The following 2002 essay was written by William H. Gerdts, Professor Emeritus, Graduate School of the City University of New York, for the illustrated catalogue Masters of Light: Plein-Air Painting in California 1890-1930, ISBN 0-971-4092-3-4 (cloth), which accompanied the exhibition, Masters of Light, the first ever international exhibition of California plein air paintings to tour Europe. The essay is reprinted with permission of The Irvine Museum and without illustrations. If you have questions or comments regarding the essay, or wish to purchase a copy of the catalogue, please contact The Irvine Museum directly through either this phone number or web address:

RLM page 1 2 3 4 5 6



1. C.R. Pattee, "The Land of Sunshine," Land of Sunshine 1 (June 1894): 13. "The Land of Sunshine" was also the title of an article by Henry Kingman that appeared in World Today 8 (February 1905): 171-77, though some of Kingman's photographic illustrations - "Tent City, Coronado Beach," "General View of Los Angeles," and "Oil Wells in the Heart of Los Angeles," - would seem to deny his basic laudatory premise.

2. Land of Sunshine was published under that title through 1901; in 1902 it was renamed Out West, reflecting Lummis's growing involvement with the preservation of Indian and Hispanic culture and the archaeology of the Southwest, leading to his instrumental role in the founding of the Southwest Museum in 1907.

3. Some of the following material is an abbreviated version of a section of my essay "California Impressionism in Context," which appears in William H. Gerdts and Will South, California Impressionism (New York: Abbeville Press, 1998).

4. Vickery was the brother-in-law of Frederick Keppel and agent for the New York art gallery of Keppel & Company. His activities were noted and praised by Alfred Trumbull in The Collector (1 February 1894): 103.

5. I have located catalogues for the three Vickery-sponsored shows. For that in support of the Polyclinic, where works by Degas and Pissarro were shown, see "Art and Charity," San Francisco Chronicle, 4 November 1891, p. 12, courtesy of Alfred Harrison, Jr., The North Point Gallery, San Francisco. Harrison's contributions to my research here, as in all my writing on California art, have been indispensable.

6. J[ohn] A. Stanton, "Impressions of the Art Display," Overland Monthly 23 (April 1894): 404.

7. Arthur F. Mathews, "In the Fine-Arts Building," The Californian (March 1894): 410.

8. Lesley Martin, "Paintings at the Mid-Winter Fair," The Wave, 24 March 1894, p. 11, courtesy of Alfred Harrison, Jr.,The North Point Gallery, San Francisco. In actuality, neither McCormick nor Peixotto appear to have displayed French subjects, which were only shown by Stanton, Eva Withro and perhaps Elizabeth Curtis O'Sullivan and Ruth E. Benjamin, among the California exhibitors.

9. "Rare Exhibit at Local Art Gallery: Collection of Interesting Water Colors by Maurice B. Prendergast, the Boston Impressionist," San Francisco Chronicle, 13 May 1900, p. 11

10. "Notes from Local Studios," San Francisco Examiner, 2 June 1901, p. 21; I thank Alfred Harrison, Jr. for this reference, a previously unrecorded report of a Prendergast exhibition.

11. George P. West, "Secluded S. F. Painter Revealed as State's Most Famous Artist," San Francisco Examiner, 28 March 1925, quoted by Nancy Boas and Marc Simpson in "Pastoral Visions at Continent's End: Painting of the Bay Area 1890 to 1930," Facing Eden: One Hundred Years of Landscape Art in the Bay Area (San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, 1995) 44.

12. Theodore Steele, "In the Far West," 1903, typescript of a lecture delivered at the Portfolio Club in Indianapolis, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., p. 10.

13. Scholars have discussed and argued the applicability of the term "Impressionism" to the work of many of the artists included in this study. We are here using the term in its broadest meaning, and especially in a formal sense involving a concern for light, rich colorism, and painterly brushwork. Some writers have preferred the term "plein air", but this implies works painted outdoors. Actually, many Impressionist pictures, those by French artists such as Claude Monet included, were at least partially studio productions. Serious scholarly study of this phase of California art begins with three achievements. First, there are the tremendously significant studies published by Nancy Moure, beginning with her catalogue, Los Angeles Painters of the Nineteen-Twenties (Claremont, Calif.: Pomona College Gallery, 1972), followed by her Publications in Southern California Art (Glendale, Calif.: Dustin Publications, 1975-1999), as well as her recent massive tome, California Art: 450 Years of Painting & Other Media (Los Angeles: Dustin Publications, 1998). Secondly, there was the catalogue published by The Oakland Museum, Impressionism: The California View (Oakland, Calif.:The Oakland Museum, 1981).Thirdly there were the important pair of volumes edited by Ruth Lilly Westphal, Plein Air Painters of California: The Southland and Plein Air Painters of California: The North (Irvine, Calif.:Westphal Publishing, 1982 and 1986, respectively). For a perceptive overview of the scholarship generated over the last 25 years, see Jean Stern, "The California Impressionist Style in Perspective," California Impressionists (Athens, Ga.: The Irvine Museum and Georgia Museum of Art, 1996) 78-84.

14. Nancy Moure, Painting and Sculpture in Los Angeles, 1900-1945 (Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1980) 11

15. AIma May Cook, "Wm.Wendt Called 'Painter Laureate' of California," Los Angeles Herald-Express, 25 March 1939.

16. For instance, see Westphal, ed., Plein Air Painters of California: The Southland, 171. This designation is discussed in Charlotte Berney, ed., "Thinking About William Wendt," Antiques & Fine Art 7 (December 1989): 94-95.The bibliography focusing specifically on Wendt is fairly extensive, but see especially Charles Francis Browne, "Sonic Recent Landscapes by William Wendt," Brush and Pencil 6 (September 1900): 257-63; Everett Carroll Maxwell, "Art," The Graphic, 28 June 1913; Mabel Urmy Scares, "William Wendt," American Magazine of Art 7 (April 1916): 232-35; Ellis Prentice Cole, "William Wendt at Work," Art Student 1 (Fall 1916): 236-40; Antony Anderson et al., William Wendt and His Work (Los Angeles: Stendahl Galleries, 1926); Fred Hogue, "William Wendt," Los Angeles Times, 22 April 1929, sec. 2, p. 4; Arthur Millier,"Our Artists in Person No. 2 - William Wendt, A. N. A.," Los Angeles Times, 6 July 1930, sec. 3, p. 12; John Alan Walker, "William Wendt, 1865-1946," Southwest Art 4 (June 1974):42-45; Nancy Dustin Wall Moure, William Wendt, 1865-1946 (Laguna Beach, Calif.: Laguna Beach Museum of Art, 1977);Westphal, ed., Plein Air Painters of California: The Southland, 170-75; Museum Studies Graduate Certificate Program, In Praise of Nature: The Landscapes of William Wendt (Long Beach, Calif.: University Art Museum, California State University, 1989); John Alan Walker, Documents on the Life and Art of William Wendt (1865-1946), California's Laureate of the Paysage Moralisé (Big Pine, Calif.: John Alan Walker, 1992).

17. John E. D. Trask,"The Department of Fine Arts at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition," California's Magazine (San Francisco: California's Magazine Company, 1916) 2:88.

18. Mildred McLouth, "William Wendt - An Appreciation," Museum Graphic 1 (November 1926): 54.

19. William A. Griffith, foreword quoting a letter written by Wendt in the spring of 1898 from California, William Wendt Retrospective Exhibition (Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum, 1939).

20. On this interpretation of Wendt's work, see Walker, Documents on the Life and Art of William Wendt.

21. Antony Anderson, "Art and Artists," Los Angeles Times, 7 July 1912 [date unclear], sec. 3, p. 22.

22. In Praise of Nature, 49.

23. See especially the essays by Michael P McManus, "A Focus on Light," and Joachim Smith, "The Splendid Silent Sun: Reflections on the Light and Color of Southern California," both in Patricia Trenton and William H. Gerdts, California Light, 1900-1930 (Laguna Beach, Calif.: Laguna Art Museum, 1990) 13-18, 61-92.

24. For Puthuff, see George Wharton James, "Hanson Puthuff and His Work," Arroyo Craftsman 1 (October 1909): 31-37; Arthur Millier, "Our Artists in Person No. 13 - Hanson Puthuff" Los Angeles Times, 21 September 1930, sec. 3, p. 23; Everett Carroll Maxwell, "Painters of the West - Hanson Puthuff," Progressive Arizona 11 (September 1931): 10-11 (in which MONARCH OF THE MALIBU is reproduced); Hanson Puthuff, Hanson Duvall Puthuff: The Artist the Man, 1875-1972, An Autobiography with Correspondence and Notes by Louise Puthuff (Costa Mesa, Calif.: Spencer Printing Service, n.d. [ca. 1974]);Westphal, ed., Plein Air Painters of California: The Southland, 84-89; Janet B. Dominik, "Artist, Hanson Puthuff," Art of California 2 (October/November 1989): 27-31.

