The following 2002 essay was written by William H. Gerdts, Professor Emeritus, Graduate School of the City University of New York, for the illustrated catalogue Masters of Light: Plein-Air Painting in California 1890-1930, ISBN 0-971-4092-3-4 (cloth), which accompanied the exhibition, Masters of Light, the first ever international exhibition of California plein air paintings to tour Europe. The essay is reprinted with permission of The Irvine Museum and without illustrations. If you have questions or comments regarding the essay, or wish to purchase a copy of the catalogue, please contact The Irvine Museum directly through either this phone number or web address:


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Not surprisingly, landscape still dominated the artistic production in the region, but figure painting was finding new adherents and respect. Nancy Moure has pinpointed the change to the year 1915, attributing it not only to the plethora of landscape that had appeared up to then, but also to the appearance of new painters on the scene, such as Donna Schuster and Meta Cressey. She also notes that historians have attributed the increased impact of Impressionism, generally, to its predominance in the Fine Arts Gallery at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, held from February 20 to December 4, 1915, in San Francisco, where so many major eastern Impressionists, such as Frederick Frieseke, William Merritt Chase, Childe Hassam, Edmund Tarbell, and others were honored with large displays of their work. Indeed, for his contribution, Frieseke won the ultimate award, the Grand Prize.[129] Figure paintings were more numerous than among the California painters. This, too, may have led local artists to emulation.

Still, as Arthur Millier reminisced in 1972, when they arrived in Southern California, "the figure painters and portraitists soon switched to landscape. Who in their right mind wanted pictures of people as souvenirs of Paradise in Sunshine Land?"[130] A partial exception was Donna Schuster, who, as noted above, was one of the new arrivals in California in the wake of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition. Schuster was yet another painter who had studied at the Art Institute of Chicago beginning in 1900. From 1906 to 1909, she worked under Tarbell and Frank Benson at the school of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, before studying with William Merritt Chase, first in Belgium in the summer of 1912 and then two years later when Chase taught at Carmel. This may have been Schuster's introduction to California, but she first achieved acclaim there for her depictions of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, then under construction late that year,1914. This was a series of 18 brilliantly colored watercolors of the great fair, which were exhibited that December at the Los Angeles Museum of History, Science and Art, arousing considerable admiration.[131] Schuster's residence at that time is confusing; in exhibition catalogues, she gave Los Angeles as her address in 1914, but the following year she was also listed as still resident in St. Paul, Minnesota; in any case, by the end of 1915 she had definitely settled in Los Angeles, where, in 1923, she joined the faculty of the Otis Art Institute, one of the most important art schools in California, which had been started five years earlier.[132]

Schuster varied her formal approach in the depiction of her favored subject matter, generally outdoor scenes including prominent figures of genteel young women, though she also painted vigorous depictions of utilitarian vessels, sometimes with figures, in Los Angeles and San Pedro harbors, such as her LOS ANGELES HARBOR (cat. 51) of ca. 1929. Some of her pictures are conceived in a manner utilizing orthodox Impressionist strategies: small brushstrokes of bright, contrasting colors and scintillating light, applied to domestic subjects - women seated, in gardens, on verandas, in front of their homes - not unlike some of the work of her teacher, Tarbell. GIRL IN A HAMMOCK of 1917 is one of the most vigorously painted of these; Brain Dijkstra finds this to be one of Schuster's "more animated" figure pieces.[133] Others, however, such as LOS ANGELES HARBOR, employ much more dramatic color contrasts and heavy outlines of pure color, somewhat akin to Kleitsch's approach, and like him she was inclined to portray her subjects more immediately and up close.[134] Such tendencies are more modern than those that appear in Schuster's purely Impressionist pictures, and would suggest that they were painted later, but this does not appear to be the case; she seems to have painted in one mode side by side with the other. Be that as it may, Schuster was, in fact, allied with more liberal circles in the Southern California art world, a member of the relatively long-lived Group of Eight "conservatively" progressive artists such as Mabel Alvarez, Clarence Hinkle, and Edouard and Luvena Vysekal, who began having yearly shows in the region in 1921.

