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Escape to Reality: The Western World of Maynard Dixon
November 17, 2000 - November 3, 2001
Brigham Young University - Museum of Art will host the official public opening of a major exhibition Escape to Reality: The Western World of Maynard Dixon in the Cannon Gallery (together with the public opening of Dorothea Lange: Human Documents exhibition) at 7pm Friday November 17th 2000.
The exhibition of painter Maynard Dixon, features the works of one of the 20th century's most profound interpreters of the American West. He was a man of the West in all ways. It was what he loved and understood, where he chose to live, and what he chose to paint. (left: Forgotten Man, 1934, oil on canvas, 40 x 50 inches, ©BYU Museum of Art)
For most of his career, Dixon was headquartered in San Francisco, but he spent much of his time on long trips, often on horseback, into the western back country and through Native American settlements. The paintings that emerged from these journeys portrayed western country and peoples in a new way; Dixon avoided the spectacular natural effects of predecessors like Albert Bierstadt and Thomas Moran, and the narrative detail of Frederic Sackrider Remington and Charles M. Russell.
As explained by exhibition curator Linda Jones Gibbs; "Through his mastery of technique and most importantly through his passionate attachment to the land, Dixon was able to perceive and portray the less tangible and sometimes surreal aspects of the region the arid heat and the way it diffuses and alters color and obscures distance, the unrelenting light, and the deep shadows that sharply chisel their way across the landscape" (left: Remembrance at Tusayan, No. 2, 1923, oil on canvas, 20 x 30 inches, ©BYU Museum of Art)
The exhibition title, Escape to Reality: The Western World of Maynard Dixon, evokes Dixon's belief that in the western wilderness one could escape the snares of urban sophistication and technology and live a more genuine life. For the artist, the stark, western landscapes had a renewing, cleansing power for individual sojourners and for the nation as a whole. Many of Dixon's renderings of Native Americans stressed their communal bonds and their harmonious relationship with the western environment.
The Brigham Young University of Art holds the world's largest collection of Maynard Dixon works. At the core of the collection are 85 paintings purchased from the artist by Commerce Dean Herald R. Clark on behalf of the University in 1937. Clark and Dixon remained good friends until the artist's death in 1946. (left: Round Dance, 1931, oil on canvas, 15 1/2 x 19 7/8 inches, ©BYU Museum of Art)
Dixon's arresting images of people in the grip of the Great Depression, called the Forgotten Man Series, convey the feelings of millions of American's for whom all escape seemed beyond reach. The title of one of the best known works of this series, Nowhere to Go, summed up the desperation of those times. The power of these images is in no way diminished by the years.
Maynard and his second wife, photographer Dorothea Lange did not escape the dislocation and despair that marked the advent of the Great Depression. In the hard economic times, most of their commissions dried up and they were finally forced to give up their home, board their children, and live in their studios in order to make ends meet. But as they experienced their own struggles, they remained acutely aware of the troubles of those around them. Both artists had the capacity and passion to chronicle those desolate times. (left: Earth Knower, 1931-32, oil on canvas, 40 x 50 inches, Collection of Oakland Museum)
Maynard Dixon - Background [1875-1946]
One hundred years ago in the summer of 1900, 25 year old Maynard Dixon made his first of many trips in to the Southwest from his native California, "going East to see the West" as he explained it. Exhausted from demanding work as an art director for the San Francisco Examiner, He sought respite and tranquility in the arid deserts of Arizona and New Mexico. These relatively remote and underdeveloped territories would not become states for another 12 years. On the initial journey Dixon sketched and painted, marking the beginning of a lifelong search for both artistic and personal inspiration within the western landscape and from its Native American inhabitants.
Dixon's numerous trips into isolated regions of the West were not unique. Just after the turn of the century many artists, writers, and intellectuals became disillusioned with what they deemed the ills of a materialistic new age. This disenchantment with society only increased with the horrors of World War I. Dixon, along with many others, was particularly drawn to the Southwest where the Native American cultures had remained considerably intact and seemingly "untouched" by white civilization. Consequently, Dixon's western landscapes and tranquil images of Native Americans are not only masterfully crafted paintings, they also act as windows into the American psyche troubled by the new world of the twentieth century. Dixon aspired to paint the "real west" - to counter what he felt had been a pervasive romanticization in previous depictions of the West and Native American life.