25. Payne also painted from a model of a Breton tuna boat. See Rena Neumann Coen, The Paynes, Edgar & Elsie: American Artists (Minneapolis: Payne Studios, 1987) 48.

26. For Payne, in addition to Coen, see Antony Anderson and Fred S. Hogue, Edgar Alwyn [sic] Payne and His Work (Los Angeles: Stendahl Art Galleries, 1926); Fred S. Hogue,"The Art of Edgar Alwyn [sic] Payne," Los Angeles Times, 18 May 1926, sec. 2, p.; Fred Hogue,"The God of the Mountains," Los Angeles Times,22 May 1927, sec. 3, p. 36; Martin E. Petersen, "Edgar Payne," Artists of the Rockies and the Golden West 6 (Summer 1979): 52-57; Westphal, ed., Plein Air Painters of California:The Southland, 158-63; Charlotte Berney, "Edgar Alwin Payne and the Grandeur of California," Antiques & Fine Art 3 (October 1986): 18-20; Nancy Moure, Edgar Payne, 1882-1947 (Los Angeles: Goldfield Galleries, 1987). Also, see Payne's own Composition of Outdoor Painting (1941; reprint, Minneapolis: Payne Studios, 1988) with SIERRA DIVIDE as frontispiece.

27. Hogue, "The God of the Mountains."

28. Charles F. Lummis, "The Mother Mountains," Land of Sunshine 3 (August 1895): 119.

29. Hogue, "The God of the Mountains."

30. Maurice Braun, for instance, exhibited his YOSEMITE EVENING at the California Liberty Fair held in Los Angeles in October 1918, and his pupil, Alfred Mitchell, painted in Yosemite in 1934. In addition, both Theodore Wores and Karl Yens painted Yosemite.

31. Colin Campbell Cooper account book, courtesy of Sherrill Seeley Henderson.

32. The literature on Yosemite is not unexpectedly vast, and the accounts of its pictorialization are quite extensive. See Rose Schulster Taylor, "Early Artists in Yosemite," Yosemite Indians and Other Sketches (San Francisco: Johnck & Seeger, 1936) 77-92; Marjorie Dakin Arkelian, "Artists in Yosemite," American West 15 (July/August 1978): 34-47; Views of Yosemite: The Last Stance of the Romantic Landscape (Fresno, Calif.: Fresno Arts Center, 1982); David Robertson, West of Eden: A History of the Art and Literature of Yosemite (Yosemite, Calif.: Yosemite Natural History Association and Wilderness Press, 1984); David Robertson, Henry Berrey, and Kevin Starr, Yosemite as We Saw It: A Centennial Collection of Early Writings and Art (Yosemite, Calif.: Yosemite Association, 1990); Alfred C. Harrison, Jr.,"Yosemite Painting: The Golden Age, 1850-1930," Art of California 4 (January 1991): 12-17, reprinted from Transamerica Corporation, The Golden Age of Yosemite Painting, 1859-1930 (San Francisco: Transamerica Pyramid Lobby, 1991); and especially Kate Nearpass Ogden, "Yosemite Valley as Image and Symbol: Paintings and Photographs from 1855 to 1990" (Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, 1992). Very little 20th-century painting is referenced in any of these accounts.

33. For Elmer Wachtel, see "Wachtel and His Work," Land of Sunshine 4 (March 1896): 168-72; Florence Williams, "Elmer Wachtel: An Appreciation," International Studio 67 (January 1919): xcvii-xcviii; Antony Anderson, Elmer Wachtel, a Brief Biography (Los Angeles: n.p., 1930); Westphal, ed., Plein Air Painters of California: The Southland, 112-19.

34. Elmer Wachtel, "Western Landscape," Western Art! 1 (April 1914): 21. This judgment was confirmed a decade and a half later by Arthur Millier, "Growth of Art in California," in Frank J.Taylor, Land of Homes (San Francisco, Los Angeles and Chicago: Powell Publishing Co., 1929) 334.

35. Edgar Arthur Hunt, "The Wright Criterion," Out West 43 (April 1916): 16.

36. "Wachtel and His Work," 171.

37. For Marion Wachtel, see Arthur Millier, "Our Artists in Person No. 34 - Marion Kavanagh Wachtel," Los Angeles Times, 8 November 1931, sec. 3, p. 16; Westphal, ed., Plein Air Painters of California: The Southland, 112-19; Janet Dominik, "Marion Kavanagh Wachtel," Art of California 1 (October/ November 1988): 48-53.

38. The term was introduced by Merle Armitage in the West Coaster, I September 1928, as quoted by Nancy Dustin Wall Moure in "Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, and the Eucalyptus School in Southern California," in Westphal, ed., Plein Air Painters of California: The Southland,, 11-12. Elmer Wachtel also painted the eucalyptus, as did Edgar Payne, Guy Rose, Alson Clark, Maurice Braun, Joseph Kleitsch, and Paul Grimm, among the artists in the present exhibition, as well as Douglas Parshall and Orrin White.

39. .Arthur Millier, "The 'Eucalyptus' School," Los Angeles Times, 16 September 1928, sec. 3, p. 17, where these painters were judged not only "harmless", but as "laying the ground-work for a really genuine indigenous Southern California art."

40. Millier, "Our Artists in Person No. 34 - Marion Kavanagh Wachtel."

41. Redmond's California Landscape (Jonathan Club, Los Angeles), was exhibited at the Louisiana Purchase Universal Exposition in St. Louis in 1904; the work inspired the comment that Redmond's "wonder is color, he is known as a bold colorist; he is not afraid of painting the colors he can see and he seems more than the ordinary human being." "Granville Redmond Still Winning Honors as an Artist," Deaf-Mutes Journal, 1 June 1905.

42. Antony Anderson, "Art and Artists," Los Angeles Times, 7 July 1907, sec. 6, p.2.

43. The most thorough study of Redmond is Mary Jean Haley, "Granville Redmond:A Triumph of Talent and Temperament," based on "Granville Redmond" (unpublished) by Mildred Abronda, in Granville Redmond (Oakland, Calif.: The Oakland Museum, 1988). See also Everett Carroll Maxwell, "Art and Drama Department," West Coast Magazine 13 (December 1912): 347-50; Arthur Millier, "Our Artists in Person No. 24 - Granville Redmond," Los Angeles Times, 22 March 1931, sec. 3, pp. 28, 30; Nancy Moure, "Five Los Angeles Artists in the Collection of the Los Angeles County Museum of Art," Southern California Quarterly 57 (Spring 1975): 42-51; Westphal, ed., Plein Air Painters of California: The Southland, 90-93; Mildred Abronda, "Granville Redmond: California Landscape Painter," Art & Antiques 5 (November/December 1982): 51; Mildred Abronda, "Granville Redmond," Art of California 1 (December/January 1989): 44-50.

44. Millier, "Granville Redmond," 28.

45. Millier, "Granville Redmond," 28, compared the artist's repetitious poppy pictures with Camille Corot's feathery tree paintings.

46. See, for instance, Grace Hortense Tower, "California's State Flower," Overland Monthly 39 (May 1902): 882-89.

47. Charles E Lummis, "The Carpet of God's Country:" Out West 22 (May 1905): 306-17; reference here is specifically to pp. 307-08. See also, earlier, Bertha F Herrick, "California Wild Flowers," The Californian 3 (December 1892): 3-15.

48. Arnold V. Stubenrauch, "The California Home Garden, and How to Make It," Country Life in America 1 (January 1902): 96.

49. For a lengthy discussion of the earliest recognition of Impressionism in Southern California, see the essays by Will South and William H. Gerdts in California Impressionism.

50. Antony Anderson, "Art and Artists," Los Angeles Times, 31 December 1911, sec. 3, p. 13. That these artists were not only recognized as Impressionists but also admired as such was suggested the following year in Anderson's review of an exhibition of the California Art Club: "What is more the modern impressionism of Helena Dunlap and Jack Gage Stark is not looked at askance."Anderson, "Art and Artists," Los Angeles Times, 24 November 1912, sec. 3, p. 18. Stark appears to be the first to have enjoyed this identification; Anderson reviewed his show at the Blanchard Gallery in Los Angeles in November 1909, under the title "Pictures by an Impressionist," and noted that: "Our young impressionist has used pure color, purples and greens, all through his beautiful 'Sur ha Marne'"; Anderson, "Art and Artists," Los Angeles Times, 26 November 1909, sec. 3, p. 15.