Meta Gehring Cressey arrived in California in 1914 with her husband, the painter Bert Cressey; both had studied with Robert Henri in a summer class held in Spain in 1912. She and her husband were among the somewhat conservative progressives in Los Angeles, and as such were two of the painters who formed the Los Angeles Modern Art Society in 1916, a group that held several exhibitions in the late 1910s, in 1916 and 1918.[135] As Susan Anderson has defined the artistic approach of Cressey and her associates, "California Progressive painters of the 1910s created a personal art without asserting any visible ideology, arriving at a distinctive blend of Modernism and the regional plein-air tradition, rather than forging a daring confrontation with that tradition."[136] Also a landscape and still-life painter, Cressey drew some of her figural subject matter from the Cressey family ranch at Compton and from her garden in Hollywood Hills, where she probably painted UNDER THE PEPPER TREE (cat. 11) around 1926-27; this may be the picture Cressey exhibited as UNDER THE PEPPER TREE in the Eighth Annual Exhibition of Painters and Sculptors held at the Los Angeles Museum of History, Science, and Art in April 1927.

Cressey replaced the impact of Henri's dramatic tonal approach with the brilliant colors and glowing light of Impressionism, but, like Schuster's and Kleitsch's work, Cressey's is both more vivid and more decorative than orthodox Impressionism, with both foreground and background rendered with equal intensity, while her paint handling is more frenzied. Reviewing a show of the Cresseys' paintings at the Hollywood Woman's Club in March 1927, one critic noted," They sail gaily into the most complicated garden pattern of sunlit flowers and leaves."[137] Meta Cressey, like Schuster, often painted domestic images of women, though the nominally passive scene gains animation from Cressey's somewhat Modernist formal strategies. Cressey gloried in her pepper trees, which were featured not only in pictures that she and her husband painted, but also depicted by both still-life specialists and other landscape painters, including Guy Rose.The pepper tree was celebrated in poetry, too; see the poem,"The Pepper Tree,"by Mabel Balch, published in 1924.[138] With the loss of her garden owing to the impact of the Depression in 1929, the despondent Cressey abandoned painting.

Though San Diego falls within the perimeter of Southern California and, as a city, is and was smaller than Los Angeles, an art colony fairly distinct from the one located in Los Angeles and Pasadena developed there. Once rail traffic made the area accessible, artists, particularly from the Northeast, began to flock to San Diego in the late 19th century for reasons of health and for the general restorative powers of the climate. Art organizations were slower to develop there, surely owing to the smaller community of professional painters, sculptors, and graphic artists, but several artists worked within the broader strategies of Impressionism. One, Maurice Braun, became one of the state's most celebrated painters.[139]

After immigrating with his family to the United States in 1881, the Hungarian-born Braun worked in New York, where he studied at the National Academy of Design from 1897 to 1900 and with William Merritt Chase, establishing himself as a figure and portrait painter before arriving in San Diego in 1910. Turning to landscape, undoubtedly inspired by the glorious California scenery around him, Braun immediately became recognized as an important and distinctive figure in the community. In 1910 he organized the San Diego Academy of Art, the city's first art school, and became involved with the San Diego Art Guild, which was founded in 1915. Even more significantly, Braun joined the Theosophical Society colony established in 1897 by Katherine Tingley at Point Loma, known as "Lomaland," on the northern edge of San Diego. Braun was a true believer, and writers have debated the impact of theosophical spiritual beliefs on the landscapes that became Braun's artistic preoccupation once he settled in California. This author is pretty well convinced that they did, in fact, affect the nature of Braun's art, much as George Inness's later paintings reflect his deep beliefs in Swedenborgianism. This seems obvious in such a rare figurative landscape as Braun's 1914 A MORNING IDYLL (Theosophical Society, Pasadena), in which small figures of dancing maidens in classical dress echo the softly swaying trees reaching to the golden heavens behind them: woman, or humanity, and Nature in complete accord. But more typical, and much more naturalistic, displaying the full resonance of Impressionism's rich color and bright sunlight, is Braun's GLORIETTA BAY (cat. 3), depicting a cove across San Diego Bay from the Hotel del Coronado. The rich autumnal foliage in the foreground contrasts with the deep blue of the water on which only pleasure boats appear, while unobtrusive habitations fit snugly into the far shoreline, and tall, blue-purple mountain ranges tower up above in the distance. It is a scene of transcendent loveliness and pleasure, evoking the full resonance of the glory of Southern California.