At the very time that the Indians of the West were being subjected to a brutal assimilation policy, forcing them to abandon their language, cut their hair, and even desist from their traditional dances, Dixon represented them as noble, stalwart figures, whose rootedness and harmony with earth contrasted favorably with a dominant white culture which seemed to have lost its soul in the drive for material accumulation and industrial progress.
Maynard Dixon was a man of the West in all ways. It was what he loved and understood, where he chose to live, and what he chose to paint. Dixon is intriguing because to many he became the personification of the free and open West. He was candid with himself and others and he detested hypocrisy: Sunset magazine described Dixon as a man. "...well worth knowing, well worth describing, because he is part of the vital West of today and tomorrow, part interpreter, historian and perpetrator of its best truth on canvas...If there is anything of Western type, not only of mind, bearing, physique, habit, nature, temperament and viewpoint but of heart and soul, it expresses Maynard Dixon and is expressed in him. " (Marshall 9)
In her book, Escape to Reality, the Western World of Maynard Dixon, Linda Gibbs describes Maynard's dress saying, "He strolled the streets of San Francisco near his studio wearing a wide-brimmed black Stetson hat, hand-tooled cowboy boots, and a Navajo silver belt. One could apparently hear him coming from the faint buzz of the rattle from a rattlesnake attached to his rawhide hat band and the tapping of his ebony cane tipped with silver, the handle of which was embedded with his Thunderbird logo."
The thunderbird is a legendary bird found in many Native American myths. This gigantic eagle-like bird had the power to create lightning and thunderstorms by beating its vast wings. Dixon used the thunderbird as his personal trademark because it represented the powerful and dualistic temperament of nature. For while the thunderbird could cleanse and nurture the earth with wind and rain, it also had the potential for great destruction.
Dixon's studio also represented the West. It was filled with Native American artifacts and cowboy paraphernalia. A buffalo skull hung over the door, welcoming all who entered. Dixon did not consciously adorn himself and his studio to fit the western stereotype. Rather, these things grew out of his honest love for the West. They were an expression of himself, not a pretense or cover.
The Depression Era
Maynard and his second wife, photographer Dorothea Lange, did not escape the dislocation and despair that marked the advent of the Great Depression. In the hard economic times, most of their commissions dried up and they were finally forced to give up their home, board their children, and live in their studios in order to make ends meet. But as they experienced their own struggles, they remained acutely aware of the troubles of those around them. Both artists had the capacity and passion to chronicle those desolate times in ways that continue to touch us.
Maynard Dixon was greatly affected by the Depression. Moved by the poor working conditions he saw at the Boulder Dam construction site, the maritime strike in San Francisco, and the realist photography of his wife, Dorothea Lange, Dixon turned his attention "from exclusively Western point of view to a broader American outlook." .As Dixon said, "The depression woke me up to the fact that I had a part in all this, as an artist."(Hagerty 206)
During the thirties Dixon produced his compelling Forgotten Man and Strike series, both of which capture the hopelessness and insecurity of the Depression. By means of shadowed, nondescript figures and titles such as Destination Nowhere Dixon presents scenes general enough that many can relate to them.
Forgotten Man shows a lonely transient sitting on the curb of a busy street in some identified city. The pathos of the scene is enhanced by the painting's muted tones as well as its cropped composition, which allows us to see only the legs and shoes of the heedless passersby. Not only are the faces of the crowd unseen, but the visage of the forgotten man is downcast and lost in shadow. The viewer is given a front-row seat to the scene at hand, sharing a proximity to the figure without peripheral distractions.
Dixon's social realism paintings, such as Forgotten Man, have been stylistically and thematically linked to the works of American realist painter Edward Hopper (1882-1967). Although Forgotten Man does share Hopper's use of strong value contrast, the sculpture quality of his figures, and his obsession with human isolation, Dixon's work never seems to reach the eerie psychological. depths of his well-known contemporary. The flatness of the picture plane creates an almost poster-like quality that, along with its heavy-handed message and proletariat sympathy, aligns the Forgotten Man series stylistically more with Russian social realism of the 1920s. Dixon's deep sense of humanity permeates his aesthetics. "Painting, as I see it, must be human rather than arty", he said. "It is my testimony in regard to life..."(206)
A beautifully illustrated book has been published in conjunction with the Maynard Dixon exhibition on display from October 26, 2000 to November 3, 2001 at the BYU Museum of Art. The book titled after the exhibition itself, Escape to Reality: The Western World of Maynard Dixon, was written by the exhibition's guest curator, Dr. Linda Jones Gibbs. Also included is an essay written by Deborah Brown Rasiel about the Depression Era photographer Dorothea Lange and second wife of Maynard Dixon. Escape to Reality: The Western World of Maynard Dixon catalogues the vibrant paintings included in the current BYU Museum of Art exhibition and details the life of the artist, Maynard Dixon. The book is available in the Museum Store.
