her modernist style while studying in Europe. She painted a watercolor and pencil portrait of Zoltan Hecht in 1913, a year after she returned to the Untied States from Paris. Her interest in the expressive qualities of colors, rather than in accurate description, is clearly indicated by the red-orange eyebrows, bright green eyes, and yellowish outline of her sister's face and hands.
Landscape (Paysage Fauve) (1913) is one of Man Ray's most abstract early compositions. In this watercolor, he abandoned direct observation of nature in favor of a more spontaneous, imaginative rendition using simplified forms and bright colors. In the title, "fauve" (French for Wild beast), refers to a group of early twentieth-century artists who used bright, non-descriptive colors in their art.
John Marin also was interested in conveying the sense of a place rather than a specific, recognizable site. He visited Maine almost every year from 1914 until his death in 1951, painting seascapes of its rugged coast. In his watercolor The Sea, Maine (1921), calligraphic lines suggest movement and energy rather than superficial appearances. A master of the watercolor technique, Marin varied his application of color from thin, transparent washes to dense, opaque strokes.
William H. Johnson painted his own people in the rich variety of their lives, from Harlem to the rural South. Striking color relationships and strong rhythmic patterns reveal his sophisticated approach. In Lunchtime Rest (about 1940), Johnson's use of brilliant colors and bold stripes recall the multi-stripe designs of West African textiles and the African American tradition of freehand quilt-work.
Stuart Davis's gouache Impression of the New York World's Fair (1939) records an important mural that no longer exists. The mural was created for the Communications Building of the 1939 World's Fair in Flushing, New York. The fair provided a much-needed vision of hope and prosperity to counteract the dislocation and confusion of the Depression. Davis's bold, bright colors and highly abstracted forms conveyed that exuberance and confidence in the future.
Philip Guston's ink drawing Hovering (1976), juxtaposes comic, grotesque, and serious elements as a means of exploring questions that have no simple answers. The large, bulbous head is Guston, the artist, while the faceless, vertical head at his side is his wife, Musa, literally his muse. The clock with number refers to the passage of time, while the watch face without numbers suggests immortality.
William T. Wiley's humorous and quirky parody in watercolor of a map of the United States, Portrait of Radon (1982), refers to darker meanings beneath its cartoon-like surface. Wiley grew up in Richland, Washington, site of the U.S. government's Hanford Atomic Works, a plutonium production plant. This plant's legacy was a massive amount of radioactive waste that contaminated the surrounding area. The dark, diagonal line stretching from New York to Los Angeles represents a virtual highway--twelve lanes wide and one foot deep-constructed of radioactive tailings from the country's nuclear power plants. Wiley's verbal pun on the title in the lower left, "poor trait of radon," reinforces the irony of drawing a portrait of something invisible.
Wayne Thiebaud is attracted to specific foods by their formal beauty and by the care with which the chef has prepared and presented the item. In Neapolitan Meringue (1986-99), a pastel over lithograph, Thiebaud relishes how the meringue topping simultaneously glows and reflects light, suggesting the softness of a snowbank and the rich sensuality of white paint. (right: Wayne Thiebaud (American, b. 1920), Neapolitan Meringue, 1986/99, pastel over lithograph on paper, 14 x 16 1/2 inches, Smithsonian American Art Museum, Gift of Warren Unna, Terry and Margaret Stent, and the Thiebaud Family, and museum purchase in honor of Nan Tucker McEvoy)
The Smithsonian American Art Museum is the nation's museum dedicated exclusively to the art and artists of the United States. The museum's collections trace the country's story in art spanning three centuries, and its in-depth resources offer opportunities to understand that story better. While the museum renovates its historic building in Washington, D.C., it is sharing many of its finest treasures with museums and audiences nationwide.
The Smithsonian American Art Museum is the first federal art collection, begun in 1829 with gifts from private collections and art organizations established in the nation's capital before the founding of the Smithsonian in 1846. The museum has grown steadily to become a center for the study, enjoyment, and preservation of America's cultural heritage. Today, it houses the world's most important American art collection, with approximately 39,000 artworks in all media.
Read more articles and essays concerning this institutional source by visiting the sub-index page for the Palmer Museum of Art in Resource Library Magazine.
Search for more articles and essays on American art in Resource Library. See America's Distinguished Artists for biographical information on historic artists.
This page was originally published in 2004 in Resource Library Magazine. Please see Resource Library's Overview section for more information.
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