Braun was not only recognized as San Diego's preeminent landscape painter: his reputation extended both within and outside of California. He exhibited regularly with the California Art Club in Los Angeles and was represented by the Kanst Art Gallery there; he was a member of the Los Angeles-based Ten Painters Club, almost all prominent California Impressionists, which showed at Kanst. In New York, Braun's paintings were exhibited by William Macbeth and at the Babcock Gallery. An artist of national reputation, Braun showed throughout the Midwest and the East, including the National Academy annuals; he even painted for a time with the Old Lyme art colony in Connecticut, in 1922-23.

The vibratory component of Braun's painting was rejected by his pupil Alfred R. Mitchell in his mature landscapes. Orthodox Impressionist techniques appeared only in Mitchell's early examples, such as his much-exhibited SUNSET GLOW, CALIFORNIA (cat. 29), which, not only in the shimmering sunlight effects but also in its pastel coloration, reflects his absorption of Braun's aesthetics.[140] After a peripatetic youth, Mitchell settled in San Diego in 1908 and became one of Braun's early students at the San Diego Academy of Art, in which he enrolled in 1913; he went on to study at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in Philadelphia in 1916. A Cresson Fellowship enabled him to go abroad in 1921. Mitchell returned to San Diego in 1922 and subsequently established himself as both rival and successor to his teacher as the city's leading landscapist. He was also extremely active with the La Jolla Art Association in that community just north of San Diego; the Association was formed in 1918, and Mitchell exhibited annually with them from 1923 until 1966.[141]

Mitchell remained in the San Diego area throughout his career, and his art was even more devoted to the landscape in and about the city than Braun's. His scenes are rendered in broad color planes, such as the flat, beige-colored beach, the unbroken shadows, and the soaring orange and blue-purple cliff depicted by IN MORNING LIGHT (cat. 30) of 1931. Indeed, vast cliffs and mountain forms are signature elements in Mitchell's painting; the solidity of his forms are the converse of Braun's ephemeral dematerialization. Here, the great flat planes accentuate the emptiness of the view, but the glaring light and bright colors mitigate any sense of loneliness or despair. The present work may depict a stretch along La Jolla Shores, a favorite painting ground for the artist.

In addition to their scenic concentration upon the valleys, canyons, mountains, woodlands, and the coast, some of the California Impressionists, such as John Frost, Sam Hyde Harris, Alson Clark, and Paul Lauritz, pictorially investigated the desert landscape.[142] The California desert began to attract attention in the 1920s when Palm Springs was developed into a luxury resort, and it was in the following decades that artists turned increasing attention to that region.[143] A later painter to make this his specialty was Paul Grimm, who had moved to Hollywood in 1919 and begun his art career painting backdrops for movie studios.Though he also painted the missions and the High Sierra, Grimm became a specialist in the many moods of the desert after he moved to Palm Springs in 1932. Equally important in his landscape work are his earlier dramatic, cloud-filled skies above often low horizons, as in his CUMULUS CLOUDS (cat. 17) and APPROACHING STORM (cat. 18), California equivalents to the sky-and-cloudscapes of Mystic, Connecticut artist Charles Davis.[144]

The artistic situation was very different in Northern California, and in San Francisco at least, Impressionism found relatively meager encouragement, despite its early appearance there in exhibitions held during the 1890s. This was probably caused by a number of factors. For one, San Francisco had an artistic tradition going back to the days of the Gold Rush. Landscape specialists such as Thomas Hill, William Keith, and even the celebrated Albert Bierstadt had appeared to celebrate with seemingly topographical accuracy the spectacular glories of California's unique natural wonders. San Francisco, too, was an urban center, which established a home ground for the artistic community in a manner that Los Angeles was never to provide - panoramic celebrations of the vast California landscape found eager patronage among the wealthy railroad, mining, and land barons. And the climate in the South that is delightful year round allowed the scenic painter a range of pictorial opportunities unavailable in the North, as well as the sparkling, golden light that radiates from Southern California canvases.