The Dixon exhibition is guest curated by Linda Jones Gibbs. Dr. Gibbs holds a Ph.D in art history from the Graduate Center of the City University of New York. Linda curated the 150 Years of American Painting: 1794-1944 exhibition at the BYU Museum of Art and is a former Senior Curator. Dr. Jones Gibbs is currently an independent art historian/curator, living in Mamaroneck, New York with her husband and two children.
Deborah Brown Rasiel, guest curator for the Dorothea Lange exhibition, holds an M.A. from Tufts University where studies focused on photo history and the work of Diane Arbus. Rasiel pursued further study at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York. She currently resides in Alpine, New Jersey.
The following article by Charlene Winters titled "Escape to Reality" first appeared in Brigham Young Magazine in the Winter 2000-2001 edition.
New York art historian Linda Jones Gibbs, '73, has taken an academic approach in the Maynard Dixon art exhibition she curated for BYU's Museum of Art. But, she says, her fondness for the western artist's work is separate from the critical analysis she has applied to his paintings.
"Scholarship aside, I -- like so many others -- am an unabashed fan of Maynard Dixon's work," Gibbs explains. "Since childhood I have loved Native American culture, and Dixon's images of Native Americans in the Southwest are awe inspiring. When I was a student at BYU 25 years ago, Dixon's Lazy Autumn hung over my work table in the BYU Art Department. I fell in love with his art then and there."
She is not the only person enamored of Dixon's western vision. "Among those on the inside of the picture -- by that, I mean professional artists, museum curators, and art scholars -- he is loved, respected, and admired," says Vern Swanson, '69, director of the Springville (Utah) Museum of Art. "In my opinion he understood the western landscape better than anyone else."
The BYU exhibition, Escape to Reality: The Western World of Maynard Dixon, reflects Dixon's desire to find spiritual revitalization and artistic inspiration in the desert Southwest. He frequently referred to these remote, untamed regions as "the real thing." and his goal as an artist was to get as close to the real thing as possible.
Though Dixon (1875-1946) is best known for his paintings of southwestern landscapes and Native Americans, he also created compelling images of the Great Depression and victims of social unrest. Both are included in the museum's comprehensive Dixon exhibition that opened for a year long run on Oct. 26. It showcases BYU's unsurpassed collection, as well as 22 additional pieces on loan, and is the first time BYU's original collected works have been displayed in their near entirety.
Western Poetry and Pathos
Born in 1875 in Fresno, Calif., Dixon made the first of his continuing journeys from California to the Southwest in the summer of 1900. He worked as a magazine and newspaper illustrator in San Francisco and a commercial illustrator in New York City, but he resented creating melodramatic imagery for publication, and in 1912 he returned west, where he spent the remainder of his prolific career.
Dixon saw himself as a true westerner. As Gibbs explains, "He strolled the streets of San Francisco near his studio wearing a wide-brimmed black Stetson hat, hand-tooled cowboy boots, and a Navajo silver belt. One could apparently hear him coming from the faint buzz of the rattle from a rattlesnake skin attached to his rawhide hat band and the tapping of his ebony cane tipped with silver, the handle of which was engraved with his thunderbird logo" (Linda Jones Gibbs, Escape to Reality: The Western World of Maynard Dixon [Provo: BYU Museum of Art, 2000], p. 10).
For nearly half a century, Dixon captured the arid landscapes of southern California, Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, and Utah. As he sketched and painted remote regions of the country, he often said his mind was set to tell the truth about this western world.
One work in the BYU exhibition, Round Dance, a 1931 oil on canvas, characterizes his poetic, even mystical, interpretation of the Indian as a symbol of simpler times. While living in an old adobe house in Taos, N.M., he witnessed -- on Christmas Eve 1931-- a traditional Native American social dance and painted his observations. "In this closely cropped image...figures on both sides of the picture plane are cut off," says Gibbs, "giving the viewer a sense of their slow, deliberate movement. The participants, physically connected and moving in unison, personify what many outsiders saw as a communal soul" (Gibbs, Escape to Reality, pp. 103-105).
This work and others underscore Dixon's desire to dignify Native American culture at a time when the U.S. government was attempting to "civilize" and assimilate Native Americans into the white culture. Banning dances was one government restriction, and this rule was still officially intact when Dixon painted Round Dance. Indians were allowed to dance at home only on certain holidays, including Christmas, when this painting was done.