51. Antony Anderson, "Art and Artists," Los Angeles Times, 31 December 1911, sec. 3,p. 13.

52. Alma May Cook, "Frieseke's Latest Pictures on Exhibition in Los Angeles," unidentified clipping, courtesy of Nicholas Kilmer.

53. The definitive study of Rose is by Will South: Guy Rose, American Impressionist (Oakland and Irvine, Calif.: The Oakland Museum and The Irvine Museum, 1995). The other most significant publications on and by Rose are: Guy Rose, "At Giverny," Pratt Institute Monthly 6 (December 1897): 81; Antony Anderson and Earl Stendahi, Guy Rose: Paintings of France and America (Los Angeles: Stendahl Galleries, 1922); Rose V S. Berry, "A Painter of California," International Studio 80 (January 1925): 332-37; Anthony [sic] Anderson and Peyton Boswell, Catalogue of the Guy Rose Memorial (Los Angeles: Stendahl Galleries, 1926); Westphal, ed., Plein Air Painters of California: The Southland, 94-99; Janet Dominik, "Guy Rose - American Impressionist," Antiques & Fine Art 4 (December 1986):36-41; Ilene Susan Fort, "The Cosmopolitan Guy Rose," in Trenton and Gerdts, California Light, 1900-1930, 93-112; Ilene Susan Fort, "The Figure Paintings of Guy Rose," Art of California 4 (January 1991): 46-50.

54.The Blue House was probably close to Rose's own house in Giverny. It was described as the home of "Claude Monet's daughter" when one of the paintings of the structure was on view at the Stendahl Art Galleries in Los Angeles in 1926: Catalogue of the Guy Rose Memorial, 19. But the only Monet "daughter" (actually, stepdaughter) resident in Giverny during Rose's tenure there was Marthe Butler, and the Butlers' home was a newly built residence, near the Maison du Pressoir.

55. GIRL IN A WICKFORD GARDEN, NEW ENGLAND, New York, Sotheby's, 6 June 1997, #19; LADY SEWING AMONGST TREES (IN THE GARDEN), San Francisco and Los Angeles, Butterfield & Butterfield, 11 June 1997, #2712.

56. Fred S. Hogue, "Guy Rose," Los Angeles Times, 7 March 1926, sec. 2, p. 4.

57. Antony Anderson, "Guy Rose in Pasadena," Los Angeles Times, 21 March 1915, sec. 3, p. 17

58. Antony Anderson, "Paintings by Guy Rose," Los Angeles Times, 14 February 1915, sec. 3, p. 15. Rose had already been painting the California coastline, perhaps as early as the end of 1914, for he showed at the Steckel Gallery his PACIFIC COAST and ON THE ROCKS, presumably the pictures Anderson referred to here as "a few seascapes, the first Guy Rose has ever painted, his impressions of the Pacific."

59. Antony Anderson, in his review of Rose's Battey Gallery show in "Of Art and Artists," Los Angeles Times, 7 January 1917, sec. 3, p. 2.

60. Hunt, "The Wright Criterion," 161.

61. Antony Anderson, reviewing Rose's first one-person show at the Los Angeles Museum of History, Science and Art, in "Art and Artists," Los Angeles Times, 20 February 1916, sec. 3, p. 4.

62. Catalogue of the Guy Rose Memorial, No. 93, illustrated on p. 31. This cove appears to have been quite popular with the Laguna Beach Impressionists; see, for instance,William Griffith's WOOD'S COVE, exhibited in San Francisco at the Gump Gallery in 1940: "Landscape in Exhibit," San Francisco Examiner, 28 April 1940.

63. Rider appears to have maintained his ties in Chicago throughout the 1920s, and it is possible that he settled in Los Angeles later than 1924. Some sources suggest that he first appeared in the region in 1928 and only settled there in 1931.

64. For Sorolla in Chicago, see the article by another of the Spanish painter's students, Gordon Stevenson,"Sorolla in Chicago and in Spain," New York Times Book Review and Magazine, 19 August 1923, pp. 3, 25. Sorolla, in turn, thought very highly of American art. See Harriet Monroe, "Sorolla Admits America's Supremacy in Art," Chicago Tribune, 16 April 1911, sec. 9, p. 7. Thus, it would seem natural that he would be receptive to American followers such as Rider.

65. See the "Bibliography of Arthur G. Rider (1886-1975)," typescript, San Diego, Orr's Gallery, n.d.

66. For Rider, see H. L. E., "A Colorful Painter," The Palette & Chisel 1 (June 1924): I, 3; Robert Bethea, "Arthur Grover Rider," research project typescript, Los Angeles, 1991, courtesy of Phil Kovinick and Marian Yoshiki-Kovinick.

67. For Miller, see Marie Louise Kane, A Bright Oasis: The Paintings of Richard E. Miller (New York:Jordan-Volpe Gallery, 1997); for his year in California, see pp. 49-53. For Miller's presence and impact in California, see three articles by Mabel Urmy Seares:"Richard Miller in Pasadena," Los Angeles Graphic, 9 September 1916, p. 4; "Richard Miller in Pasadena," Pasadena Star-News, 22 November 1916, p. 5; "Richard Miller in a California Garden," California Southland 5 (February 1923): 10-11.

68. P[eter] C[harles] Remondino, M.D., "California as a Health Resort," The Californian 4 (October 1893): 681-84. Remondino had just authored The Mediterranean Shores of America: Southern California, Its Climatic, Physical, and Meteorological Conditions (Philadelphia: PA. Davies, 1892).

69. Ben C. Truman, Semi-Tropical California (San Francisco: A. L. Bancroft & Co., 1874) 37.

70. J.Torrey Connor, "The Sunimerland of America," Munseys Magazine 8 (December 1892): 271-75.

71. Walter Lindley, M.D., "California's Climate," The Californian, (October 1891): 60. Lindley had previously collaborated with Dr.Joseph Widney on California of the South (New York: D.Appleton and Co., 1888).

72. Norman Bridge, M.D., "The Invalid in Southern California," Land of Sunshine 3 (June 1895): 25.

73. Kingman, "The Land of Sunshine," 175-76.

74. Sonia Wolfson, "Art and Artists," California Graphic, 16 April 1927, p. 6.

75. For Frost, see "Blue Mountains and the Art of John Frost," California Southland 6 (March 1924): 10-11; Henry M. Reed, The A. B. Frost Book (Rutland, Vt.: Charles E.Tuttle, 1993) 107-11, 127-39. Frost has, until recently, been one of the most overlooked among the California Impressionists. His production may have been reduced due to the combination of health problems and his limited stay in the region.

76. "John Frost Shows Recent Landscapes," Los Angeles Times, 7 February 1926, sec. 3, p.32.

77. "Reminiscences of Alson Skinner Clark," interview with Medora Clark conducted by Margaret Hunter, Pasadena, Calif., 1956-57, typescript, p. 37. My gratitude to Alson Clark III for sharing this material with me.

78. "Reminiscences of Alson Skinner Clark," pp. 33-37; see also Clark's own statement, 1910, typescript, Stevens Collection, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

79. The principal studies of Clark are both by Jean Stern: Alson S. Clark (Los Angeles: Petersen Publishing, 1983) and "Alson Clark: An American at Home and Abroad," in Trenton and Gerdts, California Light, 1900-1930, 113-36. See also Elizabeth Whiting, "Painting in the Far West: Alson Clark, Artist," California Southland 3 (February 1922): 8-9; M[abel] U[rmy] S[eares], "Alson Skinner Clark, Artist," California Southland 9 (March 1927): 28-29; "A Unique Monument to Old California" [the Carthay Circle Murals], American Magazine of Art 18 (January 1927): 23-25; "The First National Bank of Pasadena, California and First-Trust & Savings Bank of Pasadena, California," California Southland 11 (January 1929): 18-19;John Palmer Leeper, "Alson S. Clark (1876-1949)," Pasadena Art Institute Bulletin 1 (April 1951): 15-19; Terry DeLapp, "Alson Skinner Clark (1876-1949)," in Westphal, ed., Plein Air Painters of California: The Southland, 52-57.