When Northern artists began to abandon their extolling of the distinct features of their landscape, they retreated into the private preserves of their personal sensibilities vis-à-vis Nature, as William Keith began to do in the 1880s.This took on a more astringent form in the Tonalist work of younger painters, above all Arthur Mathews, who dominated the artistic community in the Bay Area from the late 19th century well into the early 20th century, as it did also the teaching at the California School of Design, which he directed beginning in 1890 and where his principles found numerous adherents.The distinction between the art of the North and the South was not lost on contemporary California critics; one of the most perceptive assessments of this difference was by Arthur Millier in 1927. He noted that the art circles of Los Angeles and San Francisco were poles apart, and that the people had different traditions, lived differently, and that their artists viewed life from different angles, looking for different things in Nature. Millier based his observations primarily on the long-standing urban notions of civic tradition in San Francisco, with its distinct ethnic neighborhoods, while Los Angeles was decentralized and had drawn its population from agrarian states. He concluded that country people were not so concerned either with art or with cultural tradition, but were "necessarily face to face with nature." Millier noted, too, that San Franciscans had respect for and were interested in world artistic achievements, both of the past and present, while the concerns of Los Angelenos "reflected nothing but Southern California."[145]

Joseph Raphael, one of the greatest, and certainly the most original of those who might be called Bay Area Impressionists, was neither an Impressionist in the conventional sense nor active in and around San Francisco. Like Guy Rose, Raphael was one of the few artists of the movement who was actually born in California, and his maturation, too, took place abroad. Furthermore, Raphael studied at the California School of Design - designated the Mark Hopkins Institute during the years 1893-97 that he was there under the tutelage of Arthur Mathews and sculptor Douglas Tilden - and then went to Paris for further study. But until World War II, Raphael spent his career abroad, first dividing his time between Paris and the artists' colony in Laren in the Netherlands, then in 1912 moving to Uccle, a suburb of Brussels; he remained there until 1929 when he returned to the Netherlands and lived in Oegstgeest. Raphael's earlier Netherlandish paintings are dark, dramatic figural works, sometimes with Symbolist overtones; the best-known of these are THE TOWN CRIER AND HIS FAMILY (Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco) and LA FÉTE DU BOURGMESTRE (private collection), which depict Captain N.W van den Broek, a Laren burgomaster; both were exhibited at the Paris Salon, in 1905 and 1906 respectively.

But just before his move to Belgium, Raphael's methodology changed radically. He began to paint colorful outdoor scenes, sometimes including figures, and often set in fields of flowers and vivid gardens - typical Impressionist themes. Raphael applied paint in large dabs, creating a decorative tapestry of colors more closely Post-Impressionist, while flattening space and simplifying forms.The influence here, either directly or through the work of some of the contemporary Dutch Modernists such as Jan Sluyters, was undoubtedly that of Vincent van Gogh. We know that the artists of the Laren colony became aware of van Gogh's work, especially through the large exhibition held in 1905 in Amsterdam.[146]

Curiously, some of the best-known of these pictures were painted on visits back to the Netherlands, especially in Noordwijk, in part because he was directing his concerns to rural areas. Others record views in his garden in Uccle, such as his 1913 BREAKFAST IN THE ARBOR (cat. 39), depicting his wife, her friend, and their daughter.[147] But he painted the urban scene also, and Brussels offered the artist appropriate subject matter for his avant-garde strategies, as is attested by his MARKET OF ST. CATHERINE, BRUXELLES (cat. 38). Even in it, however, Nature takes "first place," with the great church, reminiscent of Monet's earlier renderings of Rouen Cathedral, seen through a row of trees along the avenue. As his art developed during the second decade of the 20th century, Raphael utilized paint ever more expressively, to the point where he may be said to have "jumped" the Impressionist canon to Expressionism.

Still, Raphael deserves consideration among the California Impressionists since he was acknowledged as such in his own time; his paintings were much admired in San Francisco, where they were frequently exhibited, particularly at the Helgesen Gallery, beginning in 1912. In his spring show there in 1916, the critic for the Oakland Tribune praised Raphael's Dutch and Belgian scenes for their "vividness that makes the picture bring before the beholder the beauties of the original gardens. Raphael revels in color, and his themes are chosen largely for their radiant qualities which he paints with splendid force and conviction."[148] Raphael's greatest champion was Albert Bender, a major mover and shaker in the contemporary San Francisco art world and the foremost San Francisco patron of the work of some of the more Modernist painters there.[149] It was to Bender in January 1912 that Raphael first wrote from Uccle of his new interests: "With my work I have experimented and really studied and progressed not in the way of doing big things (it's not in me) but in the outdoor work," and subsequently from Uccie: "I work every day - landscape. I'm painting the 4 points of the compass the hottest sunny days preferred."[150]