"Dixon chose not to address the poverty and disease rampant among the Indians: Gibbs explains. "It was an era where government agencies were wresting children from their homes and putting them into boarding schools, were cutting their hair and putting them into the white culture's clothing. There was a horrible scenario going on among the native people that Dixon doesn't paint. In his images Native Americans were most often depicted in contemplative postures within a natural setting or participating in a communal activity such as a ceremonial dance."
Yet Dixon was aware of the challenges faced by the people he painted. After visiting the Hopi Indians in 1923, he explained his philosophy by writing, "Many people...might see only that these Indians are poor and dirty...that the kids go naked....But when you see one of their ceremonies -- there for an hour something fine flashes out clear; there is savage beauty in them....They have dignity and form....In these later canvases you will probably see traces of all this. There is something of magic in it, and legends endow it with strange meanings. The imagination moves free and the past and present are one. So the visions of the old days have been as important to my work as things actually seen" (Maynard Dixon to Robert MacBcth, from Walpi, Ariz., 1922; Maynard Dixon Collection, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley).
Even though Dixon sought to reject sentimental images of the West, he in fact created his own romantic view, attempting, as he said in 1921,"to interpret...the poetry and pathos of the life of western people, seen amid the grandeur, sternness and loneliness of their country" (quoted in Anthony Anderson, "In the Realm of Art and Artists:' Palette and Brush, Los Angeles Times, Jan. 12, 1913, p. 4).
Although BYU's holdings represent much of Dixon's career, Gibbs has added more examples of his Native American art for the exhibition. As she attempted to collect them, however, she discovered how much their owners loved them. "This art was a challenge to come by because people simply did not want to be parted from it," she says. "In the western United States especially, the Maynard Dixon following is growing at a phenomenal rate, and most of his important works are in private hands. They have become a precious commodity that is not so much an investment as a possession. People hang Dixon paintings in their homes because they love them, and some people flatly refused to let me exhibit their personal works. They said they would simply miss them too much."
Not everyone, however, admires Dixon's style, Swanson says. "Dixon offers a more intellectual taste than what most western art gives you. Many uninitiated patrons at first do not like his highly abstracted, dry surfaces. It is not the country or cowboy art they expect. They think his work should be more detailed and narrative, so they miss a sumptuousness that isn't done with varnish or transparent colors. Some even think his stylization is actually archaic."
Swanson encourages first-time viewers to come back. "Maynard Dixon can't be taken in all at once:' he explains. "If his work were food, it would be vegetables, not dessert. He offers roughage for your aesthetic diet. Dixon is substantial and real, all right, but he takes a little work. I believe anyone who really gives Dixon a chance will certainly come to like, if not love, Maynard Dixon's art."
In the ongoing and escalating affection for Dixon, many of the writings about the artist take a biographical "great man as artist" approach. By contrast, BMU's exhibition will focus on the art instead of the artist.
"While Dixon's physical bearing, his attire, and the decor of his studio enhanced his claim to depict the 'real' West:' Gibbs says, "such trappings cloud the power of his art. We will provide enough information about Maynard Dixon to provide a context, but we are not so concerned that he was a lanky, gruff guy who wore a cowboy hat and wrote poetry as we are about what his art says to us. Rather than using anecdotes of his personality, we are examining the actual images to see what they have to tell us about an entire era and an entire mind-set."
"Our intention is to avoid adding to the mythology of Maynard Dixon as the quintessential western artist," says Campbell B. Gray, director of the BYU museum. "Other people have already provided a rich understanding of his personality and personal history. We hope the exhibition will challenge thinking and prompt inquiry as part of a collaboration between the exhibition and the museum-goer."
A Window into the Psyche of America
While Dixon's southwestern landscapes and Native American portraits will be featured prominently in the exhibition, his haunting Depression-era works are most likely responsible for BYU's large collection of Dixon art. More than 60 years ago, those paintings caught the eyes of Herald R. Clark, an economist and dean of the BYU School of Business. Clark admired Dixon and made an unannounced trip to San Francisco in 1937, hoping to meet Dixon and bring his art to the university. When Clark asked Dixon if he would permit BYU to acquire examples of his work, the artist allowed the university to select and purchase 85 paintings and drawings that spanned almost his entire career. In the ensuing years, the university has collected additional Dixon artworks, and with more than 100 pieces, BYU maintains the largest Dixon collection in the world.