80. Bram Dijkstra, "The High Cost of Parasols," in Trenton and Gerdts, California Light, 1900-1930, 47.

81. South, in Gerdts and South, California Impressionism, 178.

82. Probably in 1917, Rose wrote to William Macbeth, his New York dealer, that he had sold more work than any other local artist. Rose to Macbeth, 5 April [1917?], Macbeth Gallery papers, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., roll 2628.

83. Arthur Millier, the leading art critic in Los Angeles in the late 1920s, did distinguish between them in 1929, clearly voicing his favoritism when he wrote that Rose was "almost more a French Impressionist than an American painter," and deemed Wendt "the man who has most truthfully pictured Southern California." Arthur Millier, "Growth of Art in California," in Taylor, Land of Homes, 334-35.

84. Michael Zakian, "Plein Air Painting in Malibu," On Location in Malibu: Paintings by the California Art Club (Malibu, Calif.: Frederick R.Weisman Museum of Art, 1999). I would like to thank Peter and Elaine Adams for this publication, which arrived just moments before this essay was completed.

85. For Symons, see Marie Louise Handley,"Gardner Symons - Optimist," Outlook 105 (27 December 1913): 881-87; Antony Anderson, "Art and Artists," Los Angeles Times, 29 August 1915, sec. 4, p. ; "Gardiner [sic] Symons," Fine Arts Journal 32 (June 1915): 297-99; Thomas Shrewsbury Parkhurst, "Gardner Symons, Painter and Philosopher," Fine Arts Journal 34 (November 1916): 557-65; Westphal, ed., Plein Air Painters of California: The Southland, 164-69; Gardner Symons (1861-1930): Small Paintings (New York: Coe Kerr Gallery, 1986); George Gardner Symons (1862-1930) (Laguna Beach, Calif.: Redfern Gallery, 1989).

86. Laguna Beach began to reap not only local but even national celebrity around 1920. See, for instance, Neeta Marquis, "Laguna: Art Colony of the Southwest," International Studio 70 (March 1920): xxvi-xxvii; Jessie A. Selkinhaus,"The Laguna Beach Art Colony," Touchstone 8 (January 1921): 250-55; W W Robinson, "The Laguna Colony," California Southland 6 (July 1924): 10.

87. Deborah Epstein Solon, Colonies of American Impressionism (Laguna Beach, Calif.: Laguna Art Museum, 1999) is an important recent comparative study of Laguna Beach vis-à-vis Eastern Impressionist art colonies. The most recent study of activities at Laguna Beach is Susan M. Anderson and Bolton Colburn, "Painting Paradise: A History of the Laguna Beach Art Association 1900-1930," in Impressions of California: Early Currents in Art 1850-1930 (Irvine, Calif.: The Irvine Museum & KOCE-TV, 1996) 109-33. See also Anna A[lthea] Hills,"The Laguna Beach Art Association," American Magazine of Art 10 (October 1919): 459-63; Neeta Marquis, "Laguna: Art Colony of the Southwest," International Studio (March 1920): xxvi-xxvii; Jessie A. Selkinhaus, "The Laguna Beach Art Colony," Touchstone 8 (January 1921): 250-55; W W. Robinson, "The Laguna Art Colony," California Southland 6 (July 1924): 10; Thomas Kenneth Enman and Ruth Westphal, "Earliest Days of the Laguna Beach Art Colony," in Westphal, ed., Plein Air Painters of California: The Southland, 122-27; Robert M. Frash, "A Regional Response to the Impressionist Challenge," California History 63 (Summer 1984): 252-55; Janet Blake Dominik, Early Artists in Laguna Beach: The Impressionists (Laguna Beach, Calif.: Laguna Art Museum, 1986); Nancy Dustin Wall Moure and Joanne L. Ratner, A History of the Laguna Art Museum, 1918-1993 (Laguna Beach, Calif.: Laguna Art Museum, 1993); Nancy Dustin Wall Moure and Joanne L. Ratner, "Laguna Art Museum: The Seventy-fifth Anniversary," American Art Review (Spring 1993): 132-39, 165.

88. Merle & Mabel Ramsey, Pioneer Days of Laguna Beach (Laguna Beach, Calif.: Hastie Printers, 1967) 64-65.

89. Harry Noyes Pratt, "The Eucalyptus," Overland Monthly and Out West Magazine 82 (July 1924): 316.

90. South, Guy Rose, American Impressionist, 66, 83, n. 154.

91. "The Sea Coast of Southern California," Land of Sunshine 2 (December 1894): 1.

92. Beatrice de Lack Krombach, "Sixth Annual Exhibition of the California Art Club at Exposition Park Museum," The Graphic, 9 October 1915, p. 6. The painting received national recognition through illustration in a Chicago magazine: Everett Carroll Maxwell, "Development of Landscape Painting in California," Fine Arts Journal 34 (March 1916): 140.

93. John Gutzon Borglum, "An Artist's Paradise," Land of Sunshine 2 (May 1895): 106.

94. "An Art Center for Los Angeles," California Southland 2 (November 1920): 11.

95. For Smith, see Neeta Marquis, "Jack Wilkinson Smith," International Studio 69 (December 1919): lxxiv-lxxvi; "Jack Wilkinson Smith, California Artist," Arrowhead Magazine (March 1923): 8-9; Lee Shippey, "Lee Side o' L.A.," Los Angeles Times, 21 November 1929, sec. 2, p. 7; Arthur Millier, "Our Artists in Person No. 15 - Jack Wilkinson Smith," Los Angeles Times, October 1930, sec. 3, pp. 22, 24; Everett Carroll Maxwell, "Jack Wilkinson Smith, Constructive Artist," Overland Monthly 90 (October 1932): 237-38; Westphal, ed., Plein Air Painters of California: The Southland, 106-11.

96. For Cuprien, see Kanst Art Gallery, The Art of F W Cuprien (Los Angeles, n.d. [ca. 1914]);Westphal, ed., Plein Air Painters of California: The Southland, 134-37.

97. For Hills, see Antony Anderson, "Art and Artists," Los Angeles Times, 16 November 1913, sec. 3, p. 6; Arthur Millier, "Our Artists in Person No. 29 - Anna A. Hills," Los Angeles Times, 7 June 1931, sec. 3, p. 16; Anna A. Hills (Long Beach, Calif.: California State University, 1976);Westphal, ed., Plein Air Painters of California: The Southland, 144-47.

98. Antony Anderson, "Of Art and Artists," Los Angeles Times, 22 January 1922, sec. 3, p.45.

99. I am tremendously indebted to W. Douglas Hartley, Norman, Illinois, for the chronology of Mannheim; Dr. Hartley has prepared a manuscript on the life and art of Jean Mannheim and has accumulated a great deal of material on the artist. Published sources on Mannheim include: Antony Anderson, "Art and Artists," Los Angeles Times, 12 November 1911, sec. 3, p. 21; Everett Carroll Maxwell, "The Art of Jean Mannheim," Overland Monthly 91 (October 1933): 125, 127; and Westphal, ed., Plein Air Painters of California: The Southland, 78-93.

100. This is not to say that the cultivation of formal gardens was not of great concern to Californians. For an overview of California garden design, see David C. Streatfield, "Where Pine and Palm Meet: The California Garden as a Regional Expression:" Landscape Journal 4 (Fall 1985):61-73. More particularly, see Josephine Clifford, "How Gardens Grow in California," The Californian 1 (February 1880): 119-25; Stubenrauch, "The California Home Garden"; John McLaren, Gardening in California: Landscape and Flower (San Francisco:A. M. Robertson, 1909); Charles Francis Saunders, "The Small California Garden," House and Garden 19 (February 1911): 70-81, 120-22;Winifred Dobyns, California Gardens (New York: Macmillan and Co., 1931); "California," in Alice G. B. Lockwood, ed., Gardens of Colony and State (New York, Charles Scribners Sons, 1934) 2:391-402. For California garden paintings, see Nancy Moure, "California Garden Scenes," Art of California 4 (September 1991): 52-57.

101. Charles Howard Shinn, "Spring Flowers of California," Overland Monthly 11 (April 1888): 417.

102. For Brown, see Mabel Urmy Scares, "California as a Sketching Ground," International Studio 43 (April 1911): 121-32; Edna Gearhart, "Benjamin Brown of Pasadena," Overland Monthly 82 (July 1924):124-26; Rose V S. Berry, "A Patriarch of Pasadena," International Studio 81 (May 1925): 123-26; E[dna] Gearhart, "Brothers Brown, California Painters and Etchers," American Magazine of Art 20 (May 1929): 283-89; Arthur Millier,"Our Artists in Person No. 17 - Benjamin C. Brown," Los Angeles Times, 9 October 1930, sec. 3, pp. 14, 22;Westphal, ed., Plein Air Painters of California: The Southland, 44-47. See also the compendium by John Alan Walker, Benjamin Chambers Brown (1865-1942):A Chronological and Descriptive Bibliography (Big Pine, Calif.: privately printed, 1989).