There were, of course, some Bay Area artists-such as Theodore Wores - who did practice the tenets of Impressionism. By and large, however, the pictorial scene there in the early 20th century moved pretty much from Mathews's poetic Tonalism to a rather distinct form of Modernism influenced especially by Matisse and the French Fauves (and very likely by the exposure to the exhibition in San Francisco of the avant-garde painting of Joseph Raphael.[151] This innovative Modernism was embodied especially in the work of the Society of Six.[152] This was a group of six Bay area artist-friends who developed a professional relationship during the 1910s, and whose work was exhibited during the 1920s at the new Oakland Art Museum, when one of the group, William Clapp, became the curator in 1918. Born in Montreal, Clapp settled in Oakland after studying in Paris and painting in Canada and Cuba.[153] Clapp promoted the work of his associates, including the group's leader, Seldon Connor Gile, who had been born in Maine, but moved to California in 1901 and studied in San Francisco. Clapp himself was the only one of the six to remain committed to the strategies of Impressionism, but his finest work was created before he settled in California. Gile and some of his fellow members of the Society of Six began their mature careers utilizing Impressionist methodology, and even in their later, more expressive and design-oriented work, such as Gile's BOAT AND YELLOW HILLS, the brilliant colorism of Fauvism, simplification of form, and non-naturalistic patterning, characteristic of much of the work of the Society of Six, melds with the softer, flecked brushwork of traditional Impressionism. Though some of their paintings focused more on the urban scene, the painters of the Society, like their contemporaries in Southern California, often directed their attention to the splendors of the local landscape, especially the Bay area shoreline, Gile finding much of his subject matter, as here, near his home in Tiburon.[154]

In Northern California, Impressionism flourished not in San Francisco itself but in the artists' colonies at Monterey, nearby Carmel, Pacific Grove, and Pebble Beach. In some ways, Monterey was to Northern California what Laguna Beach was to the South, but its genesis was quite different. Monterey had begun to attract professional artists far earlier, just as the cultural establishment had developed in San Francisco before it had in Southern California. Monterey, in fact, can be said to have known two periods of artistic fame. The first began when Jules Tavernier settled in Monterey in 1875 and attracted colleagues and students from San Francisco; later, Evelyn McCormick, one of the earliest San Francisco painters to have joined the artists' colony in Giverny, began painting there as soon as she returned to San Francisco from France, probably late in 1891.

But Monterey developed as a leading art center in Northern California as a direct result of the 1906 earthquake and fire, when so many San Francisco painters found temporary refuge there, and some remained permanently. Their activities were fostered and supported by the Del Monte Hotel, which had been built by the Pacific Improvement Company as the main destination of the Southern Pacific Railroad when it reached Monterey in 1880. In 1907, regular art exhibitions were instituted at the Hotel, and in 1914 a Society of Monterey Artists was established.[155]

In 1905, a year before the fire, the Arts and Crafts Club had been established in Carmel, hitherto distinguished primarily by the ruins of its mission; their Clubhouse opened two years later with a First Annual Art Exhibition only three months after the Del Monte's. In 1913, the Club began a three-month-long summer school; it was here that William Merritt Chase taught his final summer term in 1914, when Donna Schuster and E. Charlton Fortune were two of his students; Channel Townsley offered instruction during the following summers, and Matteo Sandona came from San Francisco to teach there.[156]

Of prime importance to the development of the art colony were: the relative proximity of Monterey to San Francisco; the illustrious history of the region, which went back to the days of Spanish rule and included the residence of Robert Louis Stevenson; and the area's natural and distinct beauty - the wild and rugged coastline, the dense pine forest nearby, the stands of cypress trees, and the empty, scrub-grass-filled sand dunes - which attracted so many artists there for four decades after the earthquake.[157]