Dixon's Depression-era art still commands attention. As a way of highlighting its collection, the BYU museum makes postcards of the most important works in its collection, including those of Maynard Dixon. One of them, Forgotten Man, has sold out. "We made 2,000 of them, and they are gone." says Dawn Pheysey,'66, a BYU art curator assisting with the show. "Students ask for that postcard all the time. Somehow it speaks to them."
Forgotten Man, a 1934 oil on canvas, was painted after Dixon and his wife saw many homeless wayfarers as they traveled from New Mexico to California. This painting depicts a lonely transient on the curb of a busy city street. "The pathos of the scene is enhanced by the painting's somber tones as well as its cropped composition, which allows us to see only the legs and shoes of the heedless passersby," wrote Gibbs in a description of the work for the museum's permanent exhibition, 150 Years of American Painting. "Not only are the faces of the crowd unseen, but the visage of the forgotten man is downcast and lost in shadow. As in Round Dance, the viewer is given a front-row seat, so to speak, to the scene at hand, sharing a proximity to the figure without peripheral distractions" (Linda Jones Gibbs, 150 Years of American Painting [Provo: BYU Museum of Art, 1994], p. 156).
As Dixon captured the Depression on canvas, his second wife, photographer Dorothea Lange, captured it on film; 40 of her photographs compose an exhibition displayed in the BYU museum in tandem with her husband's work. "We will look at both artists equally and see how they influenced, encouraged, and fed off of each other," says Pheysey. "Dorothea Lange, for instance, really encouraged his Depression-era images that were painted during their 15-year marriage. She, in turn, became known for her documentary work of the Great Depression."
The images created by the two artists represent a cultural and historical era. "You could say Dixon was a pivotal painter of the Depression as much as Woody Guthrie was a pivotal singer of the Depression with his anthem This Land Is Your Land, " Swanson says.
Dixon's images, for example, can open a window into the psyche of America at a specific time. In the early decades of the 20th century, a wave of artists and writers -- including Dixon -- disillusioned with materialism and other ills of industrial society, sought artistic refuge in a place where humans seemed to have remained in touch with the earth, with themselves, and with each other. "His works teach history, not so much in providing specifics about historical facts but in guiding us to understand what drove Dixon and so many people like him into the Southwest at the turn of the century," says Gibbs.
Beyond the historical perspective, however, Dixon's paintings offer an escape that extended through the world wars and continues today, says Gibbs. "In 1940 an art critic for the Los Angeles Times counseled his readers, 'If world war jitters have got you down, drop into the Biltmore Salon...and see the great Southwest through the eyes and temperament of the desert's foremost pictorial interpreter -- Maynard Dixon.' Now, decades later, we are at the turn of yet another century wrought with new tensions. Dixon's paintings continue to function as a therapeutic escape valve" (Gibbs, Escape to Reality, p. 9).
Dixon landscapes are not what people would call picturesque, Gibbs points out, but they signify what he found to be beautiful. "He did not paint green trees and lakes or the things we would consider pretty landscapes. What we find are intriguing empty landscapes that allow us to go into them and dwell mentally and think and ponder. When we consider why particular landscapes are so moving for people, it might be related to his incredible way of organizing form. Maynard Dixon was a phenomenal draftsman in terms of his composition. When you look at Cloud World with the clouds moving across the sky, or Round Dance, where he pulls us right into the middle of the circle, we become part of the experience. The way he constructed space is commanding. His landscapes are not photographic. Rather, he combined views and shifted things to arrange them to his liking. It is ironic that we think of his open freedom of the range, yet his images were very controlled. He decided how to place that mountain and where our perspective would be."
Ultimately, Dixon's goal was to touch his viewers emotionally with his landscapes and scenes of the city. And many have found inspiration from the provocative sun-, rock-, cloud-, and desert- scapes. "After more than a decade of living on the East Coast (and maybe because of it): says Gibbs, "I am still enthralled by Dixon's art. I have had the experience many times of driving through the western landscape only to find myself immersed in a 'Maynard Dixon sky' -- that deep, intense, unvarying blue, dotted with uniform cloud shapes that appear to be silently and endlessly marching across a flat horizon. Even with the actual landscape within my view, I would envision and remember what Dixon had seen. It is during instances like these -- when works of art become so compelling that they actually transform the way we see the world, when life begins to imitate art and not the reverse -- that one comes to realize and fully appreciate the potency of an artist's vision" (Gibbs, Escape to Reality, p. 15).
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