103. See here the definitive study by May Brawley Hill, Grandmother's Garden: The Old-Fashioned American Garden 1865-1915 (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1995); Hill deals specifically with California gardens on pp. 201-12.

104. "In the Studios," American Art News 14 (29 April 1916): 7.

105. For the Santa Barbara art colony at just the time Cooper moved there, see L.W. Wilson, "Santa Barbara's Artist Colony," American Magazine of Art 12 (December 1921): 411-14; for a more recent assessment, see Gloria Rexford Martin, "Then and Now," Antiques & Fine Art 9 (November/December 1991): 85-93.

106 The bibliography on Cooper is fairly extensive. For his California years, see James M. Hansen, Colin Campbell Cooper (Santa Barbara, Calif., 1981);Tina Goolsby, "Colin Campbell Cooper" Art & Antiques 6 (January/ February 1983): 56-63; Westphal, ed., Plein Air Painters of California: The North, 58-63.

107. Ed Ainsworth, Painters of the Desert (Palm Desert, Calif.: Desert Printers, 1960) .

108. For Lauritz, see Arthur Millier, "Our Artists in Person No. 30 - Paul Lauritz," Los Angeles Times, 5 July 1931, see. 3, p. 12; John Hilton, "Artist Who Grinds His Own Pigments," Desert Magazine (March 1941): 22; Ed Ainsworth, "Paul Lauritz, the Man Who Paints the Desert's Spirit" Palm Springs Villager (May 5957) n.p.; Ainsworth, Painters of the Desert, 52-58;Westphal, ed., Plein Air Painters of California: The Southland, 74-77.

109. Millier, "Paul Lauritz."

110. For Coburn and his urban imagery, see Bradley J. Delaney, Frank Coburn (1862-1938), An Early Los Angeles Painter (San Diego: Orr's Gallery, 1991). A few other Los Angeles cityscapes are known by the Impressionists, such as Paul Lauritz's OLD LOS ANGELES (Mr. and Mrs. Peter Ochs) of 1922, and Sam Hyde Harris's OLD Los ANGELES (see Ruth Westphal and Jean Stern, The Paintings of Sam Hyde Harris (1889-1977) (Beverly Hills, Calif.: Petersen Galleries, 1980) 35), but these tend to avoid or downplay the sense of metropolitan modernism.

111. See William H. Gerdts, Impressionist New York (New York:Abbeville Press, 1994).

112. See, for instance, the discussion of such hostelries as the Hotel Coronado at San Diego, The Cliff House, San Francisco, and the Del Monte Hotel in Monterey, soon to be a venue for many artists but not the subject of their brushes. A. J. Wells, "California Summer Resorts," Out West 19 (July 1903): 115-27.

113. For the interpretation of this distinct facet of American Impressionism, see the study by Lisa N. Peters, American Impressionist Images of Suburban Leisure and Country Comfort (Carlisle, Pa.: Trout Gallery, Dickinson College, 1997).

114. For Hinkle, not included in the present exhibition, see Arthur Millier "Our Artists in Person No. 38 - Clarence K. Hinkle" Los Angeles Times, 4 June 1933, sec. 2, p. 4; Clarence Hinkle, 1880-1960 (Santa Barbara, Calif.: Santa Barbara Museum of Art, 1960); Forty-Fifth Anniversary Exhibit: Clarence Hinkle, 1880-1960 (Laguna Beach, Calif.: Laguna Beach Art Association, 1963); Raymond-Callison Gallery, Clarence Keiser Hinkle (1880-1960):A Selection of His Paintings (Stockton, Calif.: University of the Pacific, 1978); Westphal, ed., Plein Air Painters of California: The Southland, 70-77. Hinkle was one of the few native Californians among the Southern California Impressionists, having been born on a ranch outside of Sacramento. He worked in San Francisco from 1912-1917, in Los Angeles from 1917-1930, and in Laguna Beach from 1931-1935; after 1935 he was in Santa Barbara. Hinkle's painting combines aspects of Impressionism with Cézanne-influenced strategies of Post-Impressionism.

115. For Bischoff and Smith together, see Jean Stern, The Paintings of Franz A. Bischoff (Beverly Hills, Calif.: Petersen Galleries, 1980) 169. Smith studied with Robert Henri in New York and moved to Los Angeles in 1920. After Bischoff's death and the stock market crash, both in 1929, he abandoned painting and became an interior decorator.

116. The major study of Kleitsch is Patricia Trenton, "Joseph Kleitsch:A Kaleidoscope of Color," in Trenton and Gerdts, California Light, 1900-1930, 137-56. See also "The Editor," [James William Pattison], "The Art of Joseph Klcitsch," Fine Arts Journal 37 (June 1919):46-52; Fred Hoguc,"A Hungarian Artist" Los Angeles Times, 25 June 1928, sec. 2, p. 4; Westphal, ed., Plein Air Painters of California: The Southland, 152-57. Recently, Kleitsch was one of the best represented painters in the comparative study of Laguna Beach with other Impressionist art colonies, and five of the six works representing him were of this subject. Sec Solon, Colonies of American Impressionism.

117. Nancy Moure, California Art, 192.

118. Patricia Trenton, "Joseph Kleitsch," in Seventy-Five Works, Seventy-Five Years: Collecting the Art of California (Laguna Beach, Calif.: Laguna Art Museum, 1993) 36. The building is pictured in Ramsey, Pioneer Days of Laguna Beach, 6.

119. The two major studies of Bischoff are both by Jean Stern: The Paintings of Franz A. Bischoff and "Franz Bischoff from Ceramist to Painter," in Trenton and Gerdts, California Light, 1900-1930, 157-70. See also Westphal, ed., Plein Air Painters of California: The Southland, 38-43; Janet B. Dominik, "Franz Bischoff," Art of California 2 (April/May 1989): 12-17.

120. The most notable pictures of harbors filled with fishing boats by a California artist were created by Edgar Payne, but these were European scenes of Concarneau, Brittany, and on the Adriatic, near Venice, which Payne visited beginning in 1923.

121. For Hunt, see Westphal, ed., Plein Air Painters of California: The Southland, 148-51. For the location here, I am indebted to the entry by Nancy Moure in A Time and Place: From the Ries Collection of California Painting (Oakland, Calif.: The Oakland Museum, 1990) 80.

122. For Harris, see Westphal and Stern, The Paintings of Sam Hyde Harris; and Westphal, ed., Plein Air Painters of California: The Southland, 64-69.

123. Lummis began his investigation and championing of the missions soon after he arrived in California in 1885. See his article, "The Old Missions," in Drakes Magazine 7 (March 1889). He also is almost certainly the author of "The Landmarks Club," Overland Monthly 23 (September 1905): 257-64. For Lummus himself, see Edwin R. Bingham, Charles F Lummis: Editor of the Southwest (San Marino, Calif.: Huntington Library, 1955); Kevin Starr, Americans and the California Dream, 1850-1915 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1973) 396-401; Turbese Lummis-Fiske and Keith Lummis, Charles F Lummis: The Man and His West (Norman, Okla.: University of Oklahoma Press, 1975). The literature on the missions is tremendous, beginning with Helen Hunt Jackson's Glimpses of California and the Missions (1883; reprint, Boston: Little, Brown, 1902), originally published a year before her wildly popular and influential novel Ramona:A Story (Boston: Roberts Brothers, 1884). Sec also the important volume by Lummis's major challenger, George Wharton James: In and Out of the Old Missions (Boston: Little, Brown, and Co., 1905). Carey McWilliams estimated "that not a year has passed since 1900 without the publication of some new volume about the Missions." Carey McWilliams, Southern California: An Island on the Land (New York, 1946; reprint, Layton, Utah: Gibbs Smith, 1973) 77. For other early investigations, see the three-part series by Frances Fullcr Victor, "Studies of the California Missions,"The Californian (May,June and July 1882): 389-405, 554-25, 15-26 (published before Helen Hunt Jackson's book), and two articles by Laura Bride Powers in The Californian, both entitled "The Missions of California": (September 1892): 547-56 and (July 1893): 142-57. From the time of the Impressionists, see Vernon J. Selfridge, The Miracle Missions (Los Angeles: Grafton Publishing, 1915). For more modern descriptions and assessments, see Paul C. Johnson, ed., The California Missions (Menlo Park, Calif.: Lane Book Co., 1965); Kevin Starr, Americans and the California Dream; Davis Dutton, ed., Missions of California (New York: Ballantine Books, 1972); and especially James J. Rawls, "The California Mission as Symbol and Myth," California History 71 (Fall 1992): 342-61.

124. See, for instance, "Ruins of the Franciscan Missions in California," Century 26 (June 1883): 199-215; Henry W Henshaw,"Missions and Mission Indians of California," Popular Science Monthly 37 (August 1890): 465-85; John T. Doyle, "The Missions of Alta California," Century 41 (January 1891): 289-402; Torrey Connor, "Among the Old Missions of California," Chautauquan 22 (November 1895): 185-92; and George Wharton James, "The Franciscan Mission Buildings of California," The Craftsman (January 1904): 321-35. Attitudes toward the missions and their restoration changed very rapidly at the end of the 19th century. Doyle, for instance, in January 1891, concluded that each "stands there to-day, magnificent, even in its ruins," p. 402, while two years later, in July 1893, Laura Bride Powers (see note 123) suggested "preserving from further disintegration the crumbling sanctuaries," p. 157.

125. For a complete study of the pictorial images of the missions, see Jean Stern, Gerald J. Miller, Pamela Hallan-Gibson, and Norman Neuerburg, Romance of the Bells:The California Missions in Art (Irvine, Calif.:The Irvine Museum, 1995). For the pre-Impressionist period, see George Watson Cole, "Missions and Mission Pictures: A Contribution Towards an Iconography of the Franciscan Missions of California," News Notes of California Libraries 5 (July 1910): 390-412.

126. Hallan-Gibson, "Mission San Juan Capistrano," in Romance of the Bells, 64-69.

127. For the mission garden, see Charles Francis Saunders, "California," in Lockwood, ed., Gardens of Colony and State, 2:391-402, esp. 394.

128. California's Magazine, 1:2Iff.

129. Moure, "The California Art Club to 1930," in Impressions of California: Early Currents in Art 1850-1930, 94. Moure suggests here that, in the 1915 annual, figure and portrait paintings about equaled the number of landscapes, but this isn't true, though the proportional change from 1911 is, indeed, striking. My own calculation is that, among the 79 works shown, 26 paintings were probably portraits and figure studies, and 41 were landscapes. Of course, titles can be misleading, and some of the landscapes may have included fairly prominent figures.

130. Arthur Millier, "An Age of Innocence: Southern California Art in the Twenties," in Moure, Los Angeles Painters of the Nineteen-Twenties.

131. Antony Anderson, "Art and Artists," Los Angeles Times, 6 December 1914, pp. 5, 6.

132. For Schuster, see the essay by Leonard P.. de Grassi in Donna Norine Schuster, 1883-1953 (Downey, Calif.: Downey Museum of Art, 1977);Westphal, ed., Plein Air Painters of California: The Southland, 100-05; Roberta Gittens, "Donna Schuster," Art of California 4 (May 1991): 16-20; and Patricia Trenton and Roberta Gittens, "Donna Norine Schuster," Southwest Art 22 (February 1993): 68-74, 132. For the Otis Art Institute and its significance, see Mary Jarrett, The Otis Story of Otis Art Institute Since 1918 (Los Angeles: The Alumni Association of Otis Art Institute, 1975). The significance of this school for the development of Impressionism and out-of-doors painting in California is suggested by Karl Howenstein, "Art School of the Los Angeles Museum," Graphic: Los Angeles Museum 1 (September 1926): 11: "Otis Art Institute is probably the only professional art school in America which provides classes, both indoors and outdoors, both day and evening, twelve months in a year."

133. Dijkstra, "The High Cost of Parasols," 31.

134. Will South, in Gerdts and South, California Impressionism, 215, notes that Schuster's work prefigures the strategies of contemporary California Modernist Wayne Thiebaud.

135. Meta Cressey appears, so far, to have eluded scholarly study. For information on her and her husband, Bert, see the compilation of materials amassed by Robert Simpson and now deposited at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. I am tremendously grateful to Dr. Ilene Fort, Curator of American Art, and her associate, Gwen O'Bryan, for their assistance here. See also Antony Anderson, "Art and Artists:The Cressey Studio," Los Angeles Times, 5 July 1914, sec. 3, p. 11. For Bert Cressey, see Arthur Millier, "Our Artists in Person No. 3 - Bert Cressey," Los Angeles Times, 13 March 1932, sec. 3, p. 24.

136. The "conservative" Progressives working in Southern California in the later 1910s and the 1920s have not received nearly the attention directed either to the Impressionists, or the later American Scene painters, Surrealists, and Modernists. See, however, Susan M. Anderson, California Progressives 1910-1930 (Newport Beach, Calif.: Orange County Museum of Art, 1996); for the definition quoted here, see p. 10.

137. Arthur Millier, "Art," Los Angeles Times, 13 March 1927, sec. 3, p. 28.

138. M[abel] Urmy Scares, "California as Presented by Her Artists," California Southland 6 (June 1924): 9.

139. The literature on Braun is fairly extensive. See "Maurice Braun, Landscapist," Western Art! 1 (June/July/August 1914): 27; "Landscapes of Maurice Braun," Western Art 1 ( April 1916): 10-11; Esther Mugan Bush, "A Master Brush which Breathes Its Inspiration from Point Loma," Santa Fe Magazine 11 (August 1917): 13-21; "A Master-Brush of Point Loma," The Theosophical Path 14 (January 1918): 13-18; Maurice Braun, "Theosophy and the Artist," The Theosophical Path 14 (January 1918): 7-13; Hazel Boyer, "The Homecoming of Maurice Braun," Southwest Magazine 1 (March 1924): 7; Hazel Boyer, "A Notable San Diego Painter," California Southland 6 (April 1924): 12 Helen Comstock, "Painter of East and West," International Studio 80 (March 1925): 485-88; Reginald Poland,"The Divinity of Nature in the Art of Maurice Braun," The Theosophical Path 34 (May 1928):473-76; Maurice Braun, "What Theosophy Means to Me," The Theosophical Path 35 (October 1928): 367-68; "Maurice Braun: Painter," San Diego Magazine 4 (December/January 1951-52): 13-16, 43-44; Martin E. Petersen, "Maurice Braun: Master Painter of the California Landscape," The Journal of San Diego History 23 (Summer 1977): 20-40;Westphal, ed., Plein Air Painters of California: The Southland, 186-91; and Martin E. Petersen, "Profile: Artist, Maurice Braun," Art of California 2 (August/ September 1989): 44-53. For an overall view of the leading landscape painters of San Diego, see Martin E. Petersen, Second Nature: Four Early San Diego Landscape Painters (San Diego and Munich, Germany: San Diego Museum of Art and Prestal-Verlag, 1991)..

140. Bruce Kamerling perceptively suggests the influence here of Daniel Garber, Mitchell's teacher at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. Thomas R. Anderson and Bruce Kamerling, Sunlight and Shadow: The Art of Alfred R. Mitchell, 1888-1972 (San Diego: Museum of San Diego History, 1988) 52.

141. For Mitchell, the primary study is Anderson and Kamerling, Sunlight and Shadow. See also Martin E. Petersen,"Alfred R. Mitchell, Pioneer Artist in San Diego,"Journal of San Diego History 19 (Fall 1973): 42-50; Westphal, ed., Plein Air Painters of California: The Southland, 198-203; and Petersen, Second Nature, 36-45.

142. For this subject, see Ed Ainsworth, Painters of the Desert (Palm Desert, Calif.: Desert Printers, 1960). Lauritz is included in this anthology.

143.Moure, California Art, 198.

144.The bibliography on Grimm is scant indeed. See "Artist Paul Grimm Takes the Desert," Palm Springs Pictorial (Winter 1938-39); "Paul Grimm, Foremost Desert Artist," Palm Springs Pictorial 19 (1949): 46; and Katherine M. McClinton, "Paul Grimm, Painter of the California Desert," Antique Trader Weekly, 19 February 1986, pp. 72-75. See also, by Grimm, Our Dog Cholla (Choya) (np., 1948).

145. Arthur Millier, "The Art Temperaments of Northern and Southern California Compared," The Argus 1 (August 1927): 32.

146.This is documented in the memoirs of British artist Dame Laura Knight, who was a colleague of Raphael's in Laren. She mentions both Raphael and van Gogh in her two autobiographies: Oil Paint and Grease Paint (London: Ivor Nicholson & Watson, 1936) 133-58; and The Magic of Line (London: William Kimber & Co., 1965),126-30.

147. This painting was to represent Raphael in the tremendously significant publication, California's Magazine, I: Plate 35, a result of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition held in San Francisco the previous year, where Raphael won a silver medal for a group of six Belgian and Dutch pictures.

148. Oakland Tribune, 15 April 1916, quoted in "Joseph Raphael Chronology," p. 4, courtesy of Dr. Phyllis Hattis.

149. Surprisingly, given both Raphael's tremendous accomplishment and his current esteem, there has been no in-depth modern consideration of his art or career. However, the artist's daughter, Johanna Raphael Sibbett, together with Dr. Phyllis Hattis, are currently involved, along with the present author, in a major study of Raphael, complete with a catalogue raisonné. Otherwise, see Gene Hailey, ed., California Art Research (San Francisco: Federal WPA Project, 1937) 5:31-43; An Exhibition of Rediscovery: Joseph Raphael, 1872-1950, introduction by Theodore M. Lilienthal (San Francisco: California Historical Society; 1975); Anita Ventura Mozley, "Joseph Raphael: Impressionist Paintings and Drawings," typescript essay and catalogue information for an exhibition held at the Stanford University Museum of Art, 1980; Emke Raassen-Kruimel, Joseph Raphael, 1889-1950 (Laren, the Netherlands: Singer Museum, 1982); and Westphal, ed., Plein Air Painters of California: The North,160-65.

150. Raphael's letters to Albert Bender, Special Collections, Mills College Library, Oakland.

151 In a letter dated 8 November 1921 to painter Arthur Dominique Rozaire, William Clapp, a member of the Society, writing from the Oakland Art Gallery, commented favorably on Raphael's painting. I would like to thank George Stern for bringing this correspondence to my attention.

152. The definitive study of the Society of Six is by Nancy Boas: The Society of Six: California Colorists (San Francisco: Bedford Arts Publishers, 1988). See also Terry St. John, The Society of Six (Oakland, Calif.: Oakland Museum, 1972); Gary Szymanski,"The Society of Six," in Joseph Armstrong Baird, Jr., ed., From Exposition to Exposition: Progressive and Conservative Northern California Painting, 1915-1939, The Development of Modern Art in Northern California, Part 2 (Sacramento, Calif.: Crocker Art Museum, 1981) 24-29; Charlotte Berney,"A Look at the Society of Six," Antiques & Fine Art 4 (March/April 1987): 42-47; Gary Szymanski,"The Society of Six," Art of California 1 (October/November 1988): 30-37; and California Colorists: Paintings by the Society of Six, essay by Marc Simpson (San Francisco: M. H. De Young Memorial Museum, 1989). The Society consisted of Clapp, Seldon Gile, August Gay, Maurice Logan, Louis Siegriest, and Bernard von Eichman.

153. For Clapp, see Lawrence Jeppson,"William H. Clapp:The Gentle Impressionist," unpublished manuscript, n.d.; William Henry Clapp, essay by Paul Mills (Carmel, Calif.: Laky Gallery, 1966); Lawrence Jeppson, William Henry Clapp, American Impressionist (n.p., 1992/93); A. Prakash, "William Henry Clapp," Magazin'Art 7 (Winter 1994/95): 84-89.

154. On Gile, see A Feast for the Eyes: The Paintings of Seldon Connor Gile (Walnut Creek, Calif.: Civic Arts Center, 1983); Paintings by Seldon Connor Gile, 1877-1947, From the Collection of James L. Coran and Walter A. Nelson-Rees (Oakland, Calif.: Sohlman Art Gallery, 1983; Vol. 2, Oakland, Calif. :WIM Fine Arts, 1983).

155. The art exhibitions held at the Del Monte Hotel garnered considerable publicity in their time in the local press. See also two articles by Josephine Blanch, the curator of the Del Monte Gallery: "The Del Monte Gallery," Western Art! 1 (June/July/August 1914): 34; and "The Del Monte Art Gallery," Art & Progress (September 1914): 387-92. In a previous article dealing almost exclusively with the Tonalist artists resident there, Blanch had christened Monterey the "Barbizon" of California. "The 'Barbizon' of California: Some Interesting Studios There," Overland Monthly 50 (July 1907): 63-68.

156. Betty Hoag McGlynn, Carmel Art Association: A History (Carmel-by-the-Sea, Calif.: Carmel Art Association, 1987) 5-13.

157. For the artistic presence in Monterey, see the catalogues of two exhibitions held at the Monterey Peninsula Museum of Art: Helen Spangenberg, Yesterday's Artists on the Monterey Peninsula (Monterey, Calif.: Monterey Peninsula Museum of Art, 1976); and the follow-up, Monterey: The Artist's View, 1925-1945 (Monterey, Calif.: Monterey Peninsula Museum of Art, 1982). See also: Betty Lochrie Hoag, Del Monte Revisited (Carmel, Calif.: Carmel Museum of Art, 1969); and Barbara J. Klein, "The Carmel Monterey Peninsula Art Colony: A History," American Art Review 8 (September/ October 1996): 110-17.

158. Harvey L.Jones, Twilight and Reverie: California Tonalist Painting, 1890-1930 (Oakland, Calif.: Oakland Museum, 1995).

159. Ellen Dwyer Donovan,"California Artists and Their Work," Over/and Monthly 1 (January 1908): 33.

160. Blanch, "The Del Monte Art Gallery," 35.

161. I have not been able to identify the exact location among the Exposition buildings and gardens depicted by Fortune here.The double row of single Ionic columns suggests especially the Court of the Four Seasons, but I have not located photographs that distinguish the portal, the sculptures, and the flowerbed pictured in her painting.

162. Hailey, California Art Research, 12:61.

163. Merle Schipper,"E. Charlton Fortune: Light, Color and the Sea," in Robert E. Brennan and Merle Schipper, Color and Impressions: The Early Work of E. Charlton Fortune (Monterey, Calif.: Monterey Peninsula Museum of Art, 1990) 49.

164. Anna Cora Winchell, "Artists and Their Work," San Francisco Chronicle, 19 December 1920, p. 57.

165. The major study of Fortune is Brennan and Schipper, Color and Impressions; Brennan, now deceased, had written a lengthy unpublished biography of Fortune. See also [Jeanne B. Sa1inger, "Paintings by Charlton Fortune," The Argus 2 (November 1927): 68; Hailey, California Art Research, 12:54-76;Westphal, ed., Plein Air Painters of California: The North, 68-73; and Janet B. Dominik, "E. Charlton Fortune," Art of California 2 (August/ September 1989): 54-58. The Monterey Peninsula Museum of Art holds a significant archive on the artist; among the material is Fortune's 1967 "Autobiography", which has proved useful in the present essay. My thanks to Mary Murray, the Assistant Curator at the Museum, for her efforts on my behalf.

166. Bibliographic references to Nelson are scarce; see Westphal, ed., Plein Air Painters of California: The North, 126-31. I am grateful to Gilbert I Vincent of the New York State Historical Association in Cooperstown, who has perceptively noted that Samuel Nelson, a Supreme Court Justice in the mid-19th century, had been an important resident of Cooperstown and had descendants living in California; Bruce Nelson may have been one of them, and may have been drawn back to his ancestral hometown.

167. The major studies of Hansen are Raymond L. Wilson, "The Graphic Art of Armin Hansen," in Anthony R. White, The Graphic Art of Armin C. Hansen: A Catalogue Raisonné (Los Angeles: Hennessey & Ingalls, 1986); and Anthony R. White and Charlotte Berney, Armin Hansen: The Jane and Justin Dart Collection (Monterey, Calif.: Monterey Peninsula Art Museum, 1993). See also Harry Noyes Pratt, "Three California Painters;" American Magazine of Art 16 (April 1925): 199-204; Josephine Blanch, "Armin Hansen, Painter of the Sea;" Game and Gossip 1 (February 1927): 22-23; Aline Kistler,"Armin Hansen, Etcher of the Sea;" Prints 5 (November 1934): 1-9; Hailey, California Art Research, 9:104-37; "Dean of Western Painters;" Western Woman 11 (October/November/December 1944): 3-4; Marjorie Warren, "Portraits:Armin Hansen, Painter of the Sea;" What's Doing Magazine 1 (September 1946): 22-23, 49; "Armin Hansen: He Paints the Sea;'" Spectator (Carmel) 11, 18 February 1954, pp. 3, 8; Westphal, ed., Plein Air Painters of California: The North, 86-91; and Carmel Art Association, Our First Five National Academicians (Carmel, Calif.: Carmel Art Association, 1989).

168. Hansen earned the dubious designation as the "Winslow Homer of the West," See Helen Spangenberg, Yesterday's Artists on the Monterey Peninsula, 61, Even more questionable is the reference to him as "California's 'Remington" in Monterey: The Artist's View," 23, probably drawing upon Laura Bride Powers, "Painter Folk Put Forth Most Worthy Work;" San Francisco Call, 10 September 1905, p. 19, courtesy of Alfred Harrison, Jr., The North Point Gallery, San Francisco.

169. MAKING PORT is a more dynamic version of Hansen's TOWBOAT AHOY, sold at auction among the Selected California Paintings, San Francisco, Butterfield & Butterfield, 14 October 1987, #2092.

170. "Armin Hansen: He Paints the Sea;" 8.

171. For Ritschel, see Thomas H. Parkhurst, "Little journeys to the Homes of Great Artists;" Fine Arts Journal 33 (October 1915) 294-97; De Witt Lockman, "William Ritschel," manuscript interviews, 11-19 March 1926, New York Historical Society; Christine Turner Curtis, "Painters and Sculptors of the West: William Ritschel, California's Painter of the Sea;" California Southland 9 (August 1926): 10-11; Arthur Millier,"William Ritschel and Others in the South;" The Argus 5 (March 1929): ; "California Artists;" Pictorial California and the Pacific 5 (May 1930): 18-19;Westphal, ed., Plein Air Painters of California: The North 166-71; Janet B. Dominik, "William Ritschel, N.A.;" Art of California 2 (February/March 1989): 20-27; and Carmel Art Association, Our First Five National Academicians.

172. William Ritschel, N. A. Memorial Exhibition (Carmel, Calif.: Carmel Art Association Galleries, 1949).

173. Dominik, "William Ritschel," 22.

174. John Frederick Hadey, Jr., "Ritschel is Dean of Marine Painters;" [Monterey] Peninsula Herald, 1 November 1946.

175. Rose's initial visit to Carmel was reported in "Pine Needles;" Carmel Pine Cone, 1 August 1918, p. 1 His return the next year was noted in "Pine Needles;" Carmel Pine Cone, 24 July 1919, p. 1. On 23 October 1919, the column reported on the article "Among the Pines at Carmel-by-the-Sea;" written by Guy Rose's artist-writer wife, Ethel, and published in California Southland that month. See Ethel Rose, "Among the Pines at Carmel-by-the-Sea;" California Southland 1 (October/ November 1919): 21-22. For the 1920 visit, see "Pine Needles;" Carmel Pine Cone, 7 October 1920, p. 1.

176. Antony Anderson reported on Rose's plans in: "In the Realm of Art: Pictures by Guy Rose;" Los Angeles Times, 30 June 1918, sec. 3, p. 6.

177. Ameen Rihani, "The Marines of Paul Dougherty;" International Studio 73 (April 1921): Iv. Even early in Dougherty's career, one writer, reviewing a show at the Macbeth Gallery, noted that "Dougherty bids fair to become the successor to Winslow Homer," "Art Notes;" [New York] Sun, 12 February 1909, p. 6. In the early 20th century, Dougherty was often grouped with Frederick J. Waugh, Emil Carlsen, Alexander Harrison, and Charles Woodbury, as the major heirs to Homer (and to a lesser degree,William Trost Richards). See Anna Seaton-Schmidt, "Some American Marine Painters;" Art and Progress 2 (November 1910): 3-8; Birge Harrison,"Recent Tendencies in Marine Painting;" Scribner's Magazine 49 (April 1911): 469-77; George Alfred Williams, "Art in America. V. American Sea Painters;" Woman's Home Companion 38 (August 1911): 4-5. See also the section on "Winslow Homer and the Painters of the Sea;" in the one general American art survey authored by a Californian, Eugen Neuhaus, The History & Ideals of American Art (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1931) 293-314, where Homer is followed by Waugh, Carlsen,Woodbury, and not surprisingly, given the geographic bias of the author, Dougherty, Hansen, and Ritschel. Ritschel was also mentioned in Charles H. Caffin, "American Painters of the Sea," Critic 43 (December 1903): 548-59, Just before Dougherty appeared on the national scene. Ritschel and Dougherty were cited together in a review of the 1913 Winter Exhibition of the National Academy of Design: W. H. De B. Nelson, "The National Academy of Design: Winter Exhibition," International Studio 51 (February 1914): clxxxiii. Later, they both figured in the quite comprehensive survey by William Howe Downes, "American Painters of the Sea," American Magazine of Art 23 (November 1931): 360-74, published just at the time Dougherty settled in California. Though the source is not known and the statement thus unsupported, Downes, after noting, "Second only to Winslow Homer in the delineation of surf are Paul Dougherty and Frederick Waugh," went on to comment: "Dougherty and Waugh need fear no rivals. Winslow Homer was characteristically generous in his praise of these younger colleagues of his. He said, in substance, that there would be no cause for mourning when his time came to lay down his brush forever, so long as such worthy successors were there to carry on." Downes, American Painters of the Sea, 374. For a contemporary assessment of Homer's followers as painters of figureless coastal dramas, see Bruce Robertson, Reckoning With Winslow Homer: His Late Paintings and Their Influence (Cleveland: Cleveland Museum of Art, 5990) 44-62.

178. Nancy Hale and Fredson Bowers, eds., Leon Kroll: A Spoken Memoir (Charlottesville,Va.: University Press of Virginia, 1983) 15.

179. Edwin A. Rockwell, "Paul Dougherty - Painter of Marines: An Appreciation," International Studio 36 (November 1908): iii-xi;William B. M'Cormick, "Paul Dougherty: Rebel to Classification," Arts and Decoration 8 (April 1918): 251-54, 274; Ameen Rihani, "The Marines of Paul Dougherty," liv-lviii; A[bel] G.Warshawky, "Pictures Are Poems of Color, Movement," [Monterey] Peninsula Herald, 1 November 1946; Mahonri Sharp Young, "The Crest of the Wave," in Paul Dougherty: A Retrospective Exhibition (Portland, Maine: Portland Museum of Art, 1978);Westphal, ed., Plein Air Painters if California: The North, 64-67; Mary Carroll Nelson [Essay; reprinted from Southwest Profile 1 (September/ October 1986)], Paul Dougherty, 1877-1947 (Hickory, N.C.: Hickory Museum of Art, 1988); and Carmel Art Association, Our First Five National Academicians. 180. "Mahonri Young Paul Dougherty Macbeth Gallery," Art News 29 (28 February 1931): 12.

181.Rockwell, "Paul Dougherty: Painter of Marines," iv, where the picture was noted as "a study in perspective of rock forms."

182. [New York] Sun, "Academy Exhibition, Second Notice," 23 December 1907, p. 4.

183. Richard J. Boyle, "Once by the Pacific:The Art of Frank Harmon Myers (1899-1956)," in Frank H. Myers: A Retrospective (Cincinnati: Art Academy of Cincinnati, 1988) 10.

184. For Myers, see Martin E. Petersen, "Frank Myers, the Survival of a Traditionalist During the Modern Movement," Artists of the Rockies and the Golden West 11 (Summer 1984): 64-71; Frank H. Myers: A Retrospective; and Martin E. Petersen,"Frank Myers," Art of California 4 (March 1991): 4-57. See also Myers's own "Painting the Sea," The Artist (London) 41 (June 1951): 74-76; (July 1951): 98-100; (August 1951): 139-40. My thanks to Deborah Epstein Solon and Alfred Harrison, Jr., for their assistance in retrieving information on Myers.

185. Arthur Millier, "New Developments in Southern California Painting," American Magazine of Art 27 (May 1934): 241.

186. Mabel Urmy Scares, "A California School of Painters," California Southland 3 (February 1921): 10.The question was reported again three years later: "Many, many times of late have we heard the phrase 'California school of art' and just as often the derisive but interested query, 'What do you mean - 'California art'?' Is there really a type of painting or branch of art peculiar to and characteristic of this section of the country?" "A School of California Painting is Taking Its Place in World of Art," California Graphic, 23 February 1924, p. 14.


RLM page 1 2 3 4 5 6

Read more articles and essays concerning this institutional source by visiting the sub-index page for the The Irvine Museum in Resource Library Magazine.

Search for more articles and essays on American art in Resource Library. See America's Distinguished Artists for biographical information on historic artists.

This page was originally published in 2003 in Resource Library Magazine. Please see Resource Library's Overview section for more information.

Copyright 2012 Traditional Fine Arts Organization, Inc., an Arizona nonprofit corporation. All rights reserved.