Immediately after the 1906 exodus, artistic presence was understandably dominated by the low-keyed, more poetic,Tonalist landscape work found in San Francisco, where artists such as Arthur Mathews, Charles Rob Peters, Xavier Martinez, Gottardo Piazzoni, Francis McComas, and others had taught or trained.[158] This aesthetic was prevalent in the early exhibitions held at the Del Monte Hotel, though a number of Southern California Impressionists - such as Benjamin Brown, Hanson Puthuff, and John Gamble, himself a refugee in Santa Barbara from the San Francisco earthquake did exhibit in those shows. The appearance in the Monterey-Carmel region of a greater Impressionist presence may have been expedited by the triumph of the movement at the 1915 Panama-Pacific Exposition, which brought out Childe Hassam, the country's most esteemed Impressionist painter, who had been in San Francisco the year before in connection with his mural work for the Exposition and had painted both there and in Carmel (POINT LOBOS, CARMEL, Los Angeles County Museum of Art). But Impressionism had begun making headway in the region several years earlier, when increasing numbers of Impressionist painters such as Benjamin Brown and Donna Schuster began to visit and paint there; others such as William Wendt (who had painted in Monterey as early as 1896), Jean Mannheim, and Maurice Braun sent work to the Del Monte shows. A few painters settled, at least temporarily, in the area, including Granville Redmond, who was in Monterey in 1908-10, and Detlef Sammann, who moved more or less permanently from Los Angeles to Pebble Beach in 1912.

A distinguishing feature of the Monterey-Carmel art colony was the quantity of professional women artists, proportionally more, certainly, than at Laguna Beach as well as at some of the other major Impressionist centers back East. In fact, Evelyn McCormick and Mary Brady, the first California woman to have worked in Giverny, were identified in 1908 as "the pioneers of the present settlement of Monterey as a mecca of art."[159]

Euphemia Charlton Fortune was a more powerful exponent of Impressionism in Monterey. The Sausalito-born Fortune had first studied art in Edinburgh, Scotland and London before enrolling at the Mark Hopkins Institute in San Francisco in 1905. After the earthquake she continued her studies in New York, and then in 1910 went abroad; she returned to San Francisco in 1912 and established a studio in Monterey the following year. Fortune's work up to then appears to have consisted primarily of portraits and figure studies. In 1914 she was a student in William Merritt Chase's summer class held in Carmel; it was from this time that she began to work in the colorful, high-key manner that distinguishes her art. That same summer she was numbered, along with Joseph Raphael, among the exhibitors at the Del Monte Art Gallery whom Josephine Blanch described as having "widely departed from the older and more academic methods."[160] Fortune's painterly, Impressionist propensities were only reinforced by the art exhibition of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition the next year, where she not only showed a group of landscapes, one of which won her a Silver Medal, but which she herself recorded in paint, as in her PANAMA-PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION (cat. 15). This, one of a series of views of the Exposition by Fortune, is one of her most colorful works, the broadly rendered swath of the floral bed contrasting with the massive architectural colonnade, while two women, one with the ubiquitous parasol, occupy a bench in the middle distance.[161] Her teacher, Chase, purchased her INTERIOR OF SAN CARLOS MISSION AT CARMEL from the exhibition.[162]

Fortune devoted much of her art not only to the land and sea, but, unlike most of her contemporaries in both Northern and Southern California, also to the town of Monterey itself, picturing it as the comfortable community that she and the other painters so enjoyed. Some of her finest and most colorful paintings depict the town and surrounding landscape; STUDY OF MONTEREY BAY (cat. 14) is preparatory for one of her best-known views of MONTEREY BAY (also known as ABOVE THE TOWN) (private collection), painted in 1918, a work that received an award at the San Francisco Institute of Art. Not only are buildings of every sort introduced into her pictures, but figures and farm animals are also often included; in fact, one of the major distinctions between STUDY OF MONTEREY BAY and the finished work is that three figures, absent in the study, appear in the foreground of the latter. Still, this awareness of urban life reflects more contemporary concerns than those of the majority of her fellow California Impressionists. Fortune was an influential painter in Northern California and impacted some of the Modernist members of the Oakland-based Society of Six. [163] But Fortune was also aware of and, unlike many of her colleagues, sympathetic to aspects of Post-Impressionism, especially the paintings of Paul Cézanne, and in both paintings under discussion, the blocky, proto-Cubist treatment of the buildings, rendered to some degree as blots of color, suggests a measure of affiliation with the work of Cézanne. This was, in fact, recognized at the time, though couched in typically chauvinist terms. In 1927, Anna Cora Winchell wrote in regard to a show of Fortune's work at Helgesen's Gallery in San Francisco: "A masculine forcefulness announces itself in much of her work, and her style is such that a stranger rather inclines to the opinion that the painter is a man. She is by far the strongest woman artist of this Coast."[164